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a Description of a variety of 

many of whi0h are not explained in any 
other book, and their medical vir- 
tues have hitherto been unknown 
to the whites; to which 








District of East Tennessee : 

Be it Remembered, That on the 6tli day of Ocl ober, 1' u">, 
William Mahoney, of said District, hath depo ted in 
office, the Title of a Book, which is in the won - and 
ures following, to wit: 

"The Cherokee Physician, or Indian Guide to Hea . 
" as given by Richard Foreman, a Cherokee Doctor, com- 
" prising a brief view of Anatomy, with General Rules 
" for Preserving Health, without the use of M» -iicines. — ■■ 
" It also contains a description of a variety of 1 ierbs and 
" Roots, many of which are not explained in y other 
" Book, and their medical virtues have hither* een im- 
* known to the Whites; to which is added a shr Dispen- ' 
"' satory, by James W. Mahoney," the right :eof he 

claims as Proprietor, in conformity with an ac of Con> 
gress, entitled an act to amend the several acts respect 
ing copy-rights. 

A true copy from the Records in mv office. 
. m .*_m_ h _ hh . JAMES W. CALDWELL. 

J SEAL. % Clerk of the Untied StUc* 

+-+4H-M-+-+1-*- Court for the Disi: \ • 0/ 

East 7 1 if« 


Every new publication on this, as well as other subjects, 
sliould have some grounds upon which it can set up its 
claim to a share of public patronage and support. Had I 
not believed that this work contained something new and 
useful, I wodj.1 not have published it.* But, believing as ^ 
do, that the tIe^mng art,''' as known and practiced by the 
Cherokee Indians, would be welcomely received, by many: 
and having personally tested the efficacy of their reme- 
dies, in the cure of disease::; after such remedies as are usu- 
ally prescribed by the whites had been tried and had ut- 
terly failed to effect a cure, 1 have been induced 'to com- 
mit this sysfea) to paper. I am sensible that in so cluing, 
1 expose myself to .the animadversions of the critics. I ant 
a. ho sensible, (to soma^Heiit) of the prejudice which pre- 
vails in the minds of many, against Medical works, which 
are not decked in ; he flowery drapery of a fine and oriia- 
mentcd^style anlfeehaic-al lore. Believing, as 1 do, that 
medicine should jmt be merely a sjjftdy of curious enquiry, 
but one of the deepest interest todj|*ery son of mortality. 1 
have endeavored to Adorn it with plain practical sense, 
.rather than widi the fascinating decorations of high stand- 
ing, unmeaning names, andwschnicai phrases. 

Those who will take the pains to read and study, will 
soon be convinced that the All-wise Creator in the infini- 
tude of his mercy, has furnished man with the means of 
curing his own diseases, in ail the climates and countries 
of which he is an inhabitant; and that a knowledge of the 
means of curing all common diseases, is not so dilticult 
is* obtain as has been generally represented. 

The really valuable materials in medici-nef and those 
'which act with the greatest promptitude and power, in the 
cure of diseases, are few and simple, and easily to be pro- 
cured in all countries. 

Tbe Aborigines qf our country, found the means of mit- 



igating and curing their diseases, in the uncultivated wilds 
which gave them birth, — they knew nothing of foreign 
drugs, but with roots, herbs, and plants found in their 
own country, they mitigated and cured the diseases most 
common to that countrj . That their knowledge of th* 
medical properties of the roots and herbs common in the 
American forest, is superior to that possessed by the whites 
will hardly be denied. Neither will it be denied by those 
acquainted with their success, in treating disease, that 
they have, in many instances, performed cures, by means 
of roots, herbs and plants, after the usual remedies prc- 
- scribed by white physicians had failed. The articles em- 
ployed by them in the cure of diseases, are simple, and 
principally such as can be procured in trus dmintry. 

The time is not far distant, when most, if not all the dis- 
eases, of our country, will be healed without the use of 
calomel and mercurial preparations, and when foreign 
drugs will be disused by administering physicians. 

My principal design, in the publication of this work, is 
to lay before the heads of families, the means of guarding 
against diseases, and also such remedies. as are best calcu- 
lated to arrest diseases in their in^pient, or forming stages. 
I have labored to give such instruction, "with, regard to the. 
nature and symptoms of diseases, as will enable the reader 
to determine, with some degree of accuracy, when the aid 
of a skillful physician is really necessaiy. and also to dis- 
tinguish the man of practical science and wisdom, from 
the ignorant pretender,- and the assuming quack. 

With these remarks, I submit the work to the inspec- 
tion of a liberal and enlightened American people. The 
impartial and intelligent reader will doubt Jess award to it 
its due portion of merit and demerit. 





Anatomy treats of the structure of the human body, its 
various organs, and their use. 

Practical Anatomy, is the dissecting or dividing of the' 
organized substances, to exhibit the structure, situation, 
and uses of the parts. Those wishing to practice surge- 
ry, will find that subject discussed at length in books that 
treat on that alone. A knowledge of Anatomy is indis- 
pensable to him who would become either a safe or a skill- 
ful Surgeon; but to a practical Physician, in the treatment 
of diseases, it is of little value, comparatively speaking. 
But as this work is designed for all who may see proper* 
to give it a perusal, and not limited to the use of any in 
particular, it is reasonable to suppose that some will be 
pleased, and perhaps benefitted, by this part of the work. 
A minute and extensive treatise on Anatomy will not be 
expected by the intelligent reader, in a work of this kind. 
But I will endeavor to give the outlines of the whole hu- 
man system, in a plain and concise manner. This short 
treatise on this subject, will be sufficient to enable the 
heads of families, and others, who practice under the di- 
rections of this book, to ascertain with some degree of ac- 
curacy, the seat of disease, and also to enable them to re- 
turn, to its proper place, a dislocated joint; and this is all 
that the writer believes will be worth its room in this work. 

Section 1. 

The most natural general divisions of the human body, 
are — 

1. The head {Craneum.) 

2. The body, {Trunk) 

3. The legs, feet and hands, {upper and lower extremities.) 
These general divisions are composed of bones, muscles, 
glands, ligaments, cartilages, tendons, nerves, blood ves- 
sels, absorbents, and the brain and spinal marrow. 


* g Ifel 


Sub-Divisions. — The body, (Trunk,) is divided into two. 
cavities : 

1. The breast, (Chest or Thorax.) 

2. The belly, (Abdomen.) 

The breast, (thorax) and belly (abdomen,) are separated 
by a strong membrane, called the midriff or diaphragm, 
which will be described hereafter. 

The upper division, breast (thorax,) contains tb.6 heart 
and lungs, called the thoracic viscera; and the lower divis- 
ion, belly (abdomen) contains the stomach, kidneys, liver, 
intestines, &c, called abdominal viscera. 

The ; bones will now betaken into view. They may 
properly be considered as the braces of the human frame 
— they give to it shape, stature and firmness. The num- 
ber of bones in the human body, is estimated at two hun- 
dred and forty-eight. Of these, sixty-three are in the head; 
fifty-three in the trunk; sixty-eight in the upper extremi- 
ties, or arms, and sixty-four in the lower extremities. — 
This estimation includes the four sesamoid bones in the 
great toes, and the four sesamoid bones in the thumbs^ 
which are not always found. 

SKUL L — (Cranium.) 

The skull contains the eight following bones : 

One in the forehead — osfrontis. 

Two temple bones — ossa temporalia. 

Two walls, or sides — ossa parietalia. 

One full of holes — os ethmoides. 

One wedge-like form — os spenoides. 

One back of the head — os occipitis. 

The 05 frontis, is the bone of the forehead, reaching 
from its upper edge, downwards, so as to include the up- 
per part of the eye sockets, and backwards on each side, 
so as to join the temple bones. The temple bones join 
the walls, or sides, and the forehead. 

The Os Etlimoides, or bone full of holes, is a very curi- 
ous bone, situated on the inside of ttie head, or rather fore- 
head. It is a light spongy bone, having somewhat the 
appearance of net- work. 

The Os spenoides, or bone of wedge-like form, spreads 
across the inside of the head, and attaches itself to four- 
teen other bones. 


The Os occipitis, is the hind part of the head, and joins 
the neck bone; it is a very thick but uneven bone. It 
supports the hind part of the b«*ain, and through it passes 
the marrow of the neck and back, called the spinal mar- 
row. All the preceding bones are joined together by 
seams, which in appearance resemble saw-teeth. 

The face is next in order, in which are many small 
bones. It has six bones on each side; and they all have 
seams similar to those of the skull, only smaller. 

The nose bones, ossa nasi, are the two bones which form 
the nose, and meet together by two thin edges, without a- 
ny indenta ions. 

The. upper jaw bones, ossa maxillaria superibra, which, 
are large, and form the basis of the face. They extend 
upwards, and form the side of the nose, and they send 
backward a kind of plate, that makes the root of the 
mouth. A circular projection below, makes the sockets 
for the teeth. 

The Vomer, a plough-shear, completes the nose. 
The cheek bone, os males, is the high bone that forms 
the cheek. 

The lower jaw-bone, os maxillcz inferioris, has but two, 
joints, those under each ear. 

The spine, or back-bone, comes next in order. This is a 
long line of bones, extending from the back of the head to 
the end of the body. It has twenty bones, or joints, ceiled 
vertebra. The neck part has seven joints, vertebra; the 
back twelve, and the loins five; making in a!!, twenty- 
four separate-bones. In some persons the neck has eight 
pieces, the back eleven, and the loins six. Some persons, 
with very short necks, only have five pieces in the neck, 
and the number made up in the loins. The same marrow 
runs from the back of the head to the lower end of the spine. 

Shoulder Blade — (Scapula.) — The shape and situation 
of this bone is so well known, that it needs no explana- 
tion.. It is not connected to the trunk by ligaments, but 
has several muscular substances between it and the trunk. 

Collar Bone — (Clavsile.) — This is perhaps the strong- 
est bone in, the system, to its size. If is placed at the 
lower part of the neck, and reaches frqm the upper part 
<^f the breast bone to the point of the shoulder. It is fas- » 


terie'd by grisly substances — cartilages, and rolls with ease 
on any exertion of the breast and shoulder. 

• . 
Upper Bone of the Arm — (Os Humeri.)— This bone has 

a cylindric form, but at the lower end it is twisted and flat- 
tened a little. This flatness joint it to the elbow in a 
hinge-like form, so that the joins has but one direction of 
moving. At the shoulder it has a large round head, which 
enables it to turn in every direction. On the top of the 
head, this bone, though circular, is nearly flat, and has but 
a very shallow cavity to turn in; consequently it is a 
veryfcveak joint to its size, and easily dislocated. 

Lower Part of the .Arm — (Badius and Ulna.) — The 
lower part of the arm, from the elbow to the wrist, has 
two bones in it. The main bone has its largest end down- 
wards, joining the wrist next to the thumb, while the lit- 
tle end is upwards, lying on the ulna, where the ulna joins 
the large bone of the arm at the elbow. The radius gives 
all turning motions to the wrists. It is. a stronger bone 
than the ulna, and is somewhat arched in its shape. The 
upper end of this bone is small, of a button like shape, 
and is joined both with the large bone and the ulna. This 
bone gives more strength than the ulna to that part of the 
arm, particularly to the wrist. 

The Ulna cr Elbow — (a measure.) Bv this bone we 
perform all the actions of bending and extension. It is 
of a triangular form, and is so firmly all ached to theup- 
per bone" of thewm, (os humeri) that it allows no lateral 
or side motion. 

Bones of the Hand and Fingers. — The wrist bones are 
eight, in number. They are situated between the end of 
the arm bones and the bones of the hand: they -are very 
short, and are bound together very strongly, by cross liga- 
ments, and closely compressed together, so as to form a 
ball-like figure, each having separate ends or joints: there 
are five ^bones between the wrist and fingers — they start 
out from the wrist, each one extends to its finger respect- 
fully: they are all nearly straight round bones, without 
joints, tolerably large and very strong: the fingers all have 
three joints, the thumb has two. 

The Breast Bone— {Sternum) — This bone lies exactly 


in the front part of the breast. It is a light spongy bone. 
In children, and in some to the age ot five or six years old, 
this bone consists of eight distinct pieces, which in old per- 
sons become one solid bone: they are a little hollowed at 
the upper end, and on each upper corner, it has a joining 
or articulating hollow, at which place the ends of the col- 
lar bones are fastened by strong ligaments. Each side of 
this bone is so formed, as to receive all the ends of the 
ribs on their respective sides. 

The Ribs. — There are twelve ribs on each side of the 
breast or chest, corresponding in number with thgyverte- 
bra, or joints, in that ; part of the spine, or back-bone. Se- 
ven are called line ribs, because they join the breast-bone: 
the other five are vulgarly called short ribs, but by anato- 
mists false ribs, because they do not join the breast-bone: 
the ribs are connected with the breast-bone with cartila- 
ges, and to the back-bone by joints. 

Bones belonging to the Basin — (Pelvis.) — This part is 
formed of very strong, firm bones, standing in a kind of 
arch between the main trunk and the lower extremities. 
Each boue is large, and affords large strong sockets for 
the thigh bones. In grown persons it contains four bones: 
— the Os sacrum, the Os coccygis, and the two o:s^d inno- 
minata. • 

The Os sacrum and the Os coccygis, is called the false 
spine, or column, the point of them runs downwards, and 
the largest part is upwards. It runs along that part, of 
the system vulgarly called the rump. Os coccygis (cuck- 
oo's bill,) is the lower end of the back-bone. It tapers 
from the Ossacru-m, or rump bone, to its termination, so as 
to iorm it. sharp point. It is a little crooked and flatfish, 
so as to support the lower gut,(rec f um) bladder, and womb: 
it is very flexible, and recedes in time of labor with 
women, so as greatly to facilitate the passage of the 
child's head; and when labor is over, it returns to its prop- 
er position without difficulty. 

The two Ossa innominata, or nameless bones, are two 
great bones that make the two sides of the basin, or pel- 
vis. The Os Ilium is the greatest part of these bones. It 
extends up in a sort of wing from the pelvis, or basin, and 
is covered with the muscles that move the thighs. 


The hip-bone, (Os ischium) lies directly under the flank 
bone, (Os ilium) and is the lowest point of the basin, or 
pelvis, vulgarly called the buttock, being the point on 
which we sit. 

The share-bone, (Os pubis,) is the smallest piece belong- 
ing to the nameless bones, (Ossa innominata.) It com- 
pletes the front part of the brim of the basin (pelvis.) 

Thigh Bone — Os Femoris. — This is the largest, longest, 
and most cylindrical bone belonging to the human anat- 
omy. It joins the hip in a wa}- that gives it strength. It 
is veimhard to dislocate, or put in place. It has a regular 
bend from nearly one end to the other; the bending side be- 
ing towards the front of the thigh: — this is the strongest 
joint in the body. 

The leg bones, two in number,, called by anatomists 
Tibia and Fibula. The tibia is the largest of the two leg 
bones, and is situated on the inside part of the leg. It in 
of a triangular form, with the upper end somewhat flat- 
tened: the fibula is on the outside of the tibia, and makes 
the outward lamp of the ankle. 

The Knee Pan — (Rolella or Patella.-. — Is a small round- 
ish bone, tolerably thick: it is attached to the tubercle of 
the tibia by very strong ligaments. 


Inste? or Ankle — (Tarsus.) — The ankle is composed of 
M-ven bones, which lie between the leg and foot. They 
are bound together by ligaments, in a manner similar to 
those of the wrist. One of them forms the heel, and is 
called the 'heel bone — (Os calcis.) There are five bones 
between the ankles and toes: they join the ankle and toes 
in a similar manner to the hand bones. 

I have now described the shape and position of such 
bones as are most, liable to dislocation and injury: the next 
subject will be the internal parts of rhehuman system. 

The brain is the great sensorium of the system, and has 
a communication through the nerves with the whole body. 
]J receives all impressions made upon any of the organs 
of sense, and is really the seat of sensation. It is here that 
all. the impressions made upon, the organs of sense, aria. 


tnanufactured into ideas. But in what manner the brain 
performs this, or what connection it has with the mind, is 
a mystery in which the researches of physiologists, and tho 
deductions of metaphysicians, have hitherto been unable 
to reflect any light. "The most, or in fact all that is known 
on the subject is, that the mind acquires all its ideas of ex- 
ternal objects through impressions made by these objects 
on the organs of sense. These impressions are conveyed 
to the brain by the nerves, and produce what is called 
sensation, which is the passive reception of the image of 
the archetype, or pattern of the idea upon the brain, and 
in some unknown manner, the perception is conveyed to 
the mind." 

The brain is situated in the upper cavity of the head- 
It is divided into two grand divisions, which are called: 

1. The seat of imagination — cerebrum. 

2. The seat of animal spirits — cerebellum. 
There are several other smaller divisions. 

"The brain is larger in man than any olher known an- 
imal. Its general weight is frcm two pounds five and a 
half ounces, to three pounds three and three-quarter oun- 
ces; many however, w-eigh i'cur pounds. The biain of 
Lord Byron (without its membranes) weighed 6 pounds." 

The spinal marrow is only a continuation of the sub- 
stance of the brain, through the cavity of the spine or back- 

The Tongue — (Lingua.) — The tongue is composed of 
small muscular fbres; it is coursed with little reddish pim- 
ples, which are the ends, or terminations of nerves, it is 
the impression made on ihese nerves that produces that 
pleasurable sensation called taste. 

The Wine-Pipe — (Trachea.) — This is a rough canal, 
through which the air passes from the mouth to the lights, 
(lungs) in breathing. It lies in front of the swallow, (eso- 
phagus) and every thing taken into the stomach, passes 
directly over the mouth of the wind-pipe; but it has a kind 
of lid or valve, that shuts or closes over it in the act of 
swallowing, (deglutition.) At or near the lungs it fork*, 
or branches off, so as to convey the air into the lungs. 

The Lights— (Lungs.)— The lungs are situated in the 
chest, thorax). The thorax, or chest, is lined with a 
smooth shining membrane, denominated the pleura, which 


is the. seat of, and gives name to the Pleurisy. The pleura 
forms two distinct apartments in the chest, two sides of 
which meeting, attach to the inner edge of the spine,,or 
back-bone, and reaching from thence to the breast bone, 
form, the partition called th§i mediastinum. The lungs are 
divided into two lobes or portions, and situated one in the 
right, and the other in the left side of the breast, in the a- 
bove name^ apartments. They join the wind-pipe, tra- 
chea, in the upper part of the breast. They are attached 
to the heart by the pulmonary vessels. They are full cf 
little tubes, which communicate with the external atmos- . 
phere through the wind-pipe. 

The most important, and perhaps the only function of 
the lungs is that of breathing, respiration, which is sim- 
ply inhaling the air into the lungs, and expelling it from 

The Heart. — The heart is situated in the chest, or tho- 
rax, near the centre of the human body, with its main base 
placed a little on the right of the back-bone, and its point 
standing obliquely to the sixth rib, on the left side. As it 
lies in this oblique position, its under side or surface, is in 
contact with the diaphragm. It is so placed between the 
arteries and veins, as to regulate their relative action, in 
propelling the blood through the arteries, and receiving 
it through the veins. It is divided into two cavities, which 
are distinguished by the names of right and left ventricles. 
There are two other hollow muscles denominated auricles: 
the heart possesses the power of dilating and contracting, 
which is technically denominated the systole and diastole 
motion. By this operation it, first receives the venous 
blood into its cavities, and then forces it into the arteries, 
by which it is carried to every part of the body. This mo- 
tion continues day and night, awake or asleep, during the 
whole period of our lives. The number of these motions 
in a given period, is modified or governed by age, or by 
disease. In infancy the number is greatest, being from 
one hundred and thirty, to one hundred and forty; in man- 
hood, from seventy to eighty; in old age, from fifty-five to,, 
sixty-five, in a minute. Most inflamatory diseases stimu- 
late" the muscles of the heart, and accelerate its motion. 
It is this power that rolls the "precious fluid" of life thro' 
e,very channel in the system, with the constancy of a pey- 


ennial fountain. "While the vital spark remains, the 
Heart with untiring assiduity, plies the wheels of life, un- 
fatigued with its ceaseless labor; and is neither lulled into 
stupidity by the torpor of sleep, nor decoyed into remiss- 
ness by the enchantment of pleasure." It performs two 
circulations at the same .time; that with the lungs, and 
that with the body. From the lungs it receives nothing 
but pure blood, and to the body it sends out such as is fit 
for its support. 

The Swallow — [Esophagus.'] This is a canal or tube, 
commencing at. the mouth, and running downwards to the 
stomach, which- it joins, and into which it empties the food. 
It lies close to. the back-bone, behind the wind-pipe, and 
passes through the diaphragm. 

The Diaphragm, or midriff, is a muscular substance, 
composed of two muscles; the upper one of which origin- 
ates at the breast bone, and at the ends of the last ribs on 
each side: the second muscle starts at the back-bone of the 
loins; it is covered on its under side by the peritoneum, and 
on the upper side with' the pleura. The gullet, great run, 
and several other vessels, pass through the diaphragm. 

The Liver — (Haper.) — The liver is situated immediate- 
ly below the diaphragm to which it is attached. It is the 
largest organ in the system: it is divided into two princi- 
pal lobes, the right of which is much the largest: the liv- 
er is connected with the gall bladder, (bile,) and billiary 
vessels; its office appears to be that of secreting the bile 
from the blood, which is necessary in the digestion of. food. 
A portion of the bile is regularly, thrown through the ves- 
sels of the liver and gall bladder, into the stomach. 

The gall bladder, vesicula fettis, is attached to the liver, 
and lies in a cavity of the liver, on the under side. It is 
of an oblong form, and appears to be for the purpose of 
containing the bile, until the proper time for it to be thrown 
into the stomach: — the bile is conveyed from the gall blad- 
der into the first portion of the small intestines, called 
duodenum, and.from thence into the stomach. 

The Stomach — [Stomachus.'j — The stomach is a large 
membranous substance, of an oblong, bag-like shape. Its 
most important use is to receive the masticated food, and 
retain it until the process of digestion is_ so far completed 


as to reduce the food to a pulpy, semi-fluid mass, called 
chyme. When digestion is so far advanced as to convert 
the food into chyme, [pronounced kime,~\ it is poured into 
the duodenum, where it mixes with the ponchreatic juice. 
From this mass, the absorbent vessels, called lacteals, ob- 
tain a white opake fluid termed chyle [pronounced Idle.'] 
Digestion is principally effected by the solvent powers of 
the gastric juice, which is a fluid secreted in the stomach: 
The solution of the food by the gastric juice, is supposed 
to be a chemical process decomposing it, and separating 
it into its elementary principles. The stomach may just- 
ly be considered one of the most important organs in the 
animal economy. 

The Melt — (Spleen.) — This is not a vital part, as the 
other organs are, which have just been described. It has 
been removed from both man and beast, wiihout the least 
apparent injury. It is attached to the stomach, and lies 
mostly in the left side. 

The caul fat (omentum) is situated under the membrane 
—peritoneum, that lines the belly, and above the intestines, 
it is a white gauzy looking substance, it assists in. form- 
ing the bile, serves to guard the internal parts against 
cold — lubricates and softens such parts as are connected 
with it, and in a state of starvation it supports the system; 
This is one reason why a fat animal can sustain life so 
long without food. It is very beautiful, and rather singu- 
lar in its appearance; it resembles a white piece of fine 
net work, that had been carelessly tossed down in a half 
folded position. 

The pancrea — a flesh organ — is situated under the 
stomach. It is of an irregular oblong form, by some com- 
pared to a dog's tongue. It is composed of glands, veins, 
nerves and little ducts or vessels, also something of a 
fleshy consistence. Its use appears to be that of secreting 
the juice that is to be mixed with the chyle. 

Intestines or Guts — [Intestirwm.] — The intestines Com- 
prehend the whole tube, from the stomach to the funda- 
ment; their office is to receive all the food — Retain it accor- 
ding toth3 laws of nature, and then pass off" the crude or 
excrementitious part, according to the same. 



The Kidneys. — The kidneys are situated outside of the 
lining of the belly, near the back-bone, and on each side: 
they are of a dull red color: it is their province to secrete 
the urine from the blood. Each kidney receives a large 
artery, which proceeds immediately from the darta; and 
a vein issuing from each kidney, returns the blood to the 
vena cava, after its superabundance of water has been 
separated from it. The urine is first secreted or collected 
in them, and excreted or thrown out, through the two ca- 
nals called ureters, into the bladder. The ureters are a- 
bout the size of a small goose quill. The kidneys are sub- 
ject to derangement in the performance of their office, in 
two w r ays: First, the secretion 4 may be checked, and a 
proper quantity of fluid not be carried off: and secondly, 
its secretion may be too active, and carry off too much of 
the fluids. 

The Bladder — (Vesica Urinari Crjstis.) — The water 
bladder lies in the front part of the abdomen, within the 
basin. Its office is to receive the water, or urine, which 
is collected in the kidneys, through the ureters; the urine is 
next discharged by the neck of the bladder, through the 
urinary canal (urethra) which reaches Irom the neck ot 
the bladder, to the end of the privates. The muscles at 
the neck of the bladder are possessed of very strong con- 
Iractive powers, by which the bladder is enabled to retain 
the urine the natural length of time. 

Nerves. — The nerves are small white fibres: they all 
have their origin in the brain and spinal marrow: those 
which issue from the brain, are called cerebral, and are 
1 ho organs of sensation: it is their province to convey im- 
pressions to the brain from all parts of the system: — those 
issuing from the marrow of the spine, are termed spinal; 
it, is their province to communicate the power of motion 
to the muscles. The nerves all issue in pairs: there are 
usually reckoned forty pair of nerves, nine of which have 
their origin in the brain, and thirty-one in the spinal mar- 
row. It is by means of those that issue from the brain. 
That we hear, see, taste smell and feel', or in other word^ 
they convey to the brain, the impressions received by the 
live organs of sense, in the act of seeing, feeling, hearing, 
tasting and smelling. A chord of nerves accompanies ev- 



ery artery tolerably close. It is supposed that eacli fibre 
of the nerves, is a canal or tube, through which the ner- 
vous fluids pass, and communicate with each other, simi- 
lar to the.,bloo4 vessels. 

The Arteries — (Arteria.) — The arteries are two in 
number: First, the great artery, dorta; second, the arte- 
ry of the lungs, (pulmonary artery.) The great artery 
dorta, originates at the left ventricle or cavity of the heart, 
and is the greatest blood vessel in the body: — the pulmo- 
nary artery starts from the right cavity of the heart; all 
others are nothing more than branches of these: — the blood 
is thrown out from the hearty through the arteries, to eve- 
ry part of the body. As the blood passes through the ar- 
teries, the absorbent vessels of every part of the system, 
receive their respective portions of the nutritious proper- 
ties of the blood. The arteries gradually become, small- 
er as they proceed from the heart, and terminate , in the 
veins through the capillary vessels: these little vessels con- 
nect the arteries and veins: — the, arteries are susceptible 
of considerable dilation and elongation, which takes place 
when the blood is forced into the dorta by the contraction 
of the heart, and when the action of the heart ceases, the 
effort of the artery to return to its usual dimension, keeps 
a constant motion of the blood along the arteries, during 
the dilation of the heart to receive another portion of 
blood, which by the contraction of the heart, is again driv- 
en into the dorta, and thus the vital tide is kept in motion. 
The dorta has a valve at its orifice, or opening into the 
heart, which readily admits the passage of the blood from 
the heart into the artery, but prevents its return from the 
artery into the heart: — the blood when it leaves the heart 
is of a bright red color, but as it returns through the veins 
to the heart, is of a dark purple color. 

The Veins. — All have their origin or commencement, at 
the ends of the arteries as I before stated: — the veins as 
they proceed from the extremities toward the heart, be- 
come larger by numerous branches intercepting each oth- 
er and uniting, until they are all concentrated in two ca- 
nals, termed vena cava. The veins have no pulsation as. 
the arteries have; but in them the blood moves smoothly 
and slowly on; it is forced through the veins by a contract- 
ile power which they possess; and as the blood has mostly 


to run upwards in the veins, they are supplied with little 
valves, similar to those of a force pump, so that as the 
blood ascends in the veins, the- lid (valve) gives way till 
the blood passes, then shuts or closes the place, so that no 
blood can fall back. The blood in passing through the 
lungs undergoes a great change;- when it enters the lungs, 
it is of a dark purple color, but when it leaves them and 
returns to the heart, it is of a bright red color: this- change 
is produced by the air inhaled into the lungs. The blood 
in passing through the numerous delicate- vessels in the 
lungs, absorbs oxygen from the air; and the air abstracts 
oarbon from the blood. When the air is exhaled from the 
lungs, a great portion of its oxygen has disappeared, and 
carbon is found in its place: — the blood supplied with ox 
ygen and relieved from its superabundance of carbon, is" 
essentially revived, and sets out again, to distribute its 
fresh supply of nutrition and stimulous, to the different 
parts of the system. 

The Muscles. — -These serve to perfect the form and com- 
plete the symetry. of the body, but their most important 
use is to act upon the bones and produce animal motion: 
they terminate at the ends in grisly substances, by which 
they are fastened to the various parts of the system. Each 
muscle consists of a distinct portion of flesh, and has the 
power of contraction and relaxation: they are all in pairs 
except nine: there are reckoned one hundred and ninety- 
tight pair in the human system; this estimation makes the 
l.umber of muscles-four hundred and five. . 

The Glands. — The glands are composed of blood vessels,, 
nerves, and absorbents. They are distinguished according 
Id the nature of their fluid contents, into mucous, sebace- 
ous, lvmphatic, iacrvmal and saliva! glands. 

The mucous glands are situated in the nose, back part 
of the mouth, throat, stomach, intestines, bladder, &c, and 
secrete (which means to separate from the blood) mucous, 
for the purpose -of moistening all the internal surfaces that 
need moisture. 

The sebaceous glands are situated in the arm-pits, face , 
pubes, &c: they secrete an oily substance. 

The lymphatic glands are situated in the arm-pits, mes - 
efttary, groin, dec. 


The salival glands are situated about the root of the 
tongue and angle of the jaw: they secrete the substance 
called saliva or spittle, which is discharged into the mouth. 

The lacrymal glands are situated above the outer cor- 
ners of the eyes: they secrete the fluid called tears, which 
serves to moisten the eyes and aid in expelling any extra- 
neous matter from them. Grief and sometimes joy, ope- 
rates in some unknown manner on the lachrj r mal glands, 
so as to produce a copious flow of the lachryma, or tears. 

Bkeasts of Females — [Mam?nce.~\ — The breasts of fe- 
males are also regarded as glandular bodies: they are com- 
posed of a vast number of small ducts or vessels, which se- 
crete the milk from the blood. The vessels which secrete 
the milk as they approach the nipple, fall into each other 
and form eight or ten large tubes, which are so admirably 
connected, that if anything obstructs the passage of the 
milk through one of these, it is discharged through the 
others without inconvenience. 

Joints, Gristles — [Cartilages.] — The joints (articula- 
tions) are fastened together with white gristly substances 
called cartilages: they are of the same texture and nature 
of the sinews and tendons: they are very strong and lasting. 

Joent Water — {Synovia.) — This is a new kind of oily 
substance that is contained in the joints, for the purpose 
of lubricating them: it greatly facilitates their motion; but 
if this juice or synovial water be extracted or discharged, 
by a cut or otherwise, it never can be restored, but the 
joint will remain stiff. " f 

The Sinews — (Tendons.) — By anatomists, the sinews or 
leaders, are called the terminations or extremities of the 
muscles. They are white gristly substances, very strong. 
nna may be split into the finest threads imaginable. — 
They are very nearly the same in the human system as in 
animals. They were employed b\ the aboriginees of our 
country, in making moccasins, belts, &c, after splitting 
them to the proper size. 


The art of preserving Health without the use of 


The enjoyment of perfect health, is certainly one of the 
greatest earthly blessings that falls to the lot of mortals. 
Without health, honor, title, wealth, beauty, the kindness 
of friendship and the tenderness of affection, are all insuf- 
ficient to render man even comfortable. All these bless- 
ings fail to relieve the pangs of disease, and give a relish 
to the affairs of life. The vast importance of health will 
render a short treatise on its preservation an acceptable 
article in this work. It will doubtless be readily acknowl- 
edged by all, that it is much better to shun or avoid disease, 
than to remove or overcome it after it has once taken hold 
on the system; and as the greatest number of our diseases 
mid infirmities are the fruits of infringements on healthy 
laws of nature, how earnestly should we be engaged in 
correcting and avoiding those infringements. Man, in 
the early days of nature, lived in a state of perfect health, 
both in body and in mind. The friendly hand of nature 
gave him sustenance, without labor or toil, and nature's 
beverage quenched his thirst without the aid of spirituous 
liquors. Protected by the immediate presence of the Al- 
mighty', innocent of any violation of his law — living i;i 
the full enjoyment of his benevolence, man was happy. 
But alas! we now view him in a fallen state: he has trans- 
gressed the sacred laws of his Creator, God, and incurred 
the penalties annexed to his transgression. "His days 
are shortened and encumbered with disease." What a sol- 
emn thought, and how anxiously engaged should we be to 
change our condition; and how careful should we be to 
guard against evil by a temperate course in all things? — 
Health can only be secured and retained by temperate 
habits; it is a jewel, generally found in the possession of 
those only who have "moral firmness enough to curb their 
lust, check their appetites, control their passions, and sub- 
mit to the regulations of virtuous and temperate habits. — 
Irregularity and intemperance in eating, drinking, sleep- 
ing and exercise, lays the foundation of most diseases with 
which the human family is afflicted. 

Calmly retire like evening light! 
And cheerful bid the world good- 
Let virtue and temperance preside. 
Our best physiciaj), friend & guide.' 

"Would you extend your narrow span, 
And make the most of life you can; 

Would yuu when medicines cannot save, 
Descend with ease into the grave? 



OF &IR. 

Mush might be said relative to the different gasses 
"which compose the atmosphere, or air; for it is not as ma- 
' ny. persons suppose, a simple element, but is composed of 
' unequal portions of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid. 
But as a scientific treatise on this subject properly belongs 
to the chemist, I will leave the subject with him, and con- 
fine my observations more particularly to the effects which 
the different states of the atmosphere has on the body. 

Air is rendered impure and unwholesome in many wajj; 
• such air should be avoided as much as practicable. T&e 
air in cities, crowded assemblies, whether in-doors or out, 
is not wholesome. That in deep weiis, damp cellars, 
close dungeons, caves, &c, is apt to become infected. Ma- 
ny persons have instantly expired on going/ "down into deep 
weils or caves, where air composed of undue proportions 
of the above named gasseshad settled. It may readily be 
ascertained whether a well or cave contains such air, by 
putting in them a lighted candle. If the candle continues 
io burn, the air is composed of such proportions of the dif- 
ferent gasses, as is necessary for the support of animal life. 
and may be entered with safet\; but if the candle goes 
out, the air is not such as will support animal life, but will 
produce instantaneous death. Air confined in close' a- 
partments where there is hot fires, is pernicious to health. 
Many persons injure their health by sitting or lying in 
rooms kept hot by large fires and -not sufficiently ventil- 
ated, or dried. Air extremely hot or cold, is equally dele- 
terious, and should be equally avoided, particularly by 
persons of delicate constitutions. Night air is very per- 
nicious to health, as is also the air between sunset and 

The body may be comfortably clad, and yet much inju- 
ry to the health be sustained by exposure to a damp cold 
atmosphere; for it should always be remembered that it is 
equally dangerous to inhale it into the lungs, as to admit 
its free access to the external surface of the body; the con- 
sumptive and asthmatic should bear this well in mind, if 
they would value their own safety. 

Dry air moderately cool, is the most salubrious bath to 
the healthy and infirm. A strong current of air should al- 


'way? be avoided. Never sit or lie in a current of air pas- 
sing through a window Or door, especially while warm; 
it checks perspiration, chills the blood; and often lays the 
foundation of incurable diseases. 


Exercises. — Moderate and regular exercise is as essen- 
tial to the preservation of health, as foot! is to the support 
of our bodies. It keeps up a regular circulation of the flu- 
ids, aids digestion, promotes the necessary secretions and 
excretions, arid invigorates the frame. It prepares the 
body to be refreshed with sleep, and makes even the bed 
ofstraworthe hunter's blanket pleasant: "it furnishes an 
appetite that relishes plain and wholesome food, and pre- 
serves the healthy tone of the digestive organs. It gives 
clearness to the brain, vivacity to the spirits, cheerfulness 
to the mind, and elasticity to the whole s}*stem." 

Exercise increases the strength of our nerves, of our 
museles, of our sinews, and invigorates every fibre of the; 
whole system. To prove this, we have only to turn our 
attention to the aboriginees of America. They spent their 

I lives in the active pursuits of the chase in the open air; 
their diet and dress were of the simplest kind; they rose 
from their blankets at the dawn of morn, after having en- 
joyed a refreshing nights sleep, .and prepared themselves 
for their homely but wholesome repast by active exercise 

| in the open air. A knowledge of the if habits, lives, disea- 
ses, &ti, will also show that exercise is a great guarantee 
against a host of diseases with which the "pale-face" is so 
often afflicted, but is seldom found in the wig- warns of the 
"red man." Among these are Consumption, liver com- 
plaints, dyspepsy, hysterics, and many others too tedious 
to mention. Exercise is necessary from infancy. Only 
look at country children, who 'are accustomed to exer- 
cise andiridustry, how much more active and stout they 
are, than those of large towns, where they are cooped up 
in small' rooms. Also look at the rich and indolent, and 
those wfao labor for their living. While the opulent and 

! idle complain of ill-feeling and nervous weakness, the man 
of moderate exercise is vigorous, his appetite good, his 
sleep refreshing, and his mind cheerful. More than half 
of the female diseases, especially such as are connected 


with hysterics and nervous affecti@ns, arise Irona want of 
clue exercise in the open and pure air. 

Neglect to taste the morning air, 
It will yojir nerves with vigor brace, 

Improve and' heighten every graced 
Add to yo«r breath a rich perfume, 

And to your cheeks a fairer bloom;. 
With lustre teach your eyes to glow, 
And healths and cheerfulness bestow .' 

"How sweet at early dawn to rise, 
And view the glories of the skies; 

To mark with curious eye the sun, 
Begin his radiant course to run; 

Mcr fairest fonn then nature weajs, 
And clad in brightest green appears. 

Nor you, ye delicate and fair, 

Exercise not only, preserves health and prevents disease, 
but aids greatly in relieving diseases even of the most ob- 
stinate character. Without exercise, medicine will fail 
to have the desired effect in a great measure. 


•HBMr. ' , , 

Of Sleep. — It is impossible for us to enjoy good health, 
unless blessed with sound and refreshing sleep, for with- 
out this tender nurse of weary nature, the whole frame is. 
thrown into disorder, and the mind is much confused and 
weakened. When we are asleep, all the voluntary pow- 
ers, such as seeing, hearing, feeling, &c, are in a state of 
suspension,, or rest, while on the other hand, the involunta- 
ry powers, the circulation, digestion, &c, are increased, 
both in regularity and activity. A more uniform circula- 
tion is kept up throughout the system when asleep than 
when awake. I have often heard persons .remark, with 
some degree of astonishment, that they would immediate- 
ly begin to sweat on tying down and going to sleep in day- 
time; whereas, they might lie awake for hours on the 
same bed and not sweat. The cause is obvious, our sever- 
al senses are at rest, and the circulation increased. The 
principal directions necessary to be given on this subject, 
are to take a proper portion of sleep at seasonable hours. 
The quantity of sleep necessary for each person every 
tW3nty-four hours, is hard to decide: it requires much 
moye for some than for others. When a person rises in the 
morning, and does not feel refreshed, he may rest assured 
that he has slept too much or not enough. The best rule 
is to ascertain how much sleep you really need, and when 
you have obtained that quantum, rise from your bed im- 
mediately, andnotflie dosing, and try to Yorce yourself into 
sleep contrary fco nature, for too much sleep acd too little 
exercise, produce languor and debility; the uer^s become 


relaxed, the flesh flab&y and soft. Feather beds are- un- 
healthy, especially in warm weather; A straw bed or 
matrass is much better for the health than feathers. A 
person wishing to enjojv good health should never retire 
to bed immediately after eating a hearty meal. 


Clothingv-*— Clothing should be suited to the age, consti- 
tution, and seasons. It should not be too warm in sum- 
mer nor too cold in winter. All kinds of clothing should 
be made loose and easy, so as not to bind or cramp any 
part of the body: every attempt to give a good form by 
clothing is not only foolish in itself, but absolutely perni- 
cious to health. Tight lacing not only obstructs the 
general circulation of the- fluids, but oppresses the motion 
of the heart and lungs, and retards the wheels of life in 
the performance of their vital functions. The effects of 
tight lacing are bad health, coughs, indigestion, pleurisy* 
liver complaints, consumptions, &c. 

Young persons need not be so warmly clothed as those 
who have passed the meridian of life. The weakly and 
those bordering on old age, should wear flannel. Wet 
and damp clothes should be particularly avoided: no fresh 
clothing should be put on without airing by the fire, no 
odds how long since it was washed. Many young per- 
sons injure their health by putting on damp clothes, lying 
on damp sheets, &c. Here much rests with their mothers; 
for such carelessness seldom fails to destroy the health, 
and often seats some incurable disease on the system. — 
These remarks are partisularly applicable to.yoUng ladies 
who so often, when in a hurry, dressing for balls, church- 
es^&c, risk their health and even lives, by putting oci 
damp dressings stockings, &c. 


Of Pood and Drink. — We cannot live without foed and: 
drink, and some attention to the quality of both food and 
drink, is essential to health. It would, however, be im- 
possible to specify in this short work, the effects of every 
kind of diet, or to designate the quantity or kind of food 
which will be most beneficial to t^e different constitutions. 


"Diet may not only change the constitution, but it ! has 
beenkliownto cure diseases, and it has this advantage 
over medicine, it is not disagreeable to take." Different 
constitutions require different quantities and qualities of 
food. The best directions that can here be given, a're to 
be moderate as to quantity, and let the food be plain and 
simple, use only such diet as agrees with the stomach. — 
Eating of a single dish at a meal, is more healthy than in- 
dulging in a great variety. A diet composed of a proper 
mixture of vegetable and animal substances, will probably 
be found most nutricious and salubrious. Rich sauces, 
high seasoned provisions, where a variety of ingredients 
are intermingled, overload the stomach, and tend to pro- 
duce dyspepsy. The flesh of young animals is more nu- 
tricious, and easier to digest than that of old ones. Per- 
sons whoso constitutions are weak, ought to avoid eating 
food that is tough and indigestible. All rational persons 
who have arrived at mature age, are sufficiently acquain- 
ted with themselves, to know by a" little attention what 
kinds and qualities of diets best agree with them: they 
should use such diets, and at such times as best agree with 
them; and if heads of families, they should pay some at- 
tention to what kinds of diets best agree with its different 

The best rules for eating, are to have your meals regu- 
larly, never fast too long or eat heavy suppers. Long 
fasts produce cholic, sick head-ache, costiveness, &c. — 
Breakfast and dinner should be something substantial, sup- 
per should be light, and we should never lie down imme- 
diaely after eating, 

As to drinks, pure water is of the utmost importance to 
health. Many persons think that it is pernicious to health 
to drink water before breakfast, but this is certainly a mis-' 
lake. A reasonable portion of water taken betore break- 
last, prepares the stomach for food and facilitates diges- 
tion. Water however should never be drank in large 
quantities when over heated, as it is apt to produce dis- 
ease, and sometimes immediate death. Coffee, tea, choc- 
olate and milk, are all wholesome for such persons as they 
agree with, but must be decided by experience, as every 
person is best calculated to judge for himself. 



Of Cleanliness. — Cleanlinesses too 'great a preserva- 
tive of health, to be overlooked in a treatise on the art of 
preserving it. It clears the skin of impurities, and pro- 
motes perspiration; it will even, in many instances, cure 
cutaneous diseases: it prevents the communication of in- 
fection! In towns it should be the object of public attention, 
as many diseases owe their origin, as well as virulency, to 
the neglect of it. 

Cleanliness, though not a virtue in itself, approaches"! 
that character, and should be observed with the greatest 
scrupulosity, and appreciated almost as a virtue. It is ne- 
cessary to decency — it affords personal comfort, and is one 
means of rendering us acceptable to society. It is an ev- 
idence of gentility, regarded as necessary by the higher 
ranks of society, and is an ornament to every class; and 
without it neither health nor respectability can be long 
maintained. It is praiseworthy among those who enjoy 
good health, and still* more important to those who are 

Cleanliness of the body is to be effected by changing the 
dress at proper periods, and by washing its surface. Fre- 
quent bathing braces the nerves and vivifies the spirits. — - 
Bathing is a powerful preserver and restorer of health; it 
softens and cleanses the skin, opens the pores, promotes 
.perspiration, and invigorates the whole system. 


Ov T'li'E Passions. — Man is a complicated machine, his 
ftdul and body mutually affecting each other. Much has 
been aiid might still be ''Written on this subject: but as I do 
not intend entering into a general or scientific dissertation 
on the passions, I will confine my remarks to their influ- 
ence on the physical system. The influence of the pas- 
sions on the human system have long%een observed, and 
sometimes remarkable cures have been effected by opera- 
ting only on the mind. The restoration of tranquility, 
and the diffusion of contentment and serenity, is often ne- 
cessary, in order to give medicines a fair opportunity of 
having their accustomed efficacy. The subordinate in- 
dulgence of passion, frequently induces disease of a stub- 


born character, by destroying the power of digestion, en- 
feebling the circulation, affecting the brain and nervous 
system, &c. &c. But how mind and matter reciprocally 
acton each other, is a mystery which I leave to be devel- 
oped by the researches of the profound philosopher.— 
When passions run counter to reason and religion, they 
produce the most frightful catastrophes. "When passion 
reigns reason is dethroned." 

Young persons should early be taught to control their 
passions, as "the early management and control of the pas- 
sions by a proper education, is the best guard against their 
mischievous effects at any period of life. When the hab- 
it is once established, their control then becomes compar- 
atively easy; but when the curb of piety, reason or habit 
is not put on them, the ordinary excitements of unexpected 
circumstances, spurs them into a gallop." 

Of Anger. — Anger is a sudden emotion of displeasure, 
excited by some supposed or real injury, offered either to 
our persons, characters or rights. Although anger is one 
of the most powerful and dangerous passions, both to our- 
selves and to the object of our wrath, yet we have as much 
or more power in governing it, than any other of the pas- 
sions, to a certain extent. The intensity of this passion 
does not depend entirely upon the magnitude of the insult 
received, but also upon the pride, or rather vanity, of the 
individual who receives it. When an. individual who has 
an exalted or overrated opinion of his own dignity and im- 
portance receives an insult, his. vanity > like a magnifying 
glass, enlarges it into the most aggravated injury, and con- 
sequently, his ready resentment will equal the supposed 
magnitude of the offence. Persons addicted to violent 
and unrestrained fits of anger, are too often induced by 
the irritation of the moment, to perpetrate acts, of the most 
alarming and outrageous character. Such deeds of rash- 
ness lead to the prison, and even the gallows. 

Anger is a disease of the mind, a short-lived insanity, 
producing the rashest, maddest deeds of folly. This is the 
passion which has raised up nation against nation, which 
has destroyed millions of the human race, and desolated 
wtiole countries. It is even sometimes seen to deform the 
maiden cheek with a frown. It disqualifies its subjects 
for all kinds of business, or social intercourse with his fel- 

Indian guide to health. 20 

low beings, and renders him miserable to himself and his 
associates. The storms of this passion have in some instan* 
ces been so violent, as to produce immedtate death. Ev- 
ery passion grows by indulgence, and anger when unre- 
strained, is apt to degenerate into cruelty; and as self gov- 
ernment and habit are the best preventatives of this dread- 
ful and frightful monster, how early and cautious should 
examples of mildness and good humor be set before chil- 
dren by their parents. They should be taught to control 
this passion above all other things, for you may plainly ob- 
serve the pernicious effects which anger produces on a 
child when indulged in it, as well as on a person of ma- 
ture age. 

"The exercise of patience is not only a duty, the perfor- 
mance of which prevents all the deleterious effects of an- 
ger, but it is an infallible mark of a great and dignified 
soul." Due attention to the formation of our habits will 
readily bring this passion under the salutary restraints of 
prudence and reason; but if suffered to rage without re- 
straint, and to be blown into a flame on every occasion, it 
soon becomes ungovernable. 

Of Hatred. — This detestable passion is the voluntary 
fruit of a depraved soul: it is a voluntary and deep-rooted 
dislike, that seems to have its seat in the angry passions 
of the heart. Hatred is not in general, in consequence of 
provocation: — the object is not hated because it is odious, 
but because it interferes with inclination, &c. Hatred is 
a degrading passion; it is not contented with merely wish- 
ing evil to the objects of its fiendish malignity, but derives 
its only pleasure from their misery and destruction. Ha- 
ired has very appropriately been termed the "Bane of 
peace — the ulcer of the soul." 

, "When hatred is in a bosom nursed, 
Peace cannot reside in a dwelling so accursed." 

This detestable passion when permitted to occupy a 
place in the human breast, will soon make mom for its. 
sister passion — Envy, Slander, their offspring, will soon 
ibllow. Slander, whtse mouth is ever full of lies, is truly 
said to be the "foulest whelp of sin." Enmity, ill-will, 
ranchor, malice and spite, are modifications of this base 
passion — Anger. They seek the misery, and are delight- 
ed in the misfortunes and destruction of their objects. A- 


version, detestation and the like, when kept in proper •? 
bounds, are allowable emotions of the soul; they are not ' 
personal feelings, directed against the object independent 
and regardless ot its qualities, but they are emotions pro- 
duced by actions or things: — thus the. virtuous and honor- - 
able, detest the base, the treacherous, &c. Hatred, ope- 
rating as it does upon the mind, cannot fail to injure the 
body>. It destroys the happiness^ and consequently im- - 
pairs the health. 

Esvv. — Envy, like hatred, is a low, degrading, and de- 
testable passion. It is ever blind to the virtues and ac- 
complishments of others, but quick-sighted in detecting 
imperfections that none else can see. Envy, like anger, 
is the bane of peace, the ulcer of the soul. Solomon says 
"Envy is the rottenness of the bones." It is a sensation 
of uneasiness, accompanied with malignity, excited by the 
superior accomplishments or advantages of a rival. It 
has its seat or root in an overrated self-love and thirst for 
praise, desiring to be esteemed superior to others, without 
efforts to merit such esteem. It never seeks to excel a ri- 
val by the practice of virtues superior to his, but labors 
to degrade him to its own level. The means employed to 
accomplish this vile purpose, is Slander, and thus the three 
enemies to all the fair forms of truth, honor, peace and 
happiness, unite their fiendish powers to destroy both soul 
and body. 

"Envy commands a secret band. With fatal aim attacks by night, 

With sword and poison in his hand; His troops advance with silent tread , 

Around his haggard eyeballs roll, Antf stab the hero in his bed, 

A thousand fiends possess his soul. Or shoot the wing'd malignant lie, 

The hellish unsuspected sprite, And female honors pine or die." 

Avarice. — I copy the following able piece on this sub- 
ject, from the writings of A. H. Mathes: 

"Avarice is a sordid passion. It is a craving anxiety 
after property: a rapacity in getting, and a tenacity in 
holding it. It is a grovelling passion, that seeks for hap- 
piness beneath the skies, and expects to realize, by hoard- 
ing up perishing dust, permanent enjoyments. When this 
sordid passion takes possession of the heart, farewell all 
sentiments of honor — all correct notions of honesty, the 
only rule of right, and measure of wrong with the miser 
in his own interest: no other argument can reach his sei 

INDIAN GUIBfE T0 HEALTH. 31 soul. Farewell to all natural affections^ and all the 
objects of gratitude;, it wrests the last, drop of humanity, 
from the bosom, and strips it of the last feeling of com- 
passion. The shrill cry of justice, or the deep groans of 
want, are notes equally beyond his compass. He can be 
hold misfortune's most afflicted sons, driven by adversity's 
fiercest gale, wrecked on the ocean of poverty, with scarce 
a broken piece of the wreck, to buoy their heads above the 
waves of utter want, without one pensive reflection 
Without a sigh he can strip nakedness of its rags, and rob 
poverty of its crusts, or enter the forlorn cabin of the wid- 
ow, and exact the uttermost farthing, leaving her father- 
less babes breadless. 

Avarice unties the bonds of society, and robs the miser 
of one of the greatest blessings in it — the mutual commu- 
nication of kind offices. It dries up the fountain of hu- 
manity, obliterates every sentiment of generosity, and free • 
zes up every stream of sympathy. As soon may you ex- 
pect to pluck the blooming rose under the frozen pole, as 
to find the warmth of affection in the miser's frigid heart. 
From a region so barren of virtue, men no more expect to 
reap the fruits of charity, than they expect to gather 
grapes from the thistle, or figs from the bramble. This 
base passion robs the man of content; for although nature 
is content with few things, avarice is not content with all 
things; it tortures the soul and wastes the body with cra- 
ving,anxiety. His thievish fancy hears in every sound 
the approach of the robber. Of all the sons of foil*,, who 
barter time for eternity, life for death, heaven for hell, 
none do it on easier terms than the wretched worshiper 
at mammon's shrine,, s, who to the clink of mammon's box 
gives most greedy and rapacious ear;" 'tis the only music 
thai can charm him. Avarice renders a man poor in the 
midst of wealth, his niggard soul can scarce ailow a scan- 
ty supply of food and raiment to his body, and for fear of 
future penury, reduces himself to present and utter want, 

"And oh! what man's condition can 

be worse 
Than his, whom plenty starves, and 

blessings curst? 
The beggars but a common fate de 

The rich man is emphatically poor, 


If cares and troubles, envy, grief and 

Be the bitter fruits that fair riches 

bear ; 
If utter poverty grows out of store. 
The old plain way is best — let me bs 


Avarice is accompanied with extreme eagerness to make 


money, /with distressing fears about keeping it, and with 
inconsolable grief for fear of losing it; besides heart-ache, 
enviesyjealousies, sleepless nights, wearisome days, and 
numberless other ills which it inflicts on its slaves, ruining 
their hfealth, and dragging them to the grave with some 
wasting malady, or hurrying them there by rash, horrible 

The miser on being disappointed in an advantageous 
trade which he had thought almost confirmed, and fancied 
'himself in possession of his new treasure; in losing the best 
of the market for his produce; or in having his hordes rob- 
bed of their idolized and shining dust, has, in many instan- 
ces, been so smitten with grief, as to produce insanity, or 
rendered life so burdensome as to induce him to commit 

Feas. — Fear was given to man as a sentinel of self-pre- 
servation. It induces us to take measures to avert, if pos- 
sible, the apprehended ill, and secure personal safety. — 
Apprehension, dread, &c, are modifications of the same" 
passion. We apprehend what is possible, fear what is 
probable, and dread what is certain. 

Fear has a salutary influence in society, amongst those 
who are now governed by the principles of virtue. The 
fear of reproach, punishment, &c, often rertrains the hand 
of violence, injustice and oppression. 

Fear like every other passion, is liable to excess, and 
when thus indulged, instead of warding off anticipated e- 
vils, it often brings on the very calamities which are so 
much dreaded, and becomes hurtful to both body and 
mind. Fear indulged to excess, robs its possessor of res- 
olution, reflection, and judgment, and degenerates into 
cowardice, which is a base passion, and beneath the dig- 
nity of man. No passion has a greater tendency to pro- 
duce and aggravate disease than fear, when improperly 
indulged. It impedes the circulation, disorders the stom- 
ach and bowels, enfeebles vital action, and has a direct 
and instantaneous tendency to produce spasms on the 
whole system; and instances are not wanting, in which a 
sudden and excessive fc'sht, has produced immediate 

The practice of frightening children and grown persons, 
is often productive of the most deleterious consequences. 


Children are often fearful in the dark. This should be 
overcome by persuasion and argument rather than force. 
By proper treatment on the part of the parents or nurse, 
such unfounded fears will soon vanish; on the contrary, if 
they are encouraged by dismal stories of witches, ghosts, 
raw-head and bloody-bones and the like, they will grow 
and become so deeply rooted, that to shake them off in ma- 
ture years, will be almost a matter of impossibility. 

Hope. — Hope is an enlivening passion,- it is a pleasur- 
able emotion of the mind, excited by the anticipation of 
some desirable object considered attainable. It matters 
not, in what vocation we embark, it is our anchor to the 
last breath. We are supported by it in every difficulty. — 
It is hope with its offspring, fortitude, that enables us to 
bear all the toils, tumults, pains and vexations, which we 
have to encounter while passing through this " World of 
thorns." " It is the first friend that offers solace to the 
sons of affliction; it is the last to forsake them." Take 
from us hope, and life itself would be a burthen ! 

Hope is productive of the most salutary effects, both on 
our bodies and minds, differing in this respect from all our 
other passions. When engaged in the pursuits of life, and 
enjoying ordinary health, it is attended with many favor- 
able effects without possessing any physical disadvantages, 
and what a powerful effect it has when laboring under 
pain and diseases of the body ! It raises the spirits; it in- 
creases the action and power of the heart; gives vigor to 
the nervous system; moderates the p'ulse; causes breath- 
ing to be more full and free, quickens all the secretions and 
gives tone and strength to the whole system. The chris- 
tian's hope extends beyond this vale of tears and enables 
him, in the hist struggle of death, to cry out: " Oh ! grave 
where is thy victory, Oh ! death where is thy sting." 

Joy. — Joy is a high degree of pleasure, excited by the at- 
tainment or possession of some desired good — the recep- 
tion of good news, &c. &c. Delight, gladness, mirtn, 
cheerfulness and the like, are different modifications of this 
passion. Joy is pleasure at high tide. Wlien indulged 
in moderation it has a salutary effect on both the body 
and mind ; but if it should be excessive or very sudden, it 
frequently does serious and lasting injury to persons in 



good health ; and instances have occurred, in which it pro- 
duced immediate death. Persons of an ardent, lively tem- 
perament, and of delicate nervous sensibility, are mort li- 
able to suffer serious or fatal consequences from sudden 
transports of this passion, Precautionary means should 
be used to prevent such sudden transports of excessive joy, 
by preparing the mind gradually to meet its emotions, and 
by this means its dangerous effects will be obviated. 



This depressing emotion of the mind, is produced by the 
suffering of some calamity, or by sustaining the loss of 
something that contributed to our happiness. The inten- 
sity of the passion is generally in the proportion to the es- 
timate we place on the object lost. Indulged grief often 
becomes settled melancholy — its victim sinks into despaii- 
and fatal insanity. Sorrow, grief, melancholy, despair, 
&c, seem to be different modifications of the same passion. 
Whether grief proceeds from real or imaginary causes, 
the destructive influence is the same on the healthy action 
of the system. It destroys the digestive powers — oppres- 
ses the lungs and weakens the nerves — it produces sleep- 
less nights, head aches, weak eyes, costiveness, palpita- 
tions of the heart and not unfrequently insanity and death. 
How frequently do we see our fellow mortal weighed 
down with this depressing passion, their pale and furrow- 
ed cheeks tell us they are sick ! ah ! and of what? of eve- 
ry thing and nothing ! ! They apply for medical aid — take 
medicine without weight or measure; but all in vain. — 
They are still sick — the contents of an apothecary shop 
will not give relief. The mind is the part diseased, and 
until the cause is removed it will bid defiance to the pow- 
ers of medicine. In such cases much rests with the suffer- 
er. The cause should be removed if possible; if this can- 
not be done, we should remember that this is "a world of 
sorrow." And why destroy both health and happiness, by 
grieving about a thing we cannot help? We should ex- 
ercise firmness and resolution, and reconcile as far as pos- 
sibe, the circumstances and condition to our wounded and 
oppressive feelings. " We should seek in piety those un- 


withering consolations which can sustain the mind under 
the severest strokes of adversity. From this source issue 
streams of living pleasure that cannot be dried up by the 
occurrence of disastrous events." 

Love. — As this passion is not productive of any bad ef- 
fects on the health, when of a proper kind and properlj 
controlled, there need be but little said on the subject. — 
Love is one of the master passions of the soul, when kin- 
dled into ardor. It exercises an uncontrollable dominion 
over all the powers of man. Pure and reciprocal love is 
one of man's most endearing delights — it is not wrecked 
by the storms of adversity nor starved out by poverty. — 
We are commanded to exercise this passion in Holy writ, 
which is a sufficient proof of its excellency. Thus we are 
commanded to love our parents, our companions and chil- 
dren, and even our enemies; and above all — our God and 
heavenly things. When this passion is confined within its 
proper limits, with due regard to its objects, it has a salu- 
tary influence on the mind of every rational being. The 
influence of propitious love is salutary upon the physical 
system, as it promotes all the secretions — invigorates the 
action of the heart — imparts vivacity to the spirits and 
brightens the countenance with cheerfulness. 

Some writers when speaking on this subject, digress 
from the true intent of the matter and fall into a discus- 
sion of most of the other passions. Under the title of "Dis- 
appointed Love,'* they discuss at great length the beauti- 
ful efFects of grief, jealousy, rage, revenge, despair, &c. — 
Love, crossed or disappointed by the' inconstancy or false- 
ness of the beloved object, not unfrequently begets one or 
more of the above passions, and produce some of the wild- 
est storms of passion that infest the seas of life, wrecking 
both happiness and health, 

"Earth has no rage like love to hatred turned; 
And hell no fury like a lover scorned." 




That a knowledge of diseases is necessary to their cure, 
will be readily acknowledged; but a great difference ol 
opinion prevails among mankind as to how this knowledge 


should be obtained. Some sav it should be the result of 
personal experience; while others contend that education 
and theory alone, is all that is necessary to make a skillful 
physician. The union of observation, with the deductions 
of theory, will probably be found to lead to the safest con- 
clusions. A medical education should be united with ex- 
perience. Every disease is to be known by its peculiar 
symptoms, and the sagacity of the physician will be exer- 
cised in discriminating between different diseases by their 
different symptoms. 

Regard should always be paid to the constitution, man- 
ner of life, age, sex, temper, &c. Some constitutions are 
peculiar and require a peculiar treatment. It would be 
injudicious to treat the tender, delicate and sickly in the 
same manner as the hardy and robust. 

Females have diseases peculiar to themselves — their 
system is more tender and irritable and demands greater 

The following enquiries should be made previous to ad- 
ministering medicine to a sick person. 

When were you taken ? How were you talcen ? To 
what disease are you most liable ? Is the disease consti- 
tutional or accidental ? Are you temperate in eating and 
drinking? What has been your general health 1 What 
were your feelings for several days previously to being 
taken, &c? If the patient be a female, you should also 
ascertain whether she has been regular in her monthly 
periods 1 Whether there is any suppression of urine, &c. 

A physican,on entering the room of a sick person, should 
be easy and affable in his manners, and wait patiently 
the subsiding of any strong excitement his presence may 
have created. 

The Pulse. — By the pulse is meant the beating or throb- 
bing of an artery, which is occasioned by the motion of 
the heart in propelling the blood through them. This mo- 
tion of the heart and arteries is spoken of at greater length 
in the anatomical part of this work. The physician de- 
rives great information as to the condition of his patient, 
from knowing how the blood circulates. This is ascertain- 
ed by feeling the pulse. The pulse in different persons 
varies, it beats quicker in the sanguine than in the melan- 
cholly — in the young and vigorous, than in the old and de- 
clining — children have quicker pulse than adults. The 


usual standard of a healthy indication by the pulse in 
grown persons is from 66 to 80 strokes in a minute. 

Good health is indicated by a strong, firm, regular pulse. 

1. When the pulse resists the pressure of the finger, feels 
full, and swells boldly under the pressure, it is called a 
full strong tense pulse — if slow and irregular, it is called 
a weak, fluttering and irregular pulse. 

2. When the pulse feels like a string drawn tight, and 
gives considerable resistance to the presure of the finger, 
it is termed a hard, corded pulse. 

3. The soft and intermitting pulses give their own mean- 
ing by name; they are very easily distinguished from each 
other, as in cases of great weakness oi the system and a 
languid circulation, or on the approach of death. 

4. An intermitting pulse is sometimes produced by op- 
pression of the stomach and bowels, it also arises in some 
instances from an agitation of the mind. A vibrating 
pulse, with quick, weak pulsations, acting under the fin- 
gers like a thread, quick but very weak and irregular, in- 
dicates a highly dangerous state of the system. This pulse 
is generally accompanied with deep sighs, difficult breath- 
ing, and a dead, heavy languor of the eyes. 

The above directions will enable any person to distin- 
guish the different states of the pulse; and enable him so 
far as the pulse can give any indications, to judge of the 
nature and stage of the disease. 



I will not trouble the reader here with a long treatise 
on the doctrines, or what is called the pathology of dis- 
eases, which would prove both tedious and tiresome, with- 
out imparting the least benefit to those for whom this work 
is especially intended. But in giving the symptoms of 
disease, or the various aspects under which it makes its 
appearance, I will endeavor to do it in both a concise and 
comprehensive manner, confining myself, principally, to 


those diseases which are most common in our country, 
and peculiar to our climate. It is very necessary that the 
head of every family should be instructed, to some extent, 
in the method of curing their own maladi 3s; simple reme- 
dies, and such as are at hand in most families, will, if ta- 
ken in due time, often throw off diseases which might have 
baffled the skill of the most experienced physicians if it 
had been let to run on without remedy for a length of 
time. A full conviction of this fact will induce me to 
simplify the Healing art, so that any family, possessing 
an ordinary share of common sense, may become their 
own physician in most cases of disease, without the haz- 
ard of increasing the hold of disease or weakning the 
power of life. The Indian system of practice may appear 
simple to many persons who are not acquainted with their 
success in treating diseases, but I flatter myself that a fair 
trial of their method of treating diseases as is herein laid 
down, will almost invariably be crowned with success, and 
many painful and truly distressing complaints which have 
hitherto been considered by the whites, as incurable, will 
be found to yield speedily to simple remedies. 

Believing that colds are directly or indirectly the cause 
of most diseases by checking perspiration, obstructing the 
general or natural circulation of all the fluids, and there- 
by producing a marked action, or in other words, a dis- 
eased condition of the whole system — I will first begin 
with colds. 

CATARRH OR COLD— (Oo-hur-thh.) 

Colds are so common in every country, and their modes 
of treatment so generally known, that the reader will doubt- 
less conclude that little or nothing need be written on a 
subject which is already so familiar. But when Ave re- 
flect that it is often the forerunner and not unfrequently 
the foundation of other diseases which are difficult to re- 
move, and in many instances highly dangerous, and even 
fatal, in despite of medical aid — the subject does not ap- 
pear so trivial as on first thought; but is one which cer- 
tainly demands the serious attention of all those wlio wish 
to enjoy a reasonable portion of health. 

Persons of delicate constitutions are most liable to take 
cold — and from the great carelessness of such persons in 
neglecting to avoid exposure — and to remove cold in its 


earliest stages, originates most of the consumptions in this, 
as well as other countries. It is often the foundation of a 
host of other diseases, such as pleurisy, liver complaints, 
fevers, asthmas, &c. I therefore feel it my duty to impress 
it on the mind of the reader, that cold, however simple it 
may at first appear, should be taken in its earliest stage, at 
which time it is easily thrown off and by very simple means. 

Symptoms. — A dull heaviness in the head, frequent sneez- 
ing, a discharge of watery mucous from the nose or eyes, 
or both, a stoppage in the nose and head — it is frequently 
attended with chillness, succeeded by flushes of heat, a 
very disagreeable fullness is felt about the eyes. Cold is 
often attended with soreness of the throat, cough and pain 
in the chest. Here I repeat that most of the consumptions 
of this country are occasioned by neglected colds, brought 
on by exposure to night air, by changing warm clothing for 
thin, by sudden check of perspiration, by damp feet, &c. 

Treatment. — Cold in its first stage may be thrown off 
very easily, and by very simple means, such as a free use 
■of sage, mint, ground ivy, balm, pennyroyal, pepper or 
ginger teas, or any sweating tea that the patient may pre- 
fer, to which may be added a portion of the diaphoretic 
drops. If the violence of the attack requires it, bathe the 
feet in warm water fifteen or twenty minutes, then wipe 
them dry and draw on warm stockings. If the head should 
be much stopped up with cold, sweat it by covering it 
over with flannel or other covering, and place a hot rock 
on the heartb, then sprinkle water and vinegar on the 
rock, at the same time holding the head over it. After 
steaming the head in the above manner, care must be ta- 
ken to avoid exposure to a free current of cold or damp air, 
which would check the perspiration suddenly, and in all 
probability do much more harm than the steaming had 
done good. If the symptoms are inflammatory, give cool- 
sing purges, such as cream of tartar, salts, castor oil, rheu- 
barb, or any cooling cathartic. If the throat is sore, apply 
the red pepper poultice, or a poultice of onions or garlic, 
either of these poultices will give relief to the breast if ap- 
plied to that part, in case of oppression from cold. If the 
patient is troubled with a cough, look under that head for 
a. remedy; by turning to the index you will be referred to 
numerous valuable articles for coughs, some of which can 
be easily procured in all cases, I presume, with but very 


little trouble or expense. The onion, garlic, or pepper 
poultice, applied to the feet vv^ill also aid in produing a 
free perspiration. The following remedy, says Dr. Gunn, 
"has frequently afforded relief in cases where colds had 
nearly settled down into confirmed consumptions-^-take one 
tea spoonful of flaxseed, half an ounce of liquorice, and a 
quarter of a pound of raisons, put them into two quarts of 
rain water, and simmer the whole over a slow fire until 
you reduce the quantity to one quart; then prepare some 
candy made from brown sugar, and dissolve it in the quart 
of liquor. A half pint of this syrup is to be taken every 
night on going to bed, mixed with a little good vinegar to 
give it a slightly acid taste. This will certainly relieve a 
cold in a few days." The vinegar stew is also very good 
for colds, and should be prepared in the following manner: 
If the vinegar be very strong, add a little water, then put 
it on the fire until it becomes hot, then add a little butter 
and sweeten it well with honey This stew or syrup is 
good to relieve soreness in the breast, it is also good to 
check the cough arising from cold. A tea spoonful of 
paragoric or half that quantity of Bateman's drops may be 
added to the tea, which is to be drank for cold to great ad- 


This dangerous disease is sometimes called putrid or ul- 
cerous sore throat. The symptoms are, soreness of the 
throat, attended with fever. The swallowing becomes 
more and more difficult, the skin burning and disagreeably 
hot without the least moisture, the pulse very quick and 
irregular, it is also attended with nausea and sometimes 
vomiting, restlessness, great debility, the face becomes 
flushed, the eyes inflamed, and the neck stiff, the mouth 
and throat assumes a fiery red color, and the palate and 
glands of the throat become much swelled as the disease 
advances, the whole internal surface of the mouth and 
throat will become interspersed with brown or ash color- 
ed spots, which soon become so many ulcers discharging 
an acid matter; a similar matter runs from the nose, and 
escapes at the mouth, this matter soon affects the lips and 
neighboring parts, and in some instances the brown spots 
extend over the whole body, the tongue becomes covered 
with a thick brown fur and the breath very offensive; there 


is generally a purging, and in many cases, a frequent dis- 
chatge of excoriating matter or fluid from the fundament. 
If the disease is not checked, the ulceration corrodes deep- 
er and deeper extending down the alimentary canal, and 
if still suffered to proceed, they become gangrenous; a se- 
vere purging ensues, and death closes the painful scene. 
The following symptoms are unfavorable and denote a 
fatal termination; the feet and hands become cold, the 
eruptions suddenly disappear, or become of a dark livid 
color, the inside of the mouth and throat assume a dark 
hue, purging a black matter of a very offensive smell, the 
pulse becoming small, quick and fluttering, hurried breath- 
ing with frequent sighing; and a cold clamy sweat. Ou 
the contrary, the symptoms are favorable when the fever 
in some degree abates and the skin becomes gradually 
soft and moist, the breathing becomes more free and natu- 
ral, the eyes assume a natural and lively appearance, the 
eruptions on the skin become of a reddish color over the 
whole body, and the parts which separate from the ulcers 
fall off easily, and leave the sores of a clean and reddish 
color, the tongue gradually becomes clean and clear of the 
dark fur with which it is covered. These are favorable 
symptoms and denotes the recovery of the patient. 

Putrid sore throat, is an infectious or catching disease; 
And hence it sometimes prevails as an epidemic, and gen- 
erally makes its appearance in the fall or early part of the 
winter seasons, especially when preceded by a dry, hot- 
summer. Children and persons of delicate constitutions 
are most liable to be the victims of this dangerous disease. 
Neglect of cleanliness, eating damaged provisions, breath- 
ing impure air, or whatever tends to produce putrid fevers, 
will predispose to an attack of this complaint. When re- 
lief is not had, this disease generally terminates fatally be-, 
tween the fourth and seventh day. 

Treatment. — This disease generally makes its appear- 
ance at the close of sultry seasons, when the system is 
much weakened by protracted exposure to intense. heat, 
and when people have been for some time exposed to 
breathing the putrid atmosphere arising from stagnant 
waters and decaying vegetables. This fact will at once 
show the impropriety o£ administering sever purges or 
drawing blood. The stomach must be cleansed by an 
emetic of gulver ancjWndiaji physic, apd the bowels. re-„ 


lieved of their putrid contents by injections, of thin gruel 
or soap-suds, to which may be added hogs lard and a little 
gulver syrup; no cathartic stronger than castor oil or rheu- 
barb should be taken into the stomach. Well prepared 
charcoal, taken twice or three times a day, will be of great 
benefit. The mouth and throat must be washed and 
gargled with a preparation made as follows: Take of 
cayenne pepper in powder, two table spoonfuls, a small 
quantity of catnip and half a spoonful of common salt; 
pour on them one pint of boiling water, let them stand a 
half hour and strain off the liquor and add to it a half a 
pint of good vinegar — the patient should also swallow a 
table spoonful of this preparation every fifteen minutes. 
If the patient should become very weak, bathe him well in 
a strong decoction of red-oak bark, in which may be put 
one-fourth whiskey. If the weakness be very considera- 
ble, give wine or toddy made with spirits and sweetened 
with sugar to strengthen and support the system. For an 
external application to the throat, use a poultice made by 
thickening rye-meal or wheat-brand in red pepper tea. — 
After the stomach is cleansed, give Virginia snake -root 
tea, (commonly called black snake-root,) or seneka snake- 
root tea freely. The bowels must be kept regular through 
the whole course by the use of injections. If the first 
emetic should fail to subdue the disease it should be re- 
peated in moderation on the day following. By properly 
attending to the emetic, the acid matter may be thrown 
off, which would otherwise produce injury by descending 
into the bowels. The strength of the patient must be sup- 
ported by a generous, nourishing and easily digested diet, 
comprising but little if any animal food. 

PLEURISY. — Oh-ne-squah-ga-ni-tsu-na-his-na. 

Symptoms. — An accute pain in the side, extending to the 
back, breast and shoulder, when the breath is drawn: — 
The pain is much increased by a short dry cough which 
generally attends it. Great difficulty is experienced in 
lying on the affected side. It is also attended with chills 
and fevers, great thirst and restlessness as in the inflama- 
tory fever. The tongue is covered with a thick whitish 
fur. The urine is high colored, the face flushed, and the 
skin dry and hot; sometimes the cough increases, and a 
tough phlegm is spit up. The blood when drawn from the 


arm and admitted to cool in the vessel, is covered with a 
scum or coat of a buffly color, which always denotes in- 

The causes which predispose to an attack of this dis- 
ease, are cold, lying on damp beds, exposure to free cur- 
rents of damp air, wearing wet or damp clothes, sudden 
changes from heat to cold, sudden check of perspiration, 
suppression of periodical evacuations, or by the repulsion 
of eruptions. It may also arise from intemperance, great 
exertion in singing, speaking or playing on wind instruments 

Treatment. — It is an inflammatory disease, and there- 
fore requires the immediate reduction of the inflammatory 
symptoms; for this purpose bleed freely according to the 
strength and constitution of the patient. If the pulse should 
remain full and hard after the tirst bleeding, and the pain 
be relieved for a short time and then return, you must bleed 
a second, third, and even the fourth time, where the in- 
flammatory symptoms require it. After the first bleeding, 
apply cloths, wet with hot water to the pained part, as 
warm as can be borne, and bathe the feet in warm water. 
At the same time give a purge of epsom salts or gulver 
pills, and let, the patient drink freely of a tea made of one- 
third of silk-weed root to two-thirds pleurisy root. If this 
tea should increase the fever to any considerable extent, it 
may be used in smaller quantities and the lancet again re- 
sorted to. For a description of the above roots, look under 
their different heads You will also see the mode of pre- 
paring the black or gulver pill under its proper head. — 
After the inflammatory action is in a considerable degree 
overcome, se.neka snake-root should be combined with the 
silk-weed root and pleurisy root. A full description of 
these roots may be seen under their proper heads. After 
the abatement of the fever, if the pulse should sink and the 
patient become very weak, you should stimulate him with 
warm toddy or wine, mixed with warm water and sugar. 
This must be done with the greatest caution, taking great 
care not to stimulate so em to produce a return of the fever. 
If the extremities should become cold, apply plasters of 
ground mustard-seed wet with vinegar to the wrists, ankles 
and feet. These plasters will aid greatly in raising the 
pulse, and is not so apt to produce a return of the inflam- 
matory symptoms as a too free use of spirits. The bowels 
must be kept open through the whole course by cooling 


purges; such as salts, castor oil, cream of tartar, or gulver- 
pills. The cathartics should be aided by mild and cooling 
injections, such as thin gruel, well strained new milk and 
water, &c. 

For further information on this subject examine under 
the head of " Clystering Diets." The strictest abstinence 
from all kinds of animal food, must be observed in this dis- 
ease. The diets and drinks must be such as will have a 
tendency to keep down fever, and such as the stomach will 
most easily digest. The drinks should consist of flaxseed 
tea, slippery-elm tea, toast-water, &c. They should be ta- 
ken warm, a little gruel, panada, or milk and water with 
mush, may betaken for nourishment. 

When recovering from this disease, great care must be 
taken to avoid sudden changes, dampness, cold, and very 
particular^ avoid exposure to night air, excessive use of 
ardent spirits, violent exercise, &c. As the reverse of the 
above precautions generally produce dangerous relapses. 
Flannel, or some warm dress should be worn next the skin. 

DROPSY— Tsa-no-tis-scok. 

Dropsy is a disease of the whole system, arising from 
debility or weakness. This opinion is sustained by many 
of the most distinguished physicians in the United States. 
Dr. Rush was of opinion, that dropsy was caused by a mor- 
bid action of the arteries, and an increased action of the 
exhalents; or in other words, by an inactive state of the 
arteries and an active condition of the vessels which throw 
off the sweat from the body. Dr. Shelton's opinion is the 
very reverse, he says: " Notwithstanding the great popu- 
larity of this opinion and the high regard I have for Dr. 
Rush, yet I cannot concur with him. I believe the cause 
to be an increased action of the arteries and a decreased 
action of the exhalents. For we generally find in a Dropsy 
a quick pulse, which certainly indicates an increased ac- 
tion of the arteries; from the great fullness and distention 
of the exhalents, we might reasonably suppose they were, 
too much relaxed, or too inactive to throw out the fluids 
as fast as they were forced into them by the active motion 
of the arteries." I have given the opinio'ns of the above 
writers for the reflection and entertainment of the reader. 
The opinion of Dr. Sheltor, however K accords nearest with 
iny qwn. 


Symptoms. — Dropsy may easily be distinguished from: 
other di&eases, by the collection of water in some part of 
the body, and by the feet and ancles swelling, the flesh will 
h?.ve lost its elasticity, or in other words, when pressed up- 
on by the finger the mark or impression will remain for 
some time after the finger is removed, the place where the 
impression was made being much paler than any other 
part. Among physicians, it is called by different names,, 
according with the different parts of the system in which 
the water is deposited. When the water is seated in the 
cavities of the head or brain, the disease is called by phy- 
sicians, Hydrocephalus. When seated in the cavity of 
the chest, it is called Hydrothorax; when in that of the bel- 
ly, Ascites; when seated in the scrotum or bag of the pri- 
vates, it is called Hydrocele; and when the water collects 
in the cellular membrane, which is situated between the 
flesh and skin, it is called Anasarca. These different lo- 
cations of Dropsy are manifested by somewhat different 

Anasarca or Dropsy of the celular membrane, first gives 
symptoms of its approach by swelling of the feet and an- 
kles; this swelling may be distinguished from other swel- 
lings in the manner above stated. The swelling extends 
by degrees to the thighs, trunk of the body, and finally to 
the head and face. The breathing becomes difficult, par- 
ticularly when the patient lies down. A cough soon fol- 
lows, and a watery mucous is spit up, the urine is high 
colored, and is voided in very small quantities, and when 
suffered to remain in the urinal or pot it deposites a red- 
dish sediment; the bowels are costive, and the thirst great. 
These symptoms are suceeded by a dull torpor and slow 

Ascites, or Abdominal Dropsy, is generally preceded by 
a loss of appetite, sluggishness, dryness of the skin, thirst, 
oppression of the chest, cough, decrease of urine, a swel- 
ling of the abdomen takes place, which increases gradual- 
ly, as the disease advances. As the water accumulates, 
the breathing becomes more difficult, the countenance pal- 
lid and bloated, the thirst immoderate; the urine scanty, 
high colored ; and deposites a brick colored sediment. 

Hydrothorax, or Dropsy of the Chest, generally comes 
on with a sense of uneasiness at the lower end of the breast 
bone, and difficulty of breathing, which is much increased 


by exertion, or by lying down. It is attended with a eough r 
at first dry, but afterwards a thin mucous is spit up; as the 
disease advances, the thirst increases; the complexion be- 
comes sallow; the feet and legs swell; the urine is voided 
in small quantities, high colored, and deposites a red sedi- 
ment. The face and extremities become cold, the pulse 
feeble, and irregular; the sleep is much disturbed, frequent 
palpitations of the heart; a. numbness extends from the 
beart towards one, and sometimes, both shoulders; the 
difficulty of breathing continues to increase until death 
ends the patient's sufferings. Hydrocephalus, or Dropsy 
of the Brain, is a disease common to children, and will be 
spoken of under the proper head. 

Treatment. — Cleanse the bowels with anti-billious pills,, 
or some other purge. After the bowels are well cleansed,, 
the patient should take the diuretic pill night and morn- 
ing, three for a dose, or more if the constitution of the pa- 
tient requires it; also drink bitters by putting a table spoons- 
ful of steeldust, and about four ounces of vervine root, in- 
to a half gallon of good spirits; of these bitters the patient 
should drink three or four times a day what the stomach 
will bear. 

Another Remedy. — After the bowels have been cleans- 
ed as above directed, le* the patient drink freely of cold wa- 
ter off of the root of Ah-squah-na-ta-quah. This herb is 
fully described in materia medica, and is an infallible re- 
medy for Dropsy; the root should be bruized before it is put 
into the water, about a half ounce of the root to a quart, 
the water may be renewed until the strength is all extrac- 
ted. There are no disagreeable consequences whatever 
produced by the use of this root. 

The Chalybeat pill, taken night and morning after the 
bowels have been cleansed, will effect a cure in most cas- 
ses. A Dose in this case is one pill about the size of a 
summer grape. 

Diets must in all cases of Dropsy be of the lightest 
and simplest kind. When the patient begins to recover 
from Dropsy, the appetite in most cases becomes voracious 
and almost insupportable, and if the patient is permitted to 
indulge it, to effect a cure will be found impossible. Wa- 
ter gruel, rye mush and butter milk or something of thy 
kind is the safest nourishment I have ever tried in cases 
of this kind. 


After the patient is freed irom the water, extreme de- 
bility usually takes place. At this stage of the disease, 
the patient should continue whichever of the above treat- 
ments may h*.,ve been adopted, and additionally use wine 
and a decoction of wild cherry-tree bark, or a decoction 
of Columbo root, or any other stimulant or tonic that may 
be most convenient. 

Dr. Gunn believes Dropsy to be an inflammatory disease 
and recommends bleeding freely, but goes on to speak 
highly of the advantages that have been derived from 
herbs of our own country, in this as well as other diseases. 
I quote the following from this author: "The following 
cures, which I shall notice, in the words of an experienced 
and distinguished physician, give evidence of the correct- 
ness of some of my introductory remarks, among which are 
the following: The discoveries of each succeeding day 
convinces, that the Almighty has graciously furnished man 
with the means of curing his own diseases, and there is 
scarcely a day, month or vear which does not exhibit to us 
the surprising cures made by roots, herbs and simples, 
found in our own vegetable kingdom, when all foreign ar- 
ticles have utterly failed. The truth is, that the wise and 
beneficent Creator of the Universe, has made nothing in 
vain; and the time will come, when the apparently most 
useless and noxious plants, will be found eminently useful 
in the cure of diseases, which have hitherto baffled the 
profound skill, and most powerful energies of genius." — 
The following are the words of the author just alluded to: 
"I am knowing to two extremely distressing cases of Drop- 
sy entirely relieved by means of the bark of common El- 
der. One a woman advanced in age, in the last stages of 
this disease, who lost a brother some short time previous, 
by the same complaint. The other a young woman, who 
had been for eighteen months confined to her bed, during 
four of which she was unable to lie down, and who is now 
wholy free from Dropsy, and recovering strength in a 
most surprising and unexpected manner. This young 
lady used the elder-barked-wine, at the instance of one of 
the most distinguished physicians of Boston, who had pre- 
viously tried every known prescription without success, 
and the use of the elder bark entirely cured her. A great 
many other cases, less aggravated, have been cured bv 
this bark. I have used it myself with unusual success, 


and its immediate adoption by the afflicted, is truly im- 
portant and deserving attention. The receipt is as follows: 
Take two handfuls of the green or inner bark of the white 
common elder, steep it in two quarts of Lisbon wine twen- 
ty-four hours — if this wine cannot be had, Teneriff or Ma- 
deria, will answer; take a gill every morning, fasting, or 
mole if it can be borne on the stomach." 

We have never tried the above preparation of elder bark 
in wine, but having witnessed similar effects produced by 
the free use of the tea and decoction of this bark, we are 
bound to place lull conlidence in the above statements, 
and earnestly recommend its use to those who may be af- 
flicted with this truly distressing complaint. 

Diets should consist of gruel, a little milk and mush, or 
something: of a similar nature. 


Symptoms — Are flatulency, defective appetite, palpita- 
tions of the heart, painful distention of the stomach and 
bowels. The last named symptoms greatly increased by 
eating a hearty meal or drinking spirituous liquors. This 
disease also extends its pernicious influence to the mind, 
which often becomes desponding and irritable, and the 
poor sufferer exhibits a peculiar anxiety of countenance. 
The sleep becomes disturbed and the urine high colored. 

Causes. — This disease originates in a great variety of 
causes. It arises in a great many instances, from a dis- 
eased state of the Liver as may be fully seen under that 
head. This lingering and painfully distressing malady is 
seldom to be met with among the Indians, owing, we sup- 
pose to the great simplicity of their diet, and the liberal ex- 
ercise which they so generally take in the hunt, the chase, 
&c; and the little use made by them of mercury in any 
form, or of strong minerals of any kind. This disease, on 
the contrary, appears to increase yearly among the whites. 
It seems to be a scourge upon the more refined portion of 
the human species, and one which refinement with all it* 
charms, utterly fails to render agreeable, or in any respect 
desirable. It is to be found among all ranks and sexes; 
but when we meet with an individual who is afflicted with 
this torturing malady, and examine 'into his or her past 
life, the cause is generally obvious. An excessive use of 


•spirituous liquors of any kind, of tobacco, mercurial pre- 
parations, and other poisonous mineral substances used 
for medicines — improper diet, whether in kind or quality, 
inactivity of body, intense study, uneasiness, anxiety or 
grief, are all calculated in their nature to produce this 
painful disease. Dr. Carter, when speaking of the stom- 
ach, says. "It may be considered the great labratory or 
chemical workshop of the living power — where chemical 
operations upon our food and drink, are regularly perform- 
ed, without effort, toil or study." 

Dr. Carter's statement respecting the stomach, shows 
at once the great necessity of regulating the food and drink 
according to the strength of this "chemical workshop." — 
The usual practice of over loading the stomach with high- 
seasoned, indigestible food, and a too free use of ardent 
spirits, injures its tone, and renders it incapable of per- 
forming its functions in a healthy manner. If Indigestion 
arises from a diseased state of the liver, there Will also be 
felt a dead, heavy pain in the right side, also in the shoul- 
der, and back of tire neck. The urine on being deposited 
in a urinal or pot, will have in the bottom when cool, a 
reddish colored seddiment. The complection will become 
of a tawny or yellowish hue. The feet and hands, when 
held in one position, for a short time wiil become asleep 
for want of a free circulation of the blood. Great uneasi- 
ness will be felt throughout the whole system, and it is 
sometimes attended with vomiting. When these lasi: 
named symptoms occur, you must refer to the proper 
treatment of the disease of the liver, &c. 

Treatment. — For common Dyspepsy, the patient must 
first sum up all the resolution which it is in his power to 
command, in order to regulate his diet with that ngidness, 
which is indispensably necessary, where a, cure is to be 
sought for in this disease — the diet must be simple, such 
as gruel, a little rice prepared in clear water, and salted 
.just sufficient to make it palatable, a cracker with a glass 
of spring water, or some similar food. It must be takesi 
frequently and in small quantities, as fasting too long does 
great injury in Dyspepsy, which injury is much increased 
'by the common practice of over-loading the stomach after 
long 'fasting. The use of animal food must be entirely 
^abandoned if the suffered "wishes to obtain relief. To be 


alternately loading the stomach with purges, animal food,, 
and spirituous liquors, is onl^ adding fuel to fire, and will 
ultimately end in the death of the patient if persisted in. 
The patient should first take &, purge, anti-billious pills 
will be most suitable. These should be taken on going to, 
bed — the number for a dose refer to that head — if they 
should not operate by; morning they should be aided hj 
half a dose of the same pills or by castor oil. After the 
bowels have. been cleansed in the above manner, take a 
portion of the anti-dyspeptic syrup or hepatic pills morning 
and night. For directions how to prepare either of the 
above named medicines look under their different heads. 
"While using the anti-dyspeptic syrup or hepatic pill, you 
.should also use a mixture or syrup made by taking a strong 
decoction of the- inside bark of white hickory, one pint 
well strained, to which add an equal quantity of soot, a 
pint or more of honey, of this mixture take a tea spoonful 
morning and night. A free use of charcoal, taken in wa- 
ter or otherwise, will be found of great benefit. I?or di- 
rections for preparing charcoal refer to that head. Du- 
ring the above course, the patient should-. take, moderate 
exercise in the open air, if the strength will allow, and be 
very careful to avoid any thing either in eating or drink- 
ing, that will produce aggravation of the symptoms. The 
bowels, if they become costive, (which however is not apt 
to be the case while using the anti-dyspeptic syrup or 
hepatic pills,) must be regulated by the use of mild and 
cooling clysters. When the stomach and bowels have 
been kept free from irritation for a, lenght of time by the 
above treatment; when the sleep becomes tranquil; the 
spirits revived, and the tongue assumes a clear and heal- 
thy appearance^ a little mutton ojr beef soup may be- taken, 
or chicken well boiled and the soup thickened with a little 
Hour. If this diet should produce an uneasiness in the 
stomach or bowels, the quantity taken should be dimin- 
ished,andif it still aggravates the symptoms, its use must, 
be entirely discontinued, and recourse must again be bad 
to the former simple dish — gruels, &c. But if the stomach 
will bear light meals of the above soups, the quantity may 
be gradually increased, but it must be done with great 

1 have known several persons relievecbof this distress- 
ing complaint by the following simple remedy, after othe.r 


remedies had been tried and had failed: Take of cob ash- 
es, steel dust, and common salts-,, of each a table spoonful, 
.mix them well together,, and add a sufficient quantity of 
honey to together. Take of this mix- 
ture what will make three common sized' pills morning 
and night, and noon if the stomach will bear it.. At the 
same time take charcoal in water, prepared as directed 
under that head, and regulate the diet as before directed. 
I have known this to cure two cases of dyspepsy after the 
prescriptions of a physician in high standing had been 
tried and failed. 



Symptoms. — A constant desire to go to stool without be- 
ing able to pass much of any thing from the bowels, ex- 
cept a bloody kind of mucous. These desires to go to stool 
are usually accompanied with severe griping, and also 
with some fever; as this disease advances, the stools will 
consist of pure blood and matter mixed; and from severe 
straining to evacuate, part of the bowels will frequently 
protrude or come out, which soon becomes a source of 
great suffering, it is also attended in many instances with 
dullness, loss of strength j, a quick pulse, great thirst, and 
an inclination, to vomit. 

Causes. — Dysentary or Flux is generally most preva- 
lent in the latter part of Summer and in the Fall, though 
it frequently occurs in other seasons of the year. A long 
drought followed by cold rains is apt to predispose the sys- 
lem to an attack of this disease. It is also produced by 
sudden suppression or stoppage of perspiration, which de- 
termine the fluids to the intestines; by eating unripe fruits; 
unwholesome, putrid food; and by breathing noxious va- 
pors. Some writers say it is a contagious or catching dis- 
ease, while others say it is not;, be this as it may, it often 
attacks whole neighborhoods or towns at the same time; 
but it looks reasonable that the same general causes which 
produce it in a town, neighborhood or section of country, 
render all,, whose modes of life and systems are in similar 
conditions, subject to it. This disease is more common in 
warm climates than in cold ones, and in rainy seasons 
than in dry ones. When it attacks persons of feeble con- 
stitutions or those laboring under scurvy, consumption &c. 


it generally proves fatal. Grert debility, voilent fever,, 
cold clammy sweats, hickups, dark colored spots on the 
skin, coldness of the extremities, and a feeble irregular 
pulse, are symptoms of a fatal termination. This disease 
should be taken in its earliest stages, at which time it is 
easy to be subdued by the use of the proper remedies, but 
if suffered to run on it is sometimes extremely difficult to 

Treatment. — Taka a handful of each of the following 
barks, red-bud horn-beam, (commonly called iron wood,) 
red-elm, sweet-gum and black-gum; also, a handful of 
yellow root and iron- weed root, make a strong decoction 
of Ihese articles, and let the patient drink of it freely, a 
purge of the anti-billious pills should be taken to work off' 
the acrid contents of the bowels. Another very valuable 
drink for this disease, may be made from the inside bark 
of swamp white-oak — take one pound of this bark, 
pound it well and put it into a half gallon of cold 
water. This is an excellent drink to cool and heal the 
bowels. If the belly be hard and sore to the touch, grease 
it well with any kind of oil or lard, or apply poultices of 
catnip to it. Injections of peach-tree gum or cherry-tree 
gum, made by dissolving the gum in water until it forms 
a mucilage to which may be added forty or fifty drops of 
laudanum for grown persons, and less for children, will 
aid in allaying the irritation of the bowels — the injections 
should be used cold. Castor oil combined with Bateman's 
drops, paragoric or laudanum may be used to advantage 
in this complaint — for a dose refer to the table of medicines; 
ior a full description of all the above barks and roots refer 
to their different heads. The drinks during this com- 
plaint must be of the mildest kind, such as slippery-elm 
tea, flaxseed tea, &c, and diet of the lightest kind, such as 
light soups, jellies, new milk thickened with flour, all kinds 
of fruit must be avoided. 

I have known many cases of this disorder, among chil- 
dren, cured by the free use of a tea of vervine root, which 
grows in such abundance about our yards. On recover- 
ing from an attack of this disease, great care should be la- 
ken to avoid exposure, for fear of a relapse, which is gen- 
erally very easy brought on by exposure, violent exercise 
or improper food. 


DIARRHCE or LAX. — (Tsu-ne-squah-lah-tee) 

This disease is characterized by frequent and copious 
discharges from the bowels, unattended with fever, and 
has not the appearance of a contagious or catching dis- 
ease as is the case with flux. It generally prevails among 
persons of weekly constitutions; persons advanced in years 
and those who have lived intemperately. Many are sub- 
ject to its attacks from the slightest cold or exposure, which 
&t all affects the bowels; and others are naturally and con- 
stitutionally of this habit of body. The appearance of the 
stools in this disease are very different at different times, 
depending in a great measure on the food and the manner 
in which it agrees or disagrees with the stomach and bow- 
els.' This disease is very often produced by worms. 

Treatment. — When this disease has been brought on bj* 
■colds, or sudden stoppage of perspiration or sweat, use the 
warm bath and drink freely of some diaphoretic tea, to 
produce a determination to the surface, (or gentle moisture 
of the skin,) paragoric or Bateman's drops may be used 
with the tea — for a dose see table of medicines. "Where 
this disease is constitutional it frequently continues through 
life, if not relieved by medicines. Such persons should be 
particular as to what kind of diet they eat, and strict!}' a- 
void everything that disagrees with their stomach or bow- 
els; they should guard against damp feet, damp ground, 
<fec, they should make daily use of bitters, composed of 
.swamp white-oak inner bark, red dog-wood inner bark, 
swect-fi-um and cinnamon bark digested in old French 
brandy; in violent attacks the decoction recommended for 
flux should be taken until the violence of the symptoms.a- 
bates. Slippery-elm bark or the root of common comfrey 
forms an excellent drink in this complaint. Injections of 
the same are also good. Where this disease is lingering 
and is attended with great debility, a raw egg taken of a 
morning on a fasting stomach will be found ofgreat bene- 
fit. It should be taken in fresh spring water. In many 
instances a tea of flaxseed, slippery-eim, comfrey or ver- 
vine will entirely relieve it in a short time. When worms 
are supposed to be the cause of this disease in which case 
the breath will have a very foetid or offensive smell, treat 
the complaint for worms — see under that head. 




This complaint is sometimes hereditary, that is, it run* 
in families, and all ages and sexes are liable to it. There 
are two kinds of Piles originating from the same causes, 
and are distinguished as the bloody and Mind Piles. The 
Piles are small swelled tumors, usually situated on the 
edge of the fundament; where these tumors break and dis- 
charge blood, the disease is called bloogjy Piles; but when 
the. tumors discharge no blood, they are called blind Piles. 
There is usually a sense of weight in the back and lower 
part of the belly, giddiness in the head, sickness of the sto- 
mach, flatulency in the bowels and generally fever. Se- 
vere pain is experienced on going to stool, and small tu- 
mors may be felt projecting beyond the verge of the fun- 
dament; when these tumors break and 'discharge blood, 
the sufferer experiences intervals of ease; but when they 
do not break great agony is experienced during every mo- 
tion, and great inconvenienceis experienced in sitting down 
on a hard seat. In some cases, the lower end of the gut 
protrudes, (which means to come down) the length of two 
or three inches every time the patient goes to stool, and 
looks very raw and tender; this last case mostly occurs m 
children of weakly habits. 

Causes.— Piles may bo occasioned by continued or ha- 
bitual costiveness, by frequent drastic purges of aloes, by 
riding a great deal on horse-back in hot weather, by ex- 
cessive drinking, exposure to cold, suppression of some ac- 
customed evacuation, and by the pressure of the womb on .; 
the rectum, when in a state of pregnancy. . 

Treatment. — Cold water is certainly one of the best ap- 
plications that can be made either for a preventative or 
cure for this complaint. I do not believe that any person 
will be afflicted much with either bloody or blind Piles, 
who will bathe the fundament daily in cold water, say 
twice a day. I have known several persons relieve them- 
selves of this painful disorder by this simple application. 
But I will proceed to give other remedies for the benefit 
of those who may prefer a cure not q'liite so simple, and 
one that will require rather more trouble than the former. 
Let the patient drink freely of a strong tea of yellow root. 
For a description of this root, look under that head. For 
an ointment, take mullen leaves, pound them fine and stew 


'or fry them in fresh butter until the strength is extracted, 
then strain it through a cloth; with this ointment annoint 
the rectum or gut when it protrudes or makes its appear- 
ance. Persons who are much afflicted with Piles of either 
kind, will derive much benefit from sitting on a stool or 
bench of green white-oak, a portion of each day; it should 
be made as warm as can be borne previous to each time 
of being used. Many persons are troubled with violent 
and sudden attacks ot this disease, having at times but a 
very few minutes warning, until the pain is almost insup- 
portable. In this case, the patient may obtain immediate 
relief by applying cloths wrung out of water or vinegar as 
hot as can be borne to the fundament: flannel cloths would 
be preferred, they should be changed every few minutes, 
keeping a fresh or warm one to the parts until relief is ob- 
tained. A salve made from the leaves, seeds or roots of 
the Jimson or Jamestown weed, and applied as an oint- 
ment, is a speedy and certain remedy. The mode of pre- 
paring it is as fallows: Take the leaves, •'Seeds or roots of 
this plant, bruise them well and stew them in fresh butter 
until the strength is extracted, then strain and cool for use, 
with this salve annoint the fundament frequently. A de- 
coction of any part of this plant is also valuable when ap- 
plied to the fundament by means of woolen cloths. I have 
known several children severely afflicted with this painful 
complaint, which was produced by extreme weakness; in 
this case 1 use tonic medicines, such as wild cherry-tree 
syrup or dog-wood or poplar bark syrup, and bathe the 
child once or twice a day in a strong decoction of dog- 
wood and red-oak bark. After each stool the fundament; 
should be anointed with the Jamestown weed (Jimson) 
ointment or clean hogs lard. In all cases of Piles, the 
bowels should be kept open by the use of very mild ca- 
thartics. I prefer the use of equal quantities of cream of 
tartar and finely powdered sulphur, taken in sufficient; 
quantity to keep the bowels gently open. All persons that 
are addicted to Piles, should live on light and cooling diets, 
take moderate exercise, and bathe tfee fundament fre- 
quently in -cold water as above directed. 



This disease usually attacks with sickness at the stom- 


aoh, pain, flatulence, and severe pain or griping in the-; 
bowels. These symptoms are soon succeeded by heat, 
thirst, quickness of breathing, with a quick fluttering pulse 
and violent puking and purging. When the extremities- 
become cold, the perspiration or sweat cold and clammy. 
the pulse irregular and changing, accompanied with 
cramp and hickuping, the case may be considered very 
dangerous and will soon terminate in death if relief is not 
obtained. It is generally too late at this stage to apply 
for medical aid. 

This disease may be produced by an excess of bile — by 
the food becoming rancid or acid on the stomach — by sad- 
den check of perspiration, or by a sudden stoppage of the 
menstrual discharge. It is produced in some instan- 
ces by breathing damp air; by being exposed to inclement 
weather; by getting the feet wet, &c; but in most instan- 
ces it is occasioned by eating such food as disagrees with 
the stomach and bowels. Many very different modes of 
treatment are on record among the whites for this distress- 
ing complaint — some recommends a puke, others a purge,. 
blistering, &c: and some have even recommended scald- 
ing the stomach, where death is so near as not to allow 
time to draw a blister with Spanish flies in the common 
way. "I have," says Dr. Foreman, "although an Indian,, 
been a personal observer of their different modes of treat- 
ment, and the little success which generally attended it, I 
have never experienced any difficulty of consequence in 
arresting this disease, when called upon in any reasonable 
time, and that too with very simple means. Instead of 
punishing the stomach, which is already tortured with 
agitation, by giving an emetic, m} first step is to tran- 
quilize or quiet it." 

Treatment. — First give a tea of the Cholera Robus root, 
which will soon stop the puking. This root or plant is 
railed !>y the Indians or Natives, Sah-lio-ne-ga-trc-kec, "but 
I have," says Dr. Foreman, "always called it by the name 
of Cholera Morbus root, when speaking of it to the whites, 
as this name came nearest conveying a correct idea of its 
medical qualities. I have never seen the whites use it 
except when directed to do so by the natives, and if they 
have any other name for it I do not know it." A full des- 
cription of this plant may be seen under its proper head. 
When the violence of the puking has measurably subsided. 


from the use of the above named tea, it will be necessary 
to clense the stomach and bowels. For this pappose take 
a pnrge of anti-billious or gulver pills, or some active ca- 
thartic. For the mode of preparing these pills, refer to 
their different heads. If the extremities become cold, 
bathe the feet in warm water, and apply plasters of ground 
mustard seed to the feet, ankles and wrists. After the 
puking and purging has abated, if the patient should be- 
come very weak, stimulate him with weak toddy, give 
nourishing diet and such as the stomach will easily digest. 
The rapidity with which this disease proceeds, requires the. 
remedies to be promptly applied, For the disease is, gene- 
rally speaking, highly dangerous, and soon terminates fa- 
tally, unless relief is speedily obtained. In cold climates 
this disease is most prevalent in the latter part of summer 
and beginning of fall, when there are sudden transitions 
from heat to cold; but in warm climates it occurs at all 
seasons. Persons who are subject to this sudden and dan- 
gerous complaint, should be very cautious as to what kind 
of food they indulge in: and should be very particular in 
avoiding the causes which produce it — for, by indulging the 
appetite and by exposure to the causes which produce it, 
the disease may return w r ith redoubled violence and danger.. 

SCROFULA OR KINGS-EVIL.— (Oo-nMer-oo-tah-nct:) 

Symptoms. — Small tumors appear behind the ears: under 
the chin the}' also make their appearance, in some instan- 
ces about the joints of the elbows, ankles, lingers and toes; 
rarely on ether parts of the body. As these tumors grow 
larger, the skin which covers them, becomes of a purple 
or livid hue, with inflammatory symptoms; at length they 
break and become ulcers, from which is discharged a 
white matter 1 somewhat resembling curdled milk. Young 
persons are most liable to become the victims of ibis dis- 
ease. It is said by some writers, that "true Scrofula never 
makes its appearance after the age of thirty, unless it has 
shown itself in some shape before/' It is caused by a taint 
or constitutional weakness in parents; or from cold, strains, 
bruises, &c. Children of lax fibers, with smooth soft skin, 
fair hair anddelicafe complexion, are more liable toattacks. 
of this complaint than those of a different character. 

Treatment. — The existence of this complaint in any per- 
son, is a plain indication of a corrupt, morbid state of the- 


fluids of the body. It must therefore be obvious, that th£ 
proper mode of treatment will be, first to correct and pu- 
rify the fluids, this will prevent in a great degree the for- 
"mation of other tumors, and aid external remedies in ef- 
fecting a cure of those already formed. No strong active 
medicines of any kind should be used in this disease. The 
bowels should be kept regulated by the use of mild cathar- 
tics, such as rhubarb and sulphur, equal quantities com- 
bined, taken daily in a sufficient quantity to produce from 
two to three stools a day. Dr. Wright recommends a tea 
spoonful of common salt taken in water every morning for 
this purpose. If the disease is attended with great debility, 
a chalybeate pill may be taken night and morning — or 
take a decoction of burdock-root, sarsaparilla and wild 
cucumber once or twice a day, say a gill twice a day for 
an adult: by these means the morbid matter may be thrown 
t)ff, the fluids corrected and a healthy and vigorous action 
imparted to the system. Wash the tumors with casteel 
soapsuds, and then anoint them with cedar oil, then apply 
the powders of ever-green plantain. When the ulcer is 
deep, you should use some stimulating wash after the 
soapsuds — such as a decoction of bayberry, wild lettuce, 
dewberry, brier-root, witch hazle, beach-bark or leaves, 
or spice- wood, after which apply the oil and powders. — 
The tumors should be dressed in the above manner every 
twelve hours. When the inflammation ceases, the use of 
the powders may be discontinued and healing salve ap- 
plied in its stead. Before the tumor breaks, an ointment 
teiadq b} r stewing together two-thirds fresh butter to one- 
Ihird cedar oil will answer much better than cedar oil 
used alone. The diet and drink should be of a light and 
coding nature, such as good light bread with tea, coffee 
or'miik, soup of the flesh of young animals well prepared, 
with an occasional glass of wine. Moderate exercise 
should be regularly taken. Cold and damp should be par- 
ticularly guarded against. This disease often afflicts per- 
sons for years, the ulcers extend to the bone, and a very 
offensive matter is discharged. For ulcers of this last 
kind, in addition to the above treatment, look under the 
following head — Ulcers — for additional remedies. 

ULCERS.— ( Ya h- nah-wa-skur.) 
By Ulcers, is commonly understood an old running sore, 


and it is in this sense that We here use this term. Some- 
times caused by slight wounds or bruises. At other times 
they appear to be constitutional or a hereditary disease in 
connexion with a scrofulous habit. These latter 'are gene- 
rally tedious and slow to heal. 

Treatment. — The ulcer should first be well washed 
with casteel soap suds, next bath 3 the part in a strong de- 
coction of beach bark or leaves, after the part is well 
bathed, dry it perfectly dry -and anoint it with cedar oil, 
and apply a poultice made b} r thickening rye meal or 
wheat bran in a strong decoction of black-oak bark, the 
face of the poultice should be smeared with a little cream 
or lard to prevent it from sticking. If this treatment 
should not allay the fever and reduce the swelling in a 
few days, apply a poultice of pel k-root and may-apple root, 
boiled to a strong decoction, thickened aud applied as 
above; this last, poultice is to draw out any offensive mat- 
ter that may be lurking at the bone, and must be con- 
tinued until the inflammation subsides — after the fever 
abates, the black-oak poultice may be re-applied during 
the whole time, the wound must be regularly washed, 
bathed and anointed as above directed, every twelve hours. 
The patient should occasionally cleanse the bowels with 
anti-billious pills, or some other cathartic, and make a 
constant use of a decoction of white sarsaparilla and wild 
mercury to cleanse and purity the blood, The sarsapa- 
rilla and wild mercury may be taken in powders or pills 
if prepared. The diet should be light and nourishing, 
every thing of a stimulating or heating nature must be 
avoided, particularly ardent spirits. Charcoal applied by 
sprinkling it on the poultice, will cleanse or purify the 
sores and prevent them from having a disagreeable smelk 
A salve made of Jamestown weed (Jimsonj is very ^ood 
for tedious ulcers, as^salso a salve of alder-bark. 

CANCER.— [Ok-iah.-yeh-sku.'] 

The term Cancer has been applied indiscriminately to 
all eating, spreading ulcers; of a virulent kind. Of tho 
cancerous ulcer, there appears to be several kinds; but; 
the medical profession have reserved the term cancer lor 
the most malignant and incurable kind. The appearance 
of the real Cancer is as follows: It Commences with a 
small inflamed pimple or lutnip "of a bluish color, which 


becomes a sore with hard rising edges of a ragged appear- 
ance. On close examination of the sore, you will discov- 
er two whitish lines, crossing from the centre to the edge 
of the sore. At first a burning sensation is felt in the sore, 
which is accompanied as the disease advances with sharp, 
shooting pains. After some time these pains subside and 
the cancer discharges a very offensive matter; this dis- 
charge gradually increases and the matter communicating 
to the adjoining parts, finally forms a large offensive sore 
or ulcer, of a most dreadful and exhausting nature, always 
terminating (unless cured) in a lingering, painful and hor- 
rible death. 

Cancers are usually seated in some gland, but are some- 
times seated in some other part. They generally make 
their appearance about the lips, the nose and breasts, but 
sometimes on other parts of the body. Those who are ad- 
vanced in life, are much more subject to cancerous affec- 
tions than young persons, particularly if they have scrofu- 
lous constitutions, which have descended to them from 
their parents. 

Treatment. — First wash the cancer with easteel soap- 
suds, next bathe it well with a strong decoction of red-root, 
then apply a salve made as follows: Take of heart-leaf- 
root well pulverized, sheep suet and pine rozin. equal 
quantities and a smaller quantity of beeswax, slew them 
over a slow fire until the strength of the heart-leaf-root is 
extracted, then strain for use. The cancer should be wash- 
ed bathed and dressed in the above manner every twelve 
hours; but some attentiori should be paid to the general 
healih of the patient, or ail the externa! applications'may 
fail to effect, a cure. The bowels should be kept regular 
by the use of the anti-biliious pills, or some other cathar- 
tic. The patient should drink bitters to cleanse and puri- 
fy the blood, such as sarsapariila, wild mercury, or some 
similar: bitters, and make a free and general use of sassa- 
fras tea. The diet mast be light, such as ricr>, chicken, 
squirrel, or vcniuoti, cooked in their own oil alone, and 
salted just enough to make them palatable; strong diet 
of all kinds should be avoided. This disease requires 
time and perseverance, but I have never known the above 
course fail to effect a cure, when properly attended to, says 
JUr. Foreman. 

Another mode of treatment. — Take the green switch of 


yellow-root, and the moss out of the river, burn them into 
ashes, then take hogs lard, or mutton tallow, and mix with 
the ashes and apply it in the form of a plaster to the can- 
cer. In the first stage of this disease, narrow-doc-root 
bruized and steeped in vinegar, is a good application. 

SORE LEGS— [Oh- nz-k-sco-hah.) 

Sore Legs frequently arise from neglected bruises, cuts, 
&c. It sometimes runs in families tor several generations. 
When it runs in families, it is generally such families as 
are addicted to scrofula, scurvy and similar diseases. — 
This disease bears so close a resemblance to scrofula, and 
the treatment for it is so near the same as the treatment 
for that disease and ulcers, that it would be useless to write 
much on the subject. But as I am personally acquainted 
with several persons, who have been afflicted with sore 
legs for a number of years, I think it probable that they 
will more readily find and understand the mode of treat- 
ment if laid down under its proper head. 

Treatment. — Where sore legs are of long standing, the 
general health of the patient must be attended to. First, 
give a dose of antibillious pills to cleanse the stomach and 
bowels and next let the patient make a constant and free 
use of a decoction of sarsaparilla and wild mercur)^, or 
some other articles to cleanse and purify the blood and in- 
crease the general tone and strength of the system. Wash 
the leg well with casteel soap, and bathe it in a strong de- 
cociion of beach-bark or leaves, next anoint it with cedar 
oil, as directed for Ulcer. It should be poulticed as direc- 
ted for ulcer; if the smell be very offensive sprinkle char- 
coal over the poultice. The leg should be dressed in the 
above, manner every twelve hours. The patient should 
take moderate exercise, but spend the greater portion of 
his time lying, as this will give the affected part greater 
ease. A salve of the root of swamp-doc forms an excel- 
lent application to old ulcers, and a strong decoction of the 
same forms a good wash for tedious ulcers. Diets must 
be light, such as are recommended for scrofula and ulcers. 
The use of ardent spirits must not be indulged in, if the 
patient wishes his limb restored to health, for all remedies 
will fail where this poison is taken even ia moderate 


WHITE SWELLING.— {Colah-te-coh-nu-gfl-gee.) 

Different writers give various and even contradictory 
accounts of this most painful disease. They attempt en- 
tertaining ths reader with accounts of several kinds of 
White Swelling, which are distinguished according to the 
&eat of the disorder. All this 1 believe to be unnecessary 
m this work, as I offer but one remedy. I therefore make 
but two directions in White Swelling, viz: The inflamma- 
tory or first stage and the chronic or second or last stage. 
There is no disease to which the human family is liable, 
that has hitherto inflicted more severe and lasting misery,, 
than White Swelling. It has baffled the skill of the most 
eminent physicians, and rendered hundreds oi children of 
the finest constitutions and greatest activity cripples for 
life. Dr. Wright, a physician,, who has been successful 
in treating this disease, speaks of it in the following words: 
"If the patient survives the severity of the first assault, he 
may for many years drag out a painful and miserable ex- 
istence, his masecrated body filled, with sores from the 
crown of the head to the sole of the feet, and his sufferings 
so protracted, violent and agonizing,/that when he dies, as 
he will of a hectic fever, his friends and relations, and 
even parents, feel comfort in the thought that death has 
relieved him from his miseries, and willingly consign to 
the tomb the mortal remains of the unhappy victim." 

Male children of the most active life and best health, 
from three or four to fifteen* or twenty years of age, are 
most, subject to White Swellings.,,, but both sexes may be 
afflicted with it from a few months old to twenty-five 
years old; after which age, I have never known a case to 
occur. Some physicians believe that all White Swellings 
are caused by cold. 1 am of the opinion that very many 
causes of this disease are occasioned by cold, but I think 
that the number occasioned by bruises are equally great. 

It generally makes its attack after being overheated by 
violent exercise and cooling suddenly. This disease is 
-seated on the surface of the bone, and in the periorteumor 
membrane which covers the bone. Although this painful 
disease has baffled the skill of the most eminent physicians 
for centuries past, unless taken at the very commence- 
ment of the disease, before it could be fully known whether 
it was White Swelling or not, yet a simple, easy, and cer- 
tain remedy abounds in our own native forest. For the 


discovery of this remedy we are indebted to , the Cherokee 
Indians. It has already relieved hundreds. of this tortur-; 
ing and painful disease, and restored, them to a state of 
health and activity. It has never failed in their (the 
Cherokees) hands to give general relief in a short time.— ^ 
I,t has been tried by myself in cases where the regular andi 
botanic physician had each a fair trial, and had failed. — 
Cherokee remedies had the desired effect. And I feel no 
hesitation in saying from personal experience, that their 
mode of treatment will relieve White Swelling at any 
stage, if perseveringly attended to. 

Symptoms. — Sometimes the first symptom is a violent 
pain in the part affected, the pain continues for several 
days before the patient has signs of fever, the pain increas- 
es, in some instances it is of a whitish and in others of a 
reddish or flesh color — as the disease increases the patient 
becomes feverish with loss of appetite, great thirst, and 
flushed face — at other times it makes its attacks with more 
violence, (immediately after being over-heated, and cool- 
ing suddenly) with the appearance of inflammatory fever, 
which if left to itself, in a' few days settles on some part of 
the limb; the part swells rapidly,, with violent pain, and in 
this case it frequently has. a high, red color, although it is 
called lohite swelling;. 

Treatment. — First steam the affected part well with 
spice-wood, this should be done as follows: Boil the twigs 
of spice-wood to a strong decoction, and place the vessel 
under the afflicted part, covering the limb at the same- 
lime to prevent the steam from escaping, let it remain un- 
til it is properly steamed; next anoint it with cedar oil and 
bathe it in with ahpt iron or shovel. If it is in the first or 
forming stage, after it is steamed and anointed, apply a 
poultice made of pole-cat or cat-paw bark, this bark is to 
be boiled to a strong decoction, and the decoction thick- 
ened with rye meal or wheat bran. This poultice is to 
scatter or drive back the disease, which it will do in a few 
days if matter is not already formed at the bone; where 
matter bets formed at the bone the disease must come to a 
head — -In this case steam and anoint it as above directed, 
and apply a poultice made of. one-third poke-root to two- 
thirds buckeye-root, (the bark off the roots is the part used) 
they are to be boiled, thickened and applied, as directed 
for the ca,t-paw or pole cat poultice. When it is sufficient- 


ly ripe, lance it deep and continue the poke and buckeye 
poultice until a copious discharge is produced; if this 
poultice should give much pain it may be changed for one 
made by boiling the root of highland ferin and thickening 
it as directed for the above poultices; but whenever the in- 
flammation increases, and the part swells, the poke and 
buckeye poultice must be applied for a time. After the 
inflammation has subsided the cat-paw poultice may be 
applied. The affected part must be regularly steamed, a- 
nointed and pulticed every twelve hours. Cases of long 
standing will require more time to effect a cure than those 
of short duration; but the above treatment will cure, let. 
the case be of as long standing as it may, if properly and 
persevering!} 7 attended to. 

FELON or WHITLOW— (Oo-ne-scoh-kupee.) 

Felon is an inflammation of the finger or thumb, and 
generally confines itself to the first joint. This disease 
bears so strong a likeness to white swelling that I am con- 
strained to believe that it is one and the same disease, for 
Fellon like white swelling, evidently has its seat on the 
•surface of the bone, or in the periosteum wdiich covers the 
bone, it is attended with the most exquisite pain; this pain 
continues, in some instances, for several days before the 
color or appearance of the affected thumb or finger is ma- 
terially changed — but if the disease is not checked, the af- 
fected part will put on a glossy or shiny appearance. I 
have known this torturing malady to prevent the sufferer 
from sleeping, for one, two and even three weeks in suc- 
cession, during which time the part was regularly atten- 
ded to in the usual manner with warm poultices, &c. 

Treatment. — On the first appearance of the Felon, the 
-circulation should be prevented in the affected part by 
means of tape or similar binding; the affected thumb or 
finger should be pressed gently between the thumb and 
fore finger, then wind the tape tightly around it commen- 
cing at the extremity and winding upwards towards the 
hand. This bandage should remain until a cure is affec- 
ted. If the bandage should increase the pain so that it 
cannot be born, it should be gradually loosened until it can 
be borne; but as immediate ease is** a blessing which the 
great Author of our being seems to have denied in this top" 
during little plague, it is hoped thafc$ome patience will he 


exercised with regard to the bandage, it may be taken off 
once in twenty-four hours to examine the part, but must 
be replaced immediately. If the Felon is so far advanc- 
ed as to have formed matter, next the bone, an incision 
should be made with a needle or lancet to the bone, and 
the bandage again applied moderately tight, and a poul- 
tice of bitter herbs applied to the incision. Some phy- 
sicians recommend the insertion of vegetable caustic 
to the bottom of the incision. It is likely the 
caustic would render the cure more speedy but it would 
be a very severe application. Where the patient will 
not submit to the above treatment look under the head of 
white swelling for another mode. I have used the black 
poultice with much success in driving back risings of oth- 
er descriptions, and when they were too far advanced to 
be driven back, it causes them to come to a head soonerand 
with much less pain than they would otherwise do. I 
have often thought that this poultice might prove benefi- 
cial in case of Felon, but have never tried it. But cedar 
oil is the "sovereign balm" in all diseases of the bone and 
the membrane which covers it. 

PHTHISIC OR ASTEMA.—(Tse-?iah-icah,ste-skow.) 

This distressing complaint has long been numbered with 
those that could only be mitigated, and not cured; but the 
Cherokees profess to be master of this disease with all its 
wheezing terrors. It is a spasmodic affection of the lungs, 
which mostly qomes on by paroxysms or fits. From in- 
fancy to old age, all sexes are subject to this complaint. 
Many children that have been afflicted with it from a very 
early age appear to outgrow it about the time they arrive 
at the age of puberty. Also at this age manyj persons be- 
come afflicted with it who have never before had it. — 
Where it is not hereditary, it leaves persons at or a little 
after middle age, say 40 or 50. But if it be hereditary, 
and does not go off at the tinje he or she arrives at the 
age of man or woman, it is apt to become more aggrava- 
ted in the decline of life. 

Causes which excite, or bring on a spell or fit, are often 
owing to the peculiar states of the atmosphere. It may 
be too hot or too cold, too dry or too damp, it may contaiii 
too much or too little electricity, for the nature of the dis- 


ease in different persons. When the body is warm and 
sweating, sudden cold is sure to produce it;' sudden chan- 
ges from dry hot to damp cool weather almost invariably 
produce a paroxysm of this disease on those who are ad- 
dicted to it. 

Symptoms. — For several hours, and in some instances 
days, before the fit comes on, you, feel a slight difficulty of 
breathing, a weight and fullness in the breast and stomach, 
bad appetite and sometimes a great craving for food; 
headache, depression of spirits amounting to melancholy,, 
restless feelings accompanied with drowsiness; the fit or 
paroxysm usually comes on of an evening or night, with 
great difficulty in breathing, attended almost to suffoca- 
tion, a wheezing noise is made in breathing, attended by. 
a hard dry cough at first, which gradually diminishes in 
toughness until a white, stringy, tough mucous is dis- 
charged from the throat and mouth, accompanied by a 
gentle moisture of the skin, and in some instances it 
amounts to copious sweating, severe palpitation of the 
heart, fever and sometimes vomiting attend it. 

Treatment.— Take a half pound of garlic, three or four 
pods of red pepper and a table spoonful of common salt, 
pulverize and mix them well together, and take what will 
make two pills morning and night, and a greater quantity 
if the urgency of the ease requires it; but this amount 
should be regularly taken when the patient is apparently 
free from the disease. Secondly, boil sour-wood bark or 
leaves to a strong decoction, then strain the decoction and 
boil it down to the consistency of molasses, then take com-, 
raon brown sugar and heat it in an oven over a slow fire 
until it melts and again becomes dry and lumpy, then add 
them together — proportions, four table spoonfuls of the 
molasses to one pound of sugar, to which add three table 
spoonfuls of sweet or British oil, put it again over a slow 
fire and mix it well together, and bottle for use. Give a 
tea spoonful of this syrup or mixture morning and even- 
ing. This last preparation of itself often effects an entire 
cure, but I prefer using them together as above directed. — 
They should be taken regular even when the patient ap- 
pears to be entirely free from Phthisic. Lobelia is also 
very good for this complaint, either the green or dry herb 
digested in spirits long enough to extract the strength; take 
of this tincture just enough to produce slight nausea, say 


three times a day^his must be continued for a length of 
time after all symptoms of the disease have disappeared. 
Smoking the root or seeds of the Jamestown. (Jimson) weed 
is also very good for Asthma. Persons afflicted with this 
disease suffers very much from extreme weakness and pal- 
pitation of the heart, particularly of a morning — to relieve 
this, swallow a raw egg every morning with a few swal-jj 
lows of fresh spring water for several mornings, say ten 
or twelve, then omit a few and again use the egg. The 
Asthmatic should rise early, take moderate exercise in the 
open air, but should avoid wet and damp. The diet 
-should be light, nourishing and frequeut. In cases where 
the difficulty of breathing is extremely great, temporary 
relief may be had by stewing together equal quantities of 
sage and honey, and letting the patient swallow it in tea 
spoonful, doses. I believe bleeding to be very injurious in 
this disease, although it is recommended in the writings of 
several eminent physicians. 




Fever shows itself in so many ways and forms, that it is 
almost impossible, to describe it Correctly. To judge of 
its presence with any degree of correctness, we will have 
to pay particular attention- to the following appearances 
and indications: , ;The state of the pulse, the skin, the sto- 
mach and bowels, the breathing, the appetite, the color of 
the face, thechange of feature, the tongue, eyes, &c. — 
There is generally soreness over the whole body, as if with 
fatigue after a hard day's labor, great thirst, violent pain 
in the head or back, or both, sometimes there is a constant 
desire to sleep, and sometimes great restlessness, some- 
limes the strength is greatly increased by Fever. 

From an early period, down to the present day, Fever 
and febrile diseases, have been the- fruitful theme of specu- 
lation. . The most distinguished medical men have differed 
in opinion as to the cause of Fevers. Theory has been 
piled upon theory, and the subject yet appears much in the 
dark. . The opinion that most diseases originate from the 
stomach, appears to be supported by as sound reasoning, 


and good judgment, as any other theory that has yet been 
advanced. The first impression is made on the stomach 
by medicine, which acts immediately by sympathy. It is 
the general reservoir which receives those medical reme- 
dies by which the disease is to be subdued: The effects 
produced on the system by remedies taken into the stom- 
ach, show at once the great sympathy between the stom- 
ach and the whole system, and also the many evil conse- 
quences that must evidently follow a derangement of this 
reservoir or work-shop. 

The principal secret of medicine is to discover the first 
cause of disease, and in the next place to apply suitable 
remedies in a proper way, and at a proper time. There 
is not so much difficulty in the science and practice of 
medicine as a great many persons imagine, if you will but 
attend to the causes of diseases, and watch the effects of 
the remedies. The fact is that any person possessing com- 
mon sense and judgment, who will take their seat at the 
bed-side of the sick, ascertain how and when he was ta- 
ken sick, and all the particulars as to the pains first com- 
plained of, and be minute in examining into the habits of 
the patient, will in nine cases out of ten succeed in reliev- 
ing the patient, when mere theorists who prescribe for the 
names of diseases, without a due portion of sound judg- 
ment and practical knowledge will fail. The inhabitants 
of very few countries are entirely exempt from the attacks 
of Fever. I will therefore describe plainlj the symptoms 
of such Fevers as are most common amongst us, so that 
with a little care and common judgment, the reader will 
be enabled to distinguish between Fevers and other dis- 
eases, and also to ascertain the exciting cause, which 
knowledge will enable him at once to strike at the root of 
the disease. 


This disease generally makes its attack in the fall sen- 
son of the year, and those who live on water courses, or 
on low marshy countries or situations are most subject to 
its attacks. 

Agues are generally distinguished by names expressive 
of the periods of intermission or lapse of time between 
the fits. 


That returning every twenty-four hours, is called by 
Doctors, Quotidian. 

That which returns every forty-eight hours, or every 
other day is called Tertians. 

And that returning every third day is called Quartans. 

The above divisions are given in order to describe the 
disease more plainly, for the treatment is the same, differ- 
ing only in the mildness or severity of the attack; if very 
severe the remedies employed should be active and pow- 
erful, on the contrary if the attack be mild and gentle, 
remedies less active and powerful will answer. Each- 
paroxism or fit of this fever, is divided into three different 
stages: the cold, the hot, and the sweating stage. The 
cold stage commonly coirmences with a feeling of lan- 
guor, debility or weakness, and an aversion to motion. — ■ 
Frequent stretching and yawning; the feet and hands be- 
come cold, the skin looks shriveled, and a numbness or 
want of feeling is experienced over the whole body, and 
finally a chill comes on accompanied by a shivering or 
shaking, which lasts fifteen or twenty minutes and "some- 
times a much longer time. The pulse is small and fre- 
quent, and often irregular. As the chill or first stage 
goes off, the second or hot stage comes on, with a sense of 
heat over the whole body; the face becomes red, the skin 
dry and hot, increased thirst, pain in the back and head, 
throbbing in the temples, accompanied with great anxiety 
and restlessness; the respiration becomes fuller and freer 
but is still frequent; the pulse becomes more regular, hard 
and full; the tongue furred. If the attack be severe and 
the blood determines to the head, .delirium often takes 
place for a time. In the commencement of the third and 
last stage, the intense heat begins to subside, moisture be- 
gins to break out ou the forehead and generally extends 
itself over the whole body, the thirst diminishes, breathing 
becomes more free and full, and most of the functionaries 
resume their ordinary state and operation, but the patient 
is left in a state of extreme weakness. 

Treatment. — First give an emetic to cleanse the stom- 
ach, see emetics in the Dispensatory, next give a purge, 
antibilious pills or some other cathartic. After the stom- 
ach and bowels have been well cleansed, give a sweat of 
seneka snake-root, black snake-root or burnt whiskey and 
red pepper, as either will answer. The sweat should be 


given about an hour and a half before the expected return 
of the chill. The bowels should be kept regulated by the 
use of cathartics, the above pill is preferable to any ca- 
thartic in my knowledge for this purpose. - After the sweat 
has been given the patient should drink daily of the tonic 
bitters. See Dispensatory. 

If this bitter cannot be conveniently had, the patient 
may take a tetrong decoction made of equal quantities of 
wild-cherry tree bark, the bark of the root of red dog- wood,, 
and the bark of the root of the yellow or swamp poplar. — 
A table spoonful of- this decoction should be taken regu- 
larly every hour whan there is no fever, but when there is 
fever, it should be-omitted. The Ague pill is also a val- 
uable remedy for Ague and Fever. For the mode of pre- 
paring and administering these pills, refer to the Dispen- 

BILIOUS FEVER— {Remittent Fever.) 

Bilious Fever is Ague and Fever just described, under 
something of a different modification. In Ague and Fever 
there is an entire intermission or stoppage of the disease, 
whereas, in Bilious or Remittent Fever, there is nothing* 
more than an abatement of the fever for a time. It has 
received the popular name of Bilious Fever because in 
most cases there appears to be an increased secretion of 
bile. Bilious attacks are most frequent in the latter part 
of summer and in the fall. It is most commonly met with 
along streams, in the vicinity of marshes and near stag- 
nant waters. In warm climates, where great heat and 
heavy rains rapidly succeed each other, Remittent Fevers 
of a very malignant character sometimes prevail as an 

The symptoms, are a sense of heaviness and languor, 
pain in the head and back; in most cases the patient is ta- 
ken with a chill, which is succeeded by intense heat over 
the whole body — the pulse is more tense and full than in 
Ague and Fever. If the attack of Bilious Fever be severe, 
the eyes and skin often appear yellow, the tongue is cov- 
ered with a brownish fur, the bowels are generally cos- 
tive and the urine high colored. 

Treatment. — In mild attacks of this disease,' if taken at 
the commencement, it maybe thrown off by cleansing the 
bowels with antibilious pills or some other cathartic, and 


' drinking freely of some sweating tea. But if the attack 
"be violent, more active means must be employed. Give 
an emetic of gulver and ipecac or Indian physic to cleanse 
' the stomach and render its operation fully effective by 
giving warm water or chamomile tea freely; when the 
stomach is well cleansed give water gruel to determine it 
to the bowels. It the emetic is taken in the morning, the 
patient should take a dose of antibilious pills at night, say 
from eight to ten hours after the emetic. After the sto- 
'.mach and bowels have been cleansed in the above man- 
ner, give a sweat of Seneka or black snake-root; a tea of 
rag-weed will answer admirably and will produce copi- 
ous sweating, in many instances, where nothing else will. 
If the fever should rise very high and produce delirium, 
put the hands in Cold water, or rub the hands and wrists 
with cloths wet With cold water and vinegar, and apply 
cloths wet with cold water and vinegar to the forehead 
and temples, and bleed freely according to the strength and 
constitution of the patient. Care must be taken to con- 
tinue the use of purges, until the stools assume a healthy 
appearance. Next take three table-spoonfuls of the pow- 
ders of boneset, and pour on them a quart of boiling wa- 
ter; of this tea, let the patient drink a half-pint a day, un- 
less it should produce vomiting, in which case the quanti- 
ty must be diminished; this tea is intended to act mildly 
on the bowels, and also on the liver. It is one of the best 
correctors of the bile now known. After the disease i& 
checked, if the patient suffers from debilit}^, give tonics, 
such as dog-wood-bark, columbo-root, wild cherry-tree 
bark, &c. See tonics in the Dispensatory, and also in the 
Materia Medica, at which places you will find direc- 
tions for preparing and administering medicines of this 

Puking, purging and bleeding, is often followed to such 
an extent as to bring the patient to an alarming state of 
debility as soon as the fever leaves; in cases of this kind 
give the chalybeate pill morning, noon and night. Dose 
in this case is one pill about the size of a summer grape; 
this medicine acts more like a charm in extreme debility 
than anything else. 

I omitted stating in the proper place, that plasters of 
mustard-seeds, or poke-root poultices, or some other of the 
articles recommended for that purpose in Materia Medica. 


should be applied to the feet to produce a revulsion from 
the head, where the fever is very high and the determina- 
tion to the brain very great. This will greatly aid the 
bleeding and cold applications to the head and wrists in 
giving relief. 

NERVOUS FEVER— (Typhus Fever.) 

This Fever as its name imports, affects the whole ner- 
vous system, and produces a tremulous motion of the 
body and limbs, and extreme debility, which attends it 
from the very beginning; the system appears to be sink- 
ing, great weariness, loss of appetite, low spirits, frequent 
sighing, are among the first symptoms; these are soon fol- 
lowed by dryness of the mouth, quick low pulse, and some- 
times an unnatural perspiration or sweat breaks out on 
the skin for a time. The sleep is very much disturbed 
and unrefreshing, the countenance sinks, or seems to 
change fiom its natural expression of feature to a ghastly 
appearance, the tongue, teeth and gums soon become cov- 
ered with a dark buff-colored scurf, the sight of food is 
unpleasant, and sometimes disgusting, from the extreme 
debility or weakness of the stomach. The difficulty of 
breathing becomes very considerable, sometimes the hands 
and feet are glowing with heat, whilst the forehead is cov- 
ered with sweat; sometimes it comes very suddenly with 
chills and flushes, and at other times it is ten or twelve. 
days, or even longer, before it shows symptoms of vio- 
lence, making its advances so slowly and gradually as to 
produce no alarm. The following symptoms may be con- 
sidered very dangerous: A constant inclination to throw 
off the cover; a changing of the voice from its usual tone; 
great weakness; picking at the bed-clothing; inability to 
retain or hold the urine; involuntary discharge from the. 
bowels; slight aberrations :of the mind, muttering as if 
speaking to one's self; a wild and fixed look, as if the eyes 
were riveted on some particular object. When these last 
symptoms occur, there is little to expect but that the case 
will terminate fatally. 

Treatment. — Give an emetic to cleanse the stomach. — 
Ipecac, or Indian physic, and gulver, (see Dispensatory,) in 
tenor twelve hours after the operation of the emetic, give 


a purge of anti-billious pills, or some other purge. See 
cathartics in the Dispensatory. 

After the stomach and bowels have been cleansed in the 
above manner, give the hepatic pill night and morning; 4 
for a dose. A gentle perspiration should be kept up by 
the use of snake-root tea. After the stomach and bowels 
have been cleansed, as above directed, the patient should 
make constant use of bitters ofgulver, ipecac or Indian 
physic and bone-set,- infused in good whiskey or wine. — 
Where there is trembling of the limbs and great agitation 
of the nerves, give nerve powders in the tea taken by the 
patient, freely. If the bowels incline to be costive, use in- 
jections of thin gruel made tolerably salt, to which add 
nerve powders freely. In the low stage of this disease, 
use wine freely: if the pulse is low, and the extremities 
cold, apply mustard seed plasters to the feet, ankles and 
wrists; also bathe and rub them well with whiskey and 
red pepper. 

Diets must be light and nourishing, taken frequently 
and in small quantities. Slippery-elm tea or mucilage, is 
a valuable drink in this Fever; dried apple or peach syrrup 
or tea is also very good. All possible pains should be ta- 
ken to keep the mind of the patient composed. 

Tonics may be used freely in the advanced stages v of this 
disease with good effects; camphor will have a good effeci; 
combined with dog- wood or wild cherry-tree bajk. Wind 
or French brandy may be taken freely. 

Bleeding in Nervous Fever is almost certain death, and 
should never be practiced at any stage of the disease. 


Symptoms. — An attack of Yellow Fever is sometimes 
preceded by loss of appetite, disagreeable taste in the 
mouth, heat in the stomach, pain or giddiness in the head, 
costiveness, languor, debilit}', and dejection of spirits. At 
other times it attacks suddenly, with a chill, a pain in the 
head and eye-balls, flushing of the face, excessive thirst, 
and great prostration of strength; the stomach is very irri- 
table, thro wing up whatever is taken into it; the tongue is 
covered with a dark colored fur, the skin dry and hot, pulse 
small, and quick, and hard, the urine high colored and 
voided in small quantities; the eyes, and skin about the 
face, neck, and breast, becomes yellow; a dark colored 


matter resembling coffee grounds is at length thrown up 
frOm the stomach, called the black vomit. Sometimes 
diarrhaea takes place, the stools have a very offensive 
smell, and a black or green color; sometimes the victim of 
this disease sinks into a sleepy state and dies without a 
struggle. At other times putrid symptoms of a very vio- 
lent character occur, and the patient dies in convulsions. 

Treatment. — This Fever requires prompt and efficient 
treatment at the very onset. As soon as Yellow Fever is 
discovered, cleans the stomach, by giving an emetic: for 
this purpose the roasted root of prickly-sumac is probably 
the best article in mv knowledge. Take a double hand- 
ml of the roasted root, steep it in water until the strength 
is extracted, then give a half pint of the tea or more, and 
repeat in fifteen minutes if the iirst should not operate; 
give warm water freely to render the operation fully effec- 
tive. After the operation of the emetic, give anti-billious 
pills to cleans the bowels — for dose see Dispensatory. — 
Then give a tea of barberry-root or the root of golden-seal, 
one or both; this tea is made by putting one-fourth ounce 
of the dried root into a quart of boiling water — of this the 
patient should drink a. pint a day, or more if the stomach 
will bear it. The patient should be kept in a gentle per- 
spiration by the use of seneca or black-snake root tea.-^— 
The bowels should be kept regulated through:the whole 
course by the use of anti-billious pills, taken in small 
doses morning and night, just sufficient to produce the 
desired effect on the bowels, which must be judged of by 
he who administers. 


This disease often prevails as an epidemic, and is most 
frequent in the Fall season of the year, though it may oc- 
cur at any season of the year. It is most apt to attack 
children and young persons, yet it sometimes attacks 
whole families and persons of all ages. 

Symptoms. — This, like other Fevers, commences with 
languor, lassitude, chills, heat, dry skin, nausea, and some- 
times vomiting. The pulse is quick though languid, the 
respiration difficult and hurried, the skin is red like scar- 
let, and if the disease is "suffered to progress, spots of a 
vivid red color make their appearance on the face and 


rieck, and gradually extend over the whole body; the throat 
becomes sore, the voice hoarse, and the breathing very 
hurried and difficult; in the evening the fever is highest 
and the spots brightest. In the more malignant form of 
this disease, all the above symptoms are aggravated, in- 
flamation and ulceration of the tonsils takes place, the 
redness or efflorescence spreads over the whole body, with 
appearance of swelling, the tongue, which in the milder 
form of the disease is covered with a white thick fur, is in 
the more malignant form covered with a black or brown- 
ish fur or incrustation. Derangement of the mind is com- 
mon to each form of Scarlet Fever. When there is a ten 
dency to putrifaction the pulse becomes small indistiact 
and irregular; the sores in the mouth and nose and throat 
become very putrid, and a briny substance or matter is 
often discharged from the nose, which takes the skin as it 
passes. This last stage of the disease is considered very 
dangerous, and if immediate relief is not had the system 
.sinks into a state of collapse. 

Treatment. — First give an emetic or puke to cleanse 
the stomach. A tea made of the bark of the shell-bark 
hickory is the best emetic with which I am acquainted; 
for this purpose it should be steeped in water until the 
strength is extracted, and the tea administered freely un- 
til it operates. When it is not convenient to give the 
above emetic, any other good emetic will answer — see 
emetics in Dispensatory. The bowels should next be 
cleansed by giving a dose of anti-bilious pills or some oth- 
er cathartic. After the stomach and bowels have been 
cleansed as above directed, the patient should take the 
hepatic pill every morning on a fasting stomach — three 
for a dose for an adult; also give sweating teas freely, such 
as black or seneca snake-root; during the whole course 
must be kept regulated by the use of anti-bilious pills or 
some other cathartic, taken in small portions night and 

If the Fever should continue high and the thirst be 
great, the emetic should be repeated; if the throat should 
become very sore, treat it as directed for Malignant Sore 
Throat. If the patient should sink into extreme weak- 
ners or debility, give dogwood-root bark in tea or deeoc- 
tion freely to drink and by injections; also give the chaly- ~ 
beate pills night and morning. A little sulphur should be 


added to the diaphoretic tea which will prevent heart sick- 
ness, and aid in driving the efflorescence to the surface, 
which is the principal object in this disease. Flannel 
wet with spirits, may be kept to the neck, and the patient 
may inhale the steam of vinegar from the spout of a cof- 
fee-pot. The drink should be warm and the diet light. 


Symptoms. — Violent pain in the head, the eyes are red, 
inflamed, and unable to bear the light; watchfulness, 
frightful dreams, great anxiety and indistinct recollection. 
The face becomes flushed, the skin dry, the bowels cos- 
tive, the urine scant, and there is an extreme susceptibili- 
ty of the whole nervous system. The pulse is irregular 
and tremulous, or strong and hard; the arteries of the tem- 
ples and neck usually throb and beat violently. In the 
first stages of this disease the patient dislikes to talk, but 
as the disease advances, the eyes assume a great bright- 
ness, the patient becomes furious and talks wildly, and 
generally on subjects which have left deep impressions on 
the mind when in health. The tongue becomes dry and 
rough and of a black or dark yellow color. Favorable 
symptoms are copious perspiration, discharge of blood 
from the nose, a dysentary and plentiful evacuation of 
urine. Unfavorable symptoms, are starting of the nerves, 
total deprivation of sleep, retention of urine, continual spit- 
ting and grinding the teeth, and violent fits of delirium. 

Inflammation of the brain is sometimes a primary ideo- 
phatic disease, but it is often only symptomatic of some 
other complaint. Inflammation of the brain, may at all 
times be considered an extremety dangerous disease, and 
one which must inevitably prove fatal without the imme- 
diate use of active, prompt and efficient remedies. 

Causes likely to produce this disease are, excessive use 
of ardent spirits, indulgence in violent fits of passion, in- 
tense stud)-, excessive venery, violence about the head, as 
blows, &sc. Sudden cold, long exposure to the direct, rays 
of the hot sun, fevers, small-pox, mumps, and also by the 
sudden suppression of accustomed evacuations, whether 
natural or artificial. When the disease is long protract- 
ed, it often terminates in insanity. 

Treatment. — First take blood from the arm by a large 
orifice or opening; wait a little while and again take blood,, 


until a gentle sweat is seen, or the patient feels like faint- 
ing. Let the patient be kept in bed, with the head placed 
on high pillowing and the body in as upright a posture as 
possible, so as to lessen as far as possible the determina- 
tion or flowing of the blood to the head. Give a dose of 
antibilious pills, and aid their operation by the frequent use 
of laxative injections. But while the above means are in 
use for the evacuation of the contents of the bowels, lose 
no time in shaving the hair from the head, and apply 
cloths wet in the coldest water and vinegar that can be 
had constantly over the naked head; if ice can be had, put 
a portion with the vinegar and it will be so much the bet- 
ter. If this does not cause the violence of the symptoms 
to abate in a short time, and the strength of the patient 
will bear it, give an emetic of ipecac and gulver (see Dis- 
pensatory,) or Indian physic, and draw a blister on the 
back part of the head and neck, also bathe the feet in 
warm water and apply plasters of mustard-seeds to them 
and th3 ankles in order to produce a revulsion of the blood 
from the head. 1 neglected to state in the proper place, 
that after the bleeding arid evacuation of the contents of 
the bowels, every means should be used to produce sweat- 
ing, such as the free use of diaphoretic teas or powders; for 
this purpose a tea of seneca snake-root and black snake- 
root is preferable, but where neither of these can be had, 
other diaphoretics will answer. After the violent symp- 
toms abate, still keep the bowels open for several daws 
with cream of tartar, salts, senna, or something that causes 
copious watery discharges from the bowels. During the 
whole time the room of the patient should be kept perfect- 
ly cool and as dark as convenient, nor ought the least 
noise to be permitted to disturb the quiet of the patient. — 
When the fever begins to subside and the reason to return, 
these instructions should be particularly attended to — be- 
cause the slightest cause will, in many instances, bring on 
a return of the disease and with redoubled violence, which 
will in all probability prove fatal in a short time. Diets 
for several days should be of the lightest kind. 


Inflammation of the Stomach may proceed from obstruc- 
ted perspiration, from receiving blows or wounds in the 
region of the stomach, from severe and frequent emetics, 


drinking:, extremely cold "water when the body is over- 
heated from corrosive, poisons taken into the stomach; also 
by the transition of the g.ou.% or. acute rheumatism to the 

Symptoms.^ — Inflammation of the Stomach can easily be 
distinguished from other diseases by its peculiar symptoms, 
it is therefore impossible to mistake-it for any other dis- 
ease if proper attention be paid to those symptoms. It is 
always attended with a violent pain in the stomach, which 
is greatly increased by pressure oyer the stomach; there 
is also a burning heat at the pitof the stomach, frequent 
retching as if to vomit; when any thing is taken into the 
stomach it is. immediately vomited up; there is great loss 
of strength, . excessive thirst and uneasiness, continued 
moving of the body from side to side. If the disease be- 
not checked, it rapidly advances, the hands and feet be- 
come cold; the bowels costive, the countenance haggard 
and wears an indiseribably anxious aspect, hickups ensue 
and the patient soon dies. 

Treatment. — This is a very dangerous complaint, and 
may terminate fatally in twenty- four hours, if not arres-, 
ted in its progress. First bleed freely .from the arm — the 
pulse is frequently low, and small, but>„this,should not de- 
ter you from bleeding, the pulse will frequently rise on 
bleeding several times. Employ some .-, anti-emetic, to 
check the vometino - , the contents of the bowels should be 
evacuated as speedily as possible, by the use of, laxative 
injections, such as gulver syrup in a strong tea of catnip. 
As soon as the inflammatory symptoms have been subdu- 
ed by frequent bleeding, and clystering, the patient should 
be put into the warm bath and remain there as long as 
possible; as soon as he is taken from the bath apply a 
blister over the region of the stomachy or a large plaster 
of ground mustard-seeds wet with strong vinegar will an- 
swer., By turning to Dispensatory vou will find directions 
for preparing several plasters, which will draw blisters. 
Small quantities of sweet oil, given occasionally will aid 
in allaying the inflammation. The bowels must be kept 
open by injections made of flaxseed tea, chicken water, 
slippery-elm tea or thin grUel. These injections will also 
aid in nourishing the patient, as it will be improper to 
take nourishment into the stomach. The patients drink 
should consist of slippery-elm or flaxseed tea taken a lit- ... 


tie below blood heat. When the inflammatory symptoms 
have subsided and the stomach will bear it, nourishment 
may be taken, but it must be done with great caution, 
and in very small quantities; it should consist of slippery- 
elm tea, flax-seed tea, new milk boiled, and thickened a 
little, rice, light soups, or thin gruel with a little new milk 
in it; any thing taken into the, stomach should neither be 
too warm or too cool, a little below blood heat is probab- 
ly the safest temperature. When, this disease is produced 
by poisons taken into the stomach, the poison must be re- 
moved by an emetic, as directed under that head, and the 
disease then treated as above directed. When inflamma- 
tion of the stomach -terminates fatally, it always ends in 
mortification. A sudden change from- severe misery to 
perfect ease, is conclusive evidence that mortification has 
taken place. Inflammation of the stomach, sometimes oc- . 
curs in putrid diseases. ' It is discovered by inflammatory 
appearances on the inside of the mouth. When the face 
and mouth is so affected in Fevers, it is to be feared that 
it reaches the stomach, especially if the stomach shows 
unusual susceptability, accompanied with frequent vomi- 
ting — in this the progress of the disease may be arrested 
by giving a tea-spoonful of the spirits of turpentine in a 
little water. This medicine, is well calculated to prevent 
gangrene and mortification^. and must be given more or 
less frequently, according to the, urgency of the symptoms. 


In this disease the danger of mortification is great and 
relief must be given soon or every effort will be vain. — 
Symptoms are, severe griping or pain in the bowels, es- 
pecially near the naval. It may easily be distinguished 
from inflammation of the stomach, by the pain being low- 
er down, and from cholic, by the smallness and quickness 
of the pulse, and by the extreme tenderness of the belly, 
the pain, being increased by pressure upon it; whilst in 
cholic it affords relief, it is attended with sickness at the 
stomach and vomiting, obstinate costiveness and consider- 
able fever. Great weakness attends this disease, the u- 
rine is high colored and voided with difficulty. 

Inflammation of the Intestines is produced by nearly the 
same causes as those which produce inflammation of the 
stomach. It also arises in some instances from hard, indi-. 


gestible food remaining in the bowels; from severe cho- 
lie, blows and wounds about the region of the bowels — 
by long and severe dysentery, worms, and in some instan- 
ces from hernia or rupture. 

Treatment. — In the first stage of this very dangerous 
disease, it will be necessary to bleed and repeat as often 
as the urgency of the case requires it. A free and thor- 
ough discharge should be produced from the bowels by 
means of laxative injections repeated at short intervals un- 
til the desired object is obtained. A part of each injection 
should be composed of slippery-elm or flaxseed tea and a. 
strong tea of cat-nip. The whole abdomen should be kept 
well bathed with a strong tea of catnip, red pepper and 
vinegar; the warm bath will be of service, but the tem- 
perature should be very moderate. Ii the disease should 
prove obstinate or unyielding, apply a blister over the bel- 
ly. Sweet oil may be given in table-spoonful doses and 
repeated frequently; after the bowels are thoroughly 
cleansed, injections of catnip and slippery-elm tea must 
be given frequently for several days, to which may be 
added laudanum, about forty or fifty drops for a grown 
person and less for children. Purgatives in this complaint 
only tend to aggravate the symptoms. Your principal re- 
liance is therefore to be placed on injections and copious 
bleeding, especially if the patient is of full habit. Char- 
coal taken by the mouth and administered by injection, 
seldom fails to produce good effects. The slightest causes 
are exceedingly apt to produce a relapse of this disease, 
for this reason, exposure to cold should be carefully avoid- 
ed, and indigestible food should not be used; the bowels 
should also be kept regulated by the use of mild and cool- 
ing injections. Diet should be very light and taken in 
very small quantities, and nothing better than slippery-elm 
tea could be recommended for the patient's constant drink. 


Symptoms. — A severe pain about the small of the back, 
some degree of fever, the pain frequently darting down 
the thigh or thighs, as the case may be. The urine voided 
in small quantities and with difficulty, of a pale or reddish 
color. The pain in this disease is seated nearer the back 
bone and loins than in cholic. The bowels are costive, 
the skin is dry and hot, there is nausea and sometimes 


vomiting. The slightest motion or jolting gives great 
pain, and even sitting upright in bed produces restlessness, 
the patient always experiencing the greatest ease, when 
lying on the affected part. Sometimes one and sometimes 
both of the testicles are drawn up to the belly, so that 
you can scarcely feel them. 

The causes.most likely to produce this complaint, are 
wounds or bruises of the kidneys, calculous concretions 
lodged in them, the too free use of active diuretic medi- 
cines, great exertions in lifting, violent and sudden strains, 
exposure to cold when over heated, and lying on the damp 

Treatment. — If the patient be stout and full of blood, the 
lancet should be used; the bowels must be opened by mild 
clysters and oil, cream of tartar or some gentle purge. A 
mixture of sulphur and cream of tartar is an excellent pre- 
paration for keeping the bowels open in this complaint. 
Flannel cloths wrung out of hot catnip tea, or a decoction 
of red pepper and vinegar should be applied over the small 
of the back. After the bowels have been cleansed as a- 
bove directed, give the diuretic powders morning and night 
a tea spoonful for a dose, at the same time let the patient 
drink a tea made of the piny weed root, at least a half pint 
a day; if the piny powders cannot be had, a tea of the com- 
mon rush will answer, but it is not so good as the piny. 

All the drinks should be made warm, and a portion of 
peach-tree gum dissolved in them. Slippery-elm or flax- 
seed tea will answer a good purpose. A strong decoction 
of peach-tree leaves, either green or dried, is a most ex- 
cellent remedy in this complaint, and has of itself affected 
many wonderful cures. 

Diets should he light; onions, although not a light diet, 
will answer well in this disease, where the stomach will 
bear it. The patient should be kept quiet and easy, and 
free from cold while any appearance of inflammation con- 
tinue. When the patient begins to recover, moderate ex- 
ercise in the open air will be proper and advantageous. 


Symptoms. — This disease is known by a sharp pain at 
the bottom of the belly, immediately above the privates, 
the pain is much increased by pressing on the part with 


the fingers; there is sometimes considerable uneasiness in. , 
the lower part of the back. There is a constant desire to-- 
make water, which is passed with much difiie^ty and in 
very small quantities, it is high colored, and sot unfre- 
quently tinged with blood. It is also attended -with sick- 
ness and vomiting and a constant desire to go tojStool; the 
bowels are bound, the pulse irregular, and always some 
fever. Inflammation of tile bladder is produced, by ob- 
structions in the urethra, by suppression of urine, by the 
formation of calculous concretions, and by costiveness. It 
may also be produced by injuries^ such as severe blows, 
falls, kicks, &c, by holding the urine a great length of time, 
and by taking the tincture of cantharides or Spanish flies. 

Treatment. — In this disease, when the patient is of full 
habit and there is nuich fever, bleed. The bowels must 
be opened by cooling purges and injections, after which, 
the patient should take of the diuretic powders, as directed 
for inflammation of the kidneys, and also drink of the tea 
of piny powders or rush. The region over the bladder 
should be frequently bathed with a strong decoction of 
red pepper and vinegar, or a poultice of catnip applied 
over the part. When this complaint is caused by the 
lodgment of a stone in the neck of the bladder, the cause 
should be removed as directed under the head of Gravel, at 
the same time using the above means to allay the inflam- 
mation. A tea of slippery-elm or flax-seed injected into 
the bladder, will be found very good. Every ..time the pa- 
tient has to make water he should sit over the steam of 
pine tops, cedar tops, or bitter herbs; this veil I greatly as- 
sist the passing off of the (urine, and also in relieving the 
pain occasioned by voiding it. Diets and drinks of a 
heating nature should, by ail means, be avoided. 


Symptoms. — In this disease there is considerable pain iti 
the left side, just under the ends of the ribs, andjr'ound to 
the back-bone. In severe cases the pain reaches up to 
the left arm-pit and into the shoulder; th« skin .and eyes 
are yellow. The pain which extends up the side, may 
easily be distinguished from the plurisy, by numbness and 
deadness about the shoulder joint, and also by the seat of 
the pain being below the ends of the ribs; the symptoms 
most to be relied on are, prking of blood, watchfulness, 


^reat weakness, and very frequently the mind is much 
confused: there is also considerable fever. 

Treatment. — Purge well with antibilious pills. (See 
Dispensatory for dose.) After which, they should be. ta- 
ken in doses sufficiently large, night and morning, to keep 
the bowels gently open. These pills are peculiarly adapt- 
ed to this disease. The side should be bathed frequently 
with a strong decoction ofpepper and vinegar or essence 
of pepper. After the inflammatory symptoms have in 
some degree subsided, the patient should drink bitters, 
composed of equal quantities of gulver-root and bone-set 
leaves, and a much smaller quantity of Indian physic in- 
fused in spirits. . If the spirits should disagree with the 
patient, the hepatic pill or anti-dispeptic syrup, taken 
night and morning will answer. In chronic cases, after 
bathing the side as above directed, for a few days apply a 
strengthening plaster. Diets must be light and nourish- 
ing, and-the exercise moderate. 

This complaint is brought on by long continued fevers, 
or by long continued fever and ague, and by affections of 
the liver. What are commonly termed ague cakes, are 
diseases of the spleen, and sometimes terminates in In- 
flammation of the Spleen. 


There are two species or forms of this disease, distin- 
guished as acute and chronic inflammation of the liver. 

Symptoms of acute Inflammation of the Liver. — In tliis 
form of this disease, there is a severe pain in the right 
side, from the ribs to the hip, accompanied with fever and 
slight chills; the pain often rises to the point of the shoul- 
der, and extends to the collar-bone; there is hard breath- 
ing, dry cough, a tightness across the breast, an inclina- 
tion to lie on the right side and yet hard pressure on the 
right side increases the pain. The bowels are costive, the 
urine high colored, the pulse frequent and hard, and the 
tongue covered with a whitish far. There is often siek- 
ness and vomiting of a bilious matter. The skin is dry 
and hot, and if the disease is still permitted to advance, 
the skin and whites of the eyes assume a yellow color. 

Treatment. — If the inflammation is considerable, and 
the pain severe, bleed, and folio w<the bleeding by cathar- 
tics. The anti- bilious pill is probably the?.. most suitable 


preparation for this purpose. After the inflammatory 
symptoms have been subsided by bleeding and purging, 
give the hepatic pill night and morning — three for a dose 
if the stomach will bear them, if it will not, give them in 
such doses as the stomaeh will bear. The bowels must 
be kept open by the daily use of the anti-billious pills in 
small doses, the quantity being best judged of by the pa- 
tient. The patient should also drink freely of a strong tea 
of liverwort, and use bitters composed of one-third silk- 
weed root and two-thirds butterfly root. A tea of spice- 
wood forms a valuable drink in this disease, as it pro- 
motes a gentle perspiration. Blistering the side often gives 
great relief where the pain is severe. 

Chronic is a term applied to diseases which are of long 
continuance, and are generally attended with but little fe- 
ver. Chronic affections of the liver, is commonly best 
known by the name of" Fever Complaint " It may either 
be a consequence of the above, or it may come on gradu- 
ally, without acute inflammation. The chronic form of 
this complaint is generally produced by exposure to sudden 
viscissitudes of heat and cold, by the intemperate use of 
spirituous liquors, by long continued attacks of intermittent 
and remittent fevers, and by the improper treatment of 
measles and other diseases. 

Symptoms. — Chronic inflammation of the liver, is fre- 
quently so mild at its commencement, and so very obscure 
in its attack, as to produce but little pain, and excite but 
little uneasiness, until the disease is firmly seated, at 
which stage it is tedious to cure, and if cured, requires a 
persevering use of the remedies, with the most scrupulous 
attention to regimen and diet. It is attended with general 
weakness and dislike to motion, indigestion, flatulency or 
frequent belching of wind from the stomach, a short dry 
eough, and occasionally, difficulty in breathing. The bot- 
toms of the hands and feet are generally dry and hot, tho' 
sometimes moist. and cold. A dull pain or misery is felt 
between the ribs and right hip, extending at times to the 
right, shoulder. The bowels are mostly bound, but some- 
times become very laxative for a, few days — the stools are 
generally of a clay color, and occasionally particles of 
blood are seen among them. Whatever is taken into the 
.•stomach as food, frequently sours, and produces pains in 
the stomach, and an acid taste in the mouth and throat. — 


There is often a burning at the stomach, somewhat differ- 
ent from heart-burn, and an unpleasant headache, with 
frequent giddiness or swimming. The urine is high col- 
ored and usually scant, the complexion and countenance 
assumes a sallow or diseased appearance, and the whole 
system is oppressed with an unusual sense of fullness. 

Treatment.— First purge with anti-billious pills, butter- 
nut syrrup, or black-root pills or syrrup, then give the he- 
patic pill, three every morning, if the stomach will bear 
them, and two, if three cannot be retained without pro- 
ducing great nausea. A chalybeate pill should betaken 
every night about the size of a pea or summer grape. — 
The patient should also drink freely of the tea of liverwort, 
and bitters, as directed for Acute Inflammation of the Liver. 
During the whole course, the bowels must be kept open 
by the use of cathartics. The Dispensatory shows sever- 
al valuable preparations for this purpose. Bathing the 
feet in warm water frequently, will be found of service, or 
if convenient, the warm bath is much better. 

The diets must be light and taken in small quantities, 
moderate exercise on horseback or otherwise, will be ne- 
cessary. But all cold, immoderate exercise and exposure 
of every kind must be avoided, if a cure is desired. 


This complaint is marked by a general wasting of the 
body; great weakness is felt on the slightest bodily exer- 
tion; the pulse is quicker than natural, small and irregu- 
lar; a short dry cough which becomes more troublesome 
at night; a white frothy mucous is spit up. As the -dis- 
ease advances, a pain, and sensation of heat and oppres- 
sion is felt through the breast, extending up to the points of 
the shoulders, the spitting becomes more copious and fre- 
quent, and is sometimes streaked with blood — sometimes 
it is dark, and at other times it is of a yellow or green col- 
or, having a. remarkably unpleasant smell; when put into 
pure water it sinks to the bottom, while common mucous 
floats on the surface of the water; the urine is high colored, 
and deposits a muddy sediment, the cheek or cheeks fre- 
quently flush with hectic fever, which lasts one or two 
hours, and then gradually goes off; the palms of the hands 
and the soles of the feet are mostly hot; the pulse gradual- 


ly grows quick and hard — these symptoms are -soon fol- 
lowed by profuse night sweats. In the last stage of Con- 
sumption the countenance assumes a ghastly, Unnatural 
appearance; the voice becomes hoarse, hollow and un- 
natural; the white part of the eyes have a shiny or pearly 
appearance, while t-he eye itself beams with uncommon 
lustre; the nails are of a purple color; there is frequent 
purging, and great difficulty in breathing, amounting at 
times; almost to suffocation. When these last symptoms 
occur, the case may be considered desperate. 

Obstructions from cold in some way or other, is the 
common cause of Consumptions. It is most apt to attack 
persons between the age of twelve and thirty; but it some- 
times attacks persons at the age of fifty. In youth when 
a change of voice takes place and the lad enters the in- 
cipient stage of manhood, there is considerable' debility 
experienced, and not unfrequently accompanied with a 
short dry cough. This is a critical period, and a little 
carelessness or neglect may end in an incurable attack of 
Consumption. Such persons'as have been raised tender- 
ly, without due exercise or fresh air, will be much niorc 
liable to an attack of tiiis ever-to-be-dreadcd disease, than 
those who have been accustomed to daily labor or exer- 
cise. Damp air, damp beds, damp clothes, is often the 
cause of Consumption; it is also caused by inflammation 
of the lungs, suppression of the menses in females; tight 
lacing: diseases at the liver and stomach. It is heredita- 
ry and often takes whole families as fast as they approach 
man or womanhood. 

Treatment. — The patient should commence by taking 
a tea spoonful of the mixture or syrup for Consumption 
night and morning; it is made as follows: 

Take a table spoonful of tar, the same quantity of honey 
and the yolk of an egg, mix these articles well together: 
Ike tar should be a little warm, that they may the more 
easily mix. A large quantity may be prepared observing 
the same proportions. If the patient is very weak and the 
above dose operates too severe, give a smaller portion, he 
\#io administers will be best able to determine as to this. 
It' will be three or four days before this medicine gets into 
full operation, and when it is taking hold of the disease to 
advantage, it causes the patient to expectorate or spit up 
jnuco*B> from the lungs with great rapidity; while taking 


the above, the patient should also take the inner bark of 
the yellow pine, and spikenard root, of each one pound, 
keep it constantly by the fire that it be warm, and use it 
as a constant -drink. I have used the chalybeate pill night 
and morning, in connexion with the above remedies* with 
the happiest effects. Where the patient is laboring under 
great debility it is without doubt one of the best st imula- 
ting and tonic medicines in the world. 

Diets should be light; all kinds of rich and oily food 
should be avoided; buttermilk and corn or rye mush, is 
very good, as is also rice, half cooked eggs, and milk 
drank warm from the cow morning and evening. Squir- 
rel or chicken may be eaten by 'some, but others cannot 
use either without injury; the patient or administering 
physician will have to exercise some judgment on this 
subject. Wet and damp of every kind must be avoided, 
regular but moderate exercise taken, the mind should be 
kept cheerful; long journeys are spoken of by some phy- 
sicians as being advantageous, but I cannot agree with 
them in this particular. They unavoidably prdduce ir- 
regular habits in eating, drinking, sleeping, using medi- 
cine and often keep the mind in a high state of anxiety 
about things left behind, &c, all of which produce injury 
rather than benefit. Regularity of habits is indispensably 
neces'sary in the cure of Consumption, I would therefore 
-advise persons afflicted with this disease to remain at 
home with their friends, for I can assert that the kindness 
of friends in connexion with neighborhood exercise and 
amusements, will greatly aid in restoring health, where 
long journeys would only fatigue the patient and aid the 
' disease in wearing out and extinguishing the little re- 
maining spark of animal life* 

Bleeding in Consumption is a most pernicious practice 
and the sooner it is abandoned the' better it will be for 
those who are afflicted with this alarming and too often 
fatal disease. Yet it is recommended by a majority of the 
most eminent physicians of our .age. Dr. Wright, how- 
ever, is an exception, he disapproves bleeding in this dis- 
ease in the strongest terms. He says, "The disease itself 
proceeds from debility, which produces obstructed perspi- 
ration, and nature not being able to relieve the lungs from 
the matter thrown upon them, acts as an irritant aiid oc- 
casibns' coughing and diarrhse, and in proportion to the 


vital fluid you abstract, you impair the strength of the 
patient, and open a road for the incursions of the enemy." 
Dr.- Wright has been more successful in the treatment of 
Consumption, than any physician among the whites, with 
whom I have ever had an acquaintance, he in many in- 
stances restored persons to health after they had tried 
such remedies as are usually prescribed for Consumption, 
and had been given over as incurable, his treatment is sim- 
ple, and consists of remedies that may be procured by any 
person. I give it in full that those who wish to try it may 
have it in their power to do so. 

dr. weight's treatment for consumption. 

Take his chalybeate pill night and morning, and through 
the day drink from a pint to a pint and a half of Dr. 
Wright's beer for Consumption. This course should be 
pu rsued with .regularity. 

Diet should be light and nourishing, such as butter-milk 
and rye mush, half done eggs and the like, he also recom- 
mends new milk of a morning. 

The success of Dr. Wright in the treatment of this dis- 
ease, is acknowledged by all those who were acquainted 
with his practice. 



Rupture or Hernia is an unnatural protrusion of a por- 
tion of the bowels or intestines, through the lacerated 
fibers or muscles of' the part, where the swelling occurs. 
It may be produced in children by excessive crying, cough- 
ing, vomiting, and it is frequently produced by gravel. In 
people who have passed the prime of life and in those who 
are in the full vigor of maturity, it commonly originates 
from extraordinary exertion, such as jumping, fighting, 
wrestling &c, or by violent blows or injuries about the 
abdomen, that lacerates the muscles without lacerating 
the skin. , 

Treatment. — On the first appearance of an injury of 
this kind the protruding portion of the intestines should 
be replaced, as there is great danger of the parts becom- 
ing inflamed and so enlarged that it cannot be returned, in 
which case there is danger of mortification. For this pur- 
pose, place the patient on his back, raising his hips high- 
er than his head by means of pillows or .bed clothes fold- 
ed up; by placing the patient in this position, the protru- 



tied part may be replaced by a gentle pressure with the 
fingers, if the parts be not swelled, the operation may be 
rendered more safe and easy by applying cloths rung out 
of hot water to the affected part as warm as can be borne, 
or a decoction of catnip applied in the same manner will 
answer admirably. If the parts have become inflamed 
and swelled, you should not attempt replacing the protru- 
ding portion, until means have been employed to reduce 
the inflammation, and swelling: to effect this thicken a 
strong decoction of rattle-root with cornmeal or flour, and 
apply over the affected part, this will give ease, take out 
the inflammation and produce relaxation, so that the pro- 
truded portion of the intestines may be returned by the 
hand, by placing the patient on his back as above direct- 
ed; when this has been accomplished, apply over the place 
a plaster of red oak, which is made by boiling the bark 
until a strong decoction is obtained, then strain and con- 
tinue boiling it until it is reduced to the consistence of 
thick molasses. A truss must be worn to keep the parts 
to their proper place, the truss should be confined by 
means of a broad bandage, which should extend around 
the patient and be kept moderately tight, it should be 
worn a sufficient length of time for the parts to regain 
their strength. 

»-o l 

RHEUMATISM— (Tsi-tah-nah-ler-la-skah.) 

This very painful disease, in which the poor sufferer 
drags out a miserable and wretched existence, is quite fre- 
quent in the western country. It is brought on by expo- 
sure to cold and wet, by remaining too long on the damp 
grounds, by sleeping in damp places or by sleeping in a 
free current of air at night, by exposure to dews, by chang- 
ing a warm dress for a thin one, by being greatly heated 
and becoming suddenly cool. This complaint may occur 
at any season of the year when there are sudden changes 
from heat to cold or from wet to dry. Persons of all ages 
are liable to its attacks, but adults and those advanced in 
life, and those whose employments subject them to sud- 
den transitions from heat to cold are most liable to its at- 
tacks. This disease is distinguished into two kinds, as a- 
cute, or inflammatory, and chronic; when both fever and 
inflammation accompany the pain, it is called acute or in- 
flammatory Rheumatism, and when little or no fever and 


inflammation attend the pain, it is called chronic Rheuma- 
tism. There is also a disease called by physicians Rheu- 
matic Mercuriatis, which means Rheumatism produced 
by the improper use of mercury, that is, by permitting the 
mercury to remain in the system without giving the prop- 
er remedies to carry it off, which is flour of sulpher and a 
free use of diaphoretic teas. Flour of sulpher is nothing 
more 'than brimstone purified and pounded to a fine flour, 
it is a true and certain antidote against mercury. 

Symptoms. — An attack of acute or inflammatory Rheu- 
matism usually commences with chills, succeeded by heat, 
thirst, restlessness, anxiety, a hard, full, quick pulse, and 
other symptoms of inflammatory fever. Next an acute 
pain is felt by the patient in one or more of the large joints, 
followed by a tension and swelling of the affected parts. 
The pain often shifts from one joint to another, leaving 
the part previously occupied red, swollen and very tender; 
the tongue in niost instances white; the bowels costive, 
and the urine high colored. 

Chronic Rheumatism may either be a consequence of 
the termination of the inflammatory, or it may arise inde- 
pendent of it. When inflammatory Rheumatism termi- 
nates in the chronic, the parts, which were affected with 
inflammation, are left rigid, weak, and in some instances, 
puffed, and the pain being no longer moveable, is confined 
to the same parts; some instances, however, occur in 
which it shifts from one joint to another, but it is unaccom- 
panied with inflammation or fever. 

Treatment. — Give fitters composed of a half pound of 
prie !•:>;-• ;::li bark of the root, one-fourth pound of rattle- 
root, and two ounces of blue-root, digest the whole in one 
gallon of whiskey- -of this the patient should drink freely 
three times a day,; or what the stomach will bear. The 
affected joints must be regularly anointed with the rheu- 
matic ointment — see Dispensatory. 

. The bowels should be cleansed and regulated by the use 
%f anti-bilious pills. 

Treatment. — In this disease give bitters of rattle-weed 
root, p^ckly-ash bark of the root, and prickly-sumack bark 
of the root an equal quantity ef each, digest them ih wins- 


key, and take what the stomach will bear three times a 
day; anoint the affected part with the rheumatic oint- 
ment — see Dispensatory. 

The bowels should be cleansed and regulated by the use 
of antibilious pills or some other cathartic. In all cases 
of Rheumatism the patient should carefully avoid sudden 
changes from heat to' cold from dry to wet or damp, night 
air, violent exercise, -sudden check of perspiration and ex- 
posure of any kind. Regular but moderate exercise should 
be taken, and the above treatment strictly attended to. 

Diets should be light and nourishing, and such as best a- 
gree with the patient. 

I have witnessed 7 with surprise and pleasure the result 
of Turk's mode of treatment for Rheumatism, and as it is 
a remedy which is in the reach of every farmer, or inhabi- 
. tant of the western as well as other States, and that cau 
be prepared and used with safety by any person who pos- 
sesses five grains of common sense, I think it probable that 
by giving it a place in this wotk it may enable some fel- 
low being to relieve him or herself of this most painful dis- 
ease, who would otherwise drag out their lives in misery 
and wretchedness. I have never applied his remedy my- 
self, but know the ingredients to be excellent in this com- 

turk's treatment for rheumatism. 

''Take one half bushel of well washed Poik-root — this; 
root is best when dug in the winter and in the dark of the 
moon—extract the strength by boiling it in clear water, 
when. you put the' polk root in to boil, put in five or six 
pods of red pepper, when the strength is extracted, strain 
the decoction, and continue boiling it until it becomes ve- 
ry stron;:, (hen add a quart of oil, and continue boiling or 
simmering until the-water is entirely gone. The strength 
of the pepper and polk root will remain in the oil after the 
water is extracted. When this oil (becomes cool, but 
while it will still run, it should be put in stone vessels, as 
it will eat tin up,) it should be kept closely covered, or it 
vfill mould. 1 have used several kinds of oil; the fish, eel. 
catfish, beef leg oil, the oil of the Guinea pig, and the oil 
of the' fat cut dogs, and have' been successful with all, but 
the oil of the fish, Guinea pig and dog, I prefer. ; It will 
cure when fresh&ut 1 think itegets better as it gets elder. — 


The oil of which it is made must be pure and in no case 

Mode of application. — As this disease attacks the joint? 
only, this medicine should be rubbed all around the affec- 
ed joints and well bathed in by warming the hand fre- 
quently and rubbing the joint: a warm fire shovel will an- 
swer. If the disease is in the hip joint, apply the ointment 
to the whole back bone and around the hips. This oint- 
ment should be applied in the above manner, twice a day 
for five days, and then once a day for five days more, and 
if the cure is performed quit, but if the pain should return 
in the slightest degree, again apply the ointment. Where 
there is much swelling 1 use the bandage after putting on 
the ointment, if the swelling is in a place that can be ban- 

The system must be put in good order, and kept so, that 
the medicine may have a fair chance, as it has a powerful 
enemy to contend with. I have met with cases in which 
I had to prepare the system for a few days before I used 
the ointment. In the inflammatory Rheumatism, I bleed 
freely, and in the chronic kind I bathe in warm water, and 
before putting on the ointment wash off well and let the 
parts dry well, as oil and water do not go well together. 
The quantity of oil will be best known by its going in. If 
several joints should be affected, put the oil on one in 
part, after the other, then repeat; a soreness will take 
place, this is caused by the rubbing, and no danger in it. 
I have seen some cases that seemed to get well in a few 
days, and then get worse; this is the time that nature is, 
with the aid of the medicine, lighting for power, and the 
result always turns out a cure. Do not stop using the 
medicine at this time, regardless of the number of days. 
The bark of burdock root, and sarsaparilla, an equal quan- 
tity of each filled in a bottle, and good spirits poured over 
it, must be drank freely three times a day, perhaps it might 
answer to put the roots into water, but 1 have never cured 
a case without the spirits." 

JAUNDICE. — (Foh-lo-ne-ga-tse-nah-noh-stce.) 

Symptoms. — This disease is characterized by yellowness 
of the skin, and whites of the eyes; the urine is high color- 
ed and leaves a yellow sediment in the vessel after stand- 
ing awhile; the stools are clay-colored; a dull, heavy, Ian- 


guid feeling prevails, attended with costiveness; the pulse 
is sometimes strong and full, at other times weak and fee- 
ble; chillness for a time, succeeded by flushes of heat; a 
bitter taste in the mouth, nausea and sometimes vomiting; 
a restless, uneasy sensation is experienced throughout the 

Causes. — This disease is always caused by some de- 
rangement of the Liver and the parts connected with it. 
It may be caused by anything that obstructs the passage 
of the bile through its natural channel; a sudden stoppage 
of the menses in females, or the discharge in clap. Indul- 
gence of anxious thoughts, or of any depressing passions, 
the excessive use of ardent spirits, a sedentary life, &c. — 
When Jaundice is produced by biliary obstructions, caused 
by gall-stones lodged in the biliary ducts, acute pains will 
be felt in that region, which will be increased by eating. 
The pain produced by the passage of a stone along the 
biliary ducts, may be distinguished from the pain produced 
by inflammation of the liver, by the acuteness of the 
former. This complaint sometimes originates from in- 
flammation or scirrosity of the liver or spleen. When it 
originates from the last named causes, and is suffered to 
run on for a length of time without medical aid, it is sel- 
dom cured. In the last stages of this complaint the skin 
is often marked with black spots or streaks. In some in- 
stances from fifty to a hundred and even more of these 
gall-stones have been taken from a dead subject on dis- 
section, and the gall-bladder found greatly distended. 

Treatment.— The first object should be to cleanse the 
stomach and bowels. For this purpose give an emetic of 
American ipecacuanha, or Indian physic, to either of which 
may be added gulver-root if prepared — from one to two 
tea-spoonfuls of the powdered root is a dose — if the gulvrr 
be added, give about that quantity when combined. — 
Give injections of gruel with a little table-salt, and hogs 
lard in it if the bowels be hard to move. After the emetic 
has operated by gentle vomiting, give gruel, which will 
determine it to the bowels. After the alimentary canal 
has been cleansed in the above manner, a strong decoc- 
tion of wild cherry-tree bark should be drank freely. To 
relieve the pain in the side which usually attends this 
disease, rub the side with the essence of red pepper; a];*} 
give the hepatic pill night and morning, two for a dose. 



Diets should be light and nourishing, a raw egg should - 
be taken every morning on a fasting stomach. Some per- 
sons when directed to take a raw egg,, will beat it well in a 
saucer or other vessel, and mix it with sugar or spirits or 
both, this in some degrees-cooks the egg and destroys its 
medical virtues — it should be taken from the shell and 
swallowed in its natural state. Fruits, light bread, sour 
milk and mush, whey, &c., will be suitable diets in this 
disease. Gentle but free exercise should be taken, this 
will have a tendency to open the pores and restore health, 
and as Jaundice produces great depression of spirits, every 
possible means should be used in exercise, amusements, 
company, &c, to secure tranquility and cheerfulness of 


The elongation or falling of the palate, is attended with 
a tickling in the fauces and soreness at the root of the 
tongue. It generally proceeds from a foul stomach. 

Treatment.— .Gargle the throat frequently with some 
astringent tonic article, such as a strong oose of oak, per- 
simon, blackberry brier root, &c, the gargle should be 
sweetened with honey; avoid speaking as much as possible- 
If this should not give relief, give an emetic. Alum water 
forms an excellent gargle., Dr. Ewel and Dr. Wright re- 
commend the application of pepper and salt to the elonga- 
ted Palate by means of a-spoon-handle. I have seen the 
Palate restored to its proper place by tying a lock of hair 
on the top of the head so as to draw the skin tight. 

POISONS.— (Go-shoh-aog-tcc.) 

Poisons are of three kinds, as animal, mineral, and veg- 

Animal poisons are such as aie communicated by the 
bite:s of poisonous reptiles or the stings of poisonous insects. 

The principal mineral poisons are the different prepara- 
tions of arsenic, murcuiy, copper, zinc, antimony, lead, 
tin, &e. 

The chief vegetable poisons are, henbane, night-shade, 
sicular or hemloc, fox-glove, wolf's bane, laurel, opium, 
Jamestown weed, mush-rooms, and black sarsaparilla. 



When an individual is bitten by a poisonous serpen^ if 
i% be on any of the extremities, immediately tie a bandage 
or ligature around the limb, between the wound andfthe 
body, this will greatly retard the passage into the system! 
Give the patient a large dose of the saturated tincture of 
lobelia, if it can be had, if it cannot be immediately pro- 
cured, bruize the lobelia herb, put it in whiskey and ad- 
minister it freely, until copious vomiting is produced. If 
neither of the above articles can be had give some other 
emetic, but lobelia is far preferable to any other in my 
knowledge. When the emetic is done aperating. give an 
infusion of the root of rattle-snake's master. This infusion 
or tea should be drank freely, as it is entirely harmless in 
its operations on the system. For an external application 
to the wound, use the bruized root of the rattle-snake's 
master. This treatment will cure the bite of the copper- 
head or rattle-snake, or any other poisonous reptile. 

Another mods of Treatment.— Apply the ligature or 
bandage and administer the emetic as above directed, and 
after the operation of the emetic, give a tea of piny-weed 
root freely. For an external application to the wound 
make a plaster to the wound of equal.quantities of salt' 
tobacco, indigo and hogs-lard; pulverize the tobacco indi- 
go and salt, then mix all the articles together and applv it 
in form of poultice. A free use of spirits, such as whiskey 
brandy, &c, will be found of great benefit in all cases of 
bites or stings. I have ascertained from personal obser- 
vation that a person when intoxicated, cannot be poison- 
ed by the bite of a snuke. Many lives have been saved 
among thejndians, by the frse use of whiskey and red- 
pepper; indeed, I believe, that whiskey alone will save life 
in many instances, when the aite would prove fatal if an 
active remedy was not resorted to immediately. The 
quantity of spirits taken need not give the least alarm for 
I believe it to be impossible to give enough to do an inju- 
ry. Fae pulse should be frequently examined, and when- 
ever it begins to sink or grow' feeble and fluttering the 
slants should be immediately resorted to.until the pulse is 
raised. ' 

There are many herbs which, may be used to advantage 
m snake bits, such as striped Mood-wort; when.this herb 


is used, apply the bruised leaves to the wound, at the same 
time taking- the expressed juice internally in table-spoon- 
ful doses repeated every few minutes. 

Indian Sanide. — When this is to be used, make a decoc- 
tion of the root and give it in doses of half gill every half 
hour, and at the same time apply the bruised leaves to 
the wound. 

Mountain Ditany. — Of this apply the bruised herb to 
the wound and drink freely of the tea. 

Common Green Plantain.' — Bruise the herb and root and 
apply it to the wound, and at the same time take the ex- 
pressed juice or tea freely. There are many other herbs 
that are good for snake bite, as may be seen under their 
different heads. I have known the bite of the copper-head 
cured in the following manner: Immediately apply to 
the wound, tobacco, which has been perfectly wet in vine- 
gar, and as soon as it can be prepared give a strong decoc- 
tion of the yellow-poplar root bark, and bathe the wound 
frequently with the same. When the bite or wound enters 
a large vein, the only chance to save life is to keep the 
stomach in motion by the use of emetics, and the pulse 
from sinking, b)- the use of whiskey or spirits of some kind, 
at the same time using external applications to the wound 
to kill or extract the poison. 


The sting of insects will seldom need any thing more 
than to wash the wound with the tincture of lobelia, or 
to apply the bruised leaves to the wound. Tobacco wet 
with vinegar, is an excellent application, or any of the ar- 
ticles recommended for snake-bite will answer. By ap- 
plying to some of those simple means, persons may relieve 
themselves of severe pain, and sometimes sickness. The 
sting of many insects that are not dangerous, often produce 
great pain and disagreeable swellings. Spider bites of 
poisonous appearance, should be treated as snake bites. 

The symptoms which follow eating or swallowing veg- 
etable poisons, are loss of memory, confusion, vertigo, (gid- 
diness of the head.) wildness of the eyes, stupor, nausea, 
vomiting, distention of the stomach and bowels, costive- 
ness, palpitation of the heart, and convulsions. 


Treatment. — Give an emetic of Indian physic and lo- 
belia, in tincture, these articles may be used either alone 
or combined. The spirits will stimulate the stomach, and 
render the operation of the emetic more certain. After 
copious vomiting has been produced, take common garden 
rue, and fry it in hogs lard, and give the oil or lard to the 
patient in table-spoonful doses until the poison is destroy- 
ed. Sweet oil is also very good. You should give injec- 
tions of new milk, with hogs lard or sweet oil in it, until 
the bowels are well cleansed. 

Symptoms. — Mineral poisons, when taken into the stom- 
ach in too large quantities, soon produces a burning prick- 
ling sensation in that part: great pain is experienced in 
the bowels, accompanied with violent puking, and thirst 
which cannot, be satisfied. It is also attended with dry- 
ness and roughness in the mouth and throat as if you had 
swallowed alum; great restlessness and anxiety. At this 
stage, unless speedy relief is obtained, inflammation will 
take place, and soon terminate in mortification, and death 
will close the painful scene. If the dose of poison taken 
should not be large enough to destroy life, a fever will en- 
sue, which will last for some time, attended with a con- 
stant trembling of the nerves. 

Treatment. — Give an emetic of American ipecacuanha, 
Indian physic, or lobelia^ or these articles combined: aid 
the operation of the emetic in every possible manner.- — 
This may be done by applying tobacco leaves steeped in 
warm vinegar to the stomach. The patient should also 
take the whites of twelve or fifteen raw eggs, beat well 
and put into cold wafer. A gill of this should be taken 
every few minutes; this will greatly facilitate the opera- 
tion of the emetic. After the stomach is thought to be 
measurably relieved of its poisonous contents, give hogs 
lard or sweet oil, in which has been stewed common gar- 
den rue; also give injections of the same in sweet milk. — 
Several writers of the old school recommend a puke of 
white vitriol. I have tried this also, and it had the desired 

When there are symptoms of inflammation of the stom- 
ach or bowels, refer to those heads for a remedy. 




Poisons of the skin, such as are often received front 
poison oak, poison vine, &c, are very painful, and in some 
instances produce fever. These may be easily relieved 
])} r annointing the poisoned parts with night shade and 
cream. This herb should be bruised, and cream enough 
added to make an ointment. It may also be relieved by 
annointing the parts with equal quantities of cedar oil 
and ho°:s lard or fresh butter. 



In many parts of the Western country, the inhabitants 
are subject to this dreadful and often fatal malady. Some 
suppose that the poison is imparted to the milk by some 
poisonous vegetable, which was eaten by the cattle. — 
Others contend, that, it is occasioned by the vapors which 
arise from poisonous minerals in the earth and settle on 
the vegetables eaten by the cattle. This last opinion is 
strongly and ably advocated by Dr. Shelton, which I f ; 
will give in his own words, for the satisfaction of the rea- 
der. He Says, "This malady is caused by the vapors which 
arise from poisonous minerals in the earth, and settle on 
the grass and other vegetables that the cattle eat. This 
fact is clearly proven by many circumstances. First, by 
the very appearance of the water, and the rocks, particu- 
larly in the lower parts of Indiana, and other sections of 
country, where it is very prevalent. Second, the very 
dogs are affected with it. from using the water. Third, it 
seldom makes it attack till in the summer ar fall, after the 
waters are very low, at which time we know that they 
contain the greatest proportion of mineral or other impure 
substances; also, the vegetable substances at this lime be- 
come tough, and contain much less juice in proportion to 
the vapour which, settles on their. Fourth, if it had been 
a vegetable which prduced [he milk-sick, it would have 
been frand long ago: for, to my own knowledge it. has 
been diligently searched for in many places, by numerous 
people and not found. Fifth, the scope of land on which 
ix is taken by the cattle, has frequently been ascertained 
to be very small, and by inclosing it so that they could 
r.ot get in, the malady was prevented. In this case, if it 
had been, a vegetable of an^r kind,, its growth certainly 


\could have extended 'over the inclosure in thirty or fortv 
years; for, I am acquainted with a place in 'East Tennes- 
see of nearly that age. A sixth proof is, that you may let 
the place remain unenclosed, and the cattle^ will always 
be liable to the complaint, as long as there sis vegetable 
matter enough of any kind to induce them to feed on it." — ■ 
Both people and cattle may have the poison- in them for 
weeks and even months, before thev show it; but whenev- 
er they a»e overheated it makes an attack, except on cows 
which give milk; t.he}^ seldom die with it, or suffer much 
from its effects, the poison being carried offin the milk. — 
People take it from using the milk of cows which are af- 
fected wiih it. 

Symptoms. — When the attack comes on. the patient ex- 
periences a sense of lassitude, great exhaustion and trem- 
bling, from slight exertion. Vertigo or diziness in the 
head, accompanied with immoderate thirst, burning at the 
stomach, vomitings and in most instances, obstinate cos- 
liveness. In all cases the breath ha,s a peculiar smell, by 
"which it can be distinguished from any other poison. If 
the attack should: noisome on for some time after the 
poison has been taken, the vomiting is not apt to be so 
sudden as it is in cases where the poison lays immediate 
bold on the S3 r stem 

Treatment. — The first object should he to rid the stom- 
ach of its contents: for this purpose, give an emetic of the 
tincture of American Ipecac, or Indian Physic, in table 
spoonful doses every few minutes, until copious vomiting 
is produced. The bowels should he relieved of their con- 
tents by injections, such as*veak soapsuds, in which has 
been put hogs "lard or castor oil, or thin gruel will answer. 
The ipecac should be continued until the patient is relie- 
ved. The vomiting will generally step when the stomach 
is thoroughly cleansed of its poisonous contents, and the 
tincture determine to the bowels: but if this should not be 
the case, give a li tvle gruel; this will aid in tranqujlizing 
the s f omacb, and determining the tincture to the bowels. 
As soon as the stomach has become sufficiently composed, 
give a mixture of equal quantities of castor oil and spiriis 
of* turpentine, in table-spoonful doses every twelve hours. 
Also give sweating teas, to which may be added a little 
sulphur. This course should be pursued until the health 
is. restored, wkich will generally b& in a very short time 


when compared with the time required by the whites to 
affect a cure in this disease. 

SCURVY. — (Tah-ne-no-loh-quh-tsi-tuh-ne-youh-Uo.) 

This disease is frequently of a highly putrid nature and 
generally afflicts persons who have been long confined, 
without due exercise. Those who have lived a conside- 
rable time on salted provisions, or .unsound and tainted 
animal food, or those who have been unable to obtain veg- 
etable food for a considerable time. Bad water, cold moist 
air, and the influence of depressing passions, such as grief, 
fear, &c, have a tendency to produce this disease. Neg- 
lectof personal cleanliness and debilitating menstrual dis- 
charges will produce scurvy in some instances. 

Symptoms. — Scurvy may always be known by the soft- 
ness and spungynessof the gums, which will always bleed 
from the slightest touch. Ulcers next form around the 
teeth, and generally eat away the lower edges of the gums, 
which occasions the teeth to become loose and sometimes 
to fall out. The face becomes a pale yellow color and 
sometimes bloated. The breath has an offensive smelL 
In severe forms of this disease, the above symptoms be- 
come greatly aggravated; the. heart palpitates or beats 
rapidly on the slightest exertion; the feet and legs swelL 
and ulcers break out en different parts of the hodj, but 
most frequently on the feet and legs; the urine is high 
colored; the stools have a very disagreeable smell; pains 
are felt over the whole body; as the disease advance^ 
blood issues from the nose, lungs, stomach, intestines and 
uterus — faintings and sometimes mortifications follow. — 
The appetite remains good io the last, and in many in- 
stances there is a perfect reteusion of the memory until 
death puts a period to the scene of suffering. 

Tf.eatmekt. — It will be extremely difficult to effect a 
cure in this distressing complaint without the strictest at- 
test ion to the diet of the patient. AH salted animal food 
must be scrupulously avoided. If animal food is taken at 
all, it must be eaten when fresh, but the patient must 
live chiefly en vegetable;:; such as scurvy grass, water 
cresses, garlic, mustard, horse radish, lettuce, &c. maybe 
oaten raw. Cabbage, turnips, parsnips, beets, carrots, 
&c, may be eaten when prepared in the common man- 
ner. The patient's drink should be vinegar and. water 


sweetened with sugar; sour butter-milk, lemon juice and 
water; sour krout is an excellent diet for those afflicted 
with Scurvy. In the early stages of this disease, and in 
mild attacks, it may generally be cured by drinking a 
tea of agrimony, narrow-dock root, sour-dock top or root, 
or bur-doc root. The gums and mouth should be rubbed 
with the ashes of red corn-cobs twice or three times a 
day; where the gums arc fetid and ulcerated, charcoal 
finely pulverized, should be mixed with the cob ashes — 
A dose of the charcoal may be taken once a day ii' the 
breath smells disagreeable. The bowels must be kept 
open by the use of cream of tartar, and occasional char- 
coal. If the body is affected, the warm or tepid bath, to 
which add a considerable quantity of vinega^ should be 
frequently used. Red oak oose, with a little alum in it is 
a very good wash for the mouth or the ulcres on other 
parts. Where there is great debility, good wine will be 
of service; the free use of bitter tonics, will also be found 
very good. The patient should not neglect to take free 
but gentle exercise in the open air when the weather is 
dry and pleasant; but wet and damp weather should be 
avoided. By attending to the above directions, the dis- 
ease will be speedily overcome and health restored. 

DEAFNESS.— [TsUoo-ni-kah-no-gah.'] 

When this complaint is caused by original defect in the 
structure of the ear, it is incurable. Bat it is sometimes 
occasioned by colds, affecting the head by inflammation 
or bearing in the membrane of the ear, and not unirequent- 
ly by the Avax becoming hard in the ear. 

Treatment. — When deafness is occasioned by a cold or 
inflammation of the ear; take such articles as are reccom- 
meudedfor cold, and steam the ear over bitter herbs; this, 
may be done by putting the herbs in a coffee pot, boiling, 
them, and placing the ear near the spout: also drop sweet 
or British oil in the ear. When it is occasioned by hard 
wax, or bytierangement in the auditory nerve, drop a few 
drops of the tincture of Indian hemlock in the ear, once or 
twice a day, and about twice a day drop British oil in the. 
ear, about two drops at a time. The smoke of tobacco 
blown forcibly in the ear, through a quill or pipe stem, 
will often remove deafness immediately. 


EAR ACHE.— (Tsu-ne-le-Squash-te.) 

This complaint though painful, often passes off of itself 

- with but very little inconvenience, without resort to medi- 
>cal aid. It often proceeds from colds, inflammation of 
the internal membrane of the ear, and from insects get- 
ting in the ear. This complaint has, in some few instan- 
ces, produced delirium and convulsions; when supuration 
takes place, it not unfrequeutly injures or destroys the 

>■ hearing. 

Treatment. — Lard in which onions have been fried, 
wiil often give relief, by dropping a drop or two in the ear, 
and putting a little woo! greased with the same in the 
ear, to exclude the atmosphere Of air. If the patient has 
a cold, he should drink freely of Some sweating teas, in or- 

? der to relieve his cold, by promoting a free perspiration 
or sweat. In severe cases, drop a few drops of the Hem- 
lock tincture in the ear, Or about two drops of the decoc- 
tion of common tobacco; this should be repeated about 
twice a day, until relief is obtained. If there is incarna- 
tion, the ear should be stoned with herbs as directed for 
deafness. In ear aches, and in deafness, ihe ear should, 
be kept stopped with wool, greased with some kind of oil. 
When ear ache is occasioned by an insect entering the ear 
drop a few drops of the tincture of camphor, or common 
spirits in the ear. 

Head Ache. — Head ache is often produced by a foul 
stomach, costiveness, indigestion, or by an obstruction of 
Ihe circulation of the blood, and not unirequently it is an 
attendant symptom of some other disease. Rut there is a 

, kind of headache which comes en periodically, and is at- 
tended with sickness of the stomach, and sometimes vomit- 
ing, called sick headache. 

TTEATMENT.-When headache is an attendant symptom of 
seme ether disease, it will disappear on the removal of 
the disease which it accompanied. When it is caused by 
a foul stomach, an emetic will give relief; when produced 
by costiveness, regulate the bowels by the use of purges- 
Persons who are subject to paroxysms of sick headache, 
should live on light diet, take regular exercise, keep the 
bowels open by the use of cathartics, or bitters composed 
of equal quantities of gulver and Indian physic, and Moc- 
casin flower root. For a description of these roots, look 
under their different heads. About the time the fit of par- 


jxysm is expected, the stomach should be cleansed by an 
~emetic of gulver and ipecac or Indian physic; for the mode 
of preparing and administering this emetic — see Dispensa- 
tory. The emetic should be followed by a dose of anti- 
bilious pills or some other cathartic, if it should not itself 
operate sufficiently on the bowels. The patient should 
wear flannel socks on his feet, lined with red pepper con- 


Persons of all countries, ages and sexes, are in some de 
gree liableto this distressingcomplaint. Thecauses which 
tend to produce it are various and numerous, and the re- 
medies must be varied accordingly. It may be brought on 
children by worms or by teething; sol es suddenly drying 
up on them, &c. It may be caused by the intemperate 
use of spirituous liquors, by the sudden suppression of the 
menses, violent fits of passion, excessive heat or cold, &c. 

Symptoms. — Before the fit comes on, the patient is gen- 
erally troubled with dullness, uneasiness, giddiness, pain 
in the head, palpitations of the heart, disturbed sleep, and 
difficulty of respiration. The complexion becomes pale, 
and the extremities cold. Females, it is said, are most li- 
able to this disease. It is sometimes caused by some na- 
tural defect of the obstructions of the blood vessels. 

Treatment. — When a person is seized with a fit, a piece 
of wood or a spoon should be placed in the mouth, to pre- 
vent 'he tongue from being injured by the teelh. When 
an obstruction of the brain is feared, bleed in the foot, arid , 
evacuate the bowels as speedily as possible, by the use of 
laxative injections. If worms are the cause expel them 
as directed under that head; if teething, bathe the feet in 
warm water frequently, and apply plasters of mustard 
seed to the feet, to produce a revolution from the head, 
and at the same time keep the bowels open by cooling in- 
jections; if customary evacuations have been stopped, 
they should be restored; if indigestible food or spirituous 
liquors taken into the stomach is the cause, give an emet- 
ic; if weakness and irritability of the nervous system is the 
cause, give the atmospheric tincture. In all cases of this 
disease the powdered root of the moccasin-flower should 
betaken freely— dose, a tea-spocnful of the powdered root 


in a pint of boiling water. To prevent a return ,©f the fit, 
keep the bowels open, take a chalybeat pill morning and 
night, and drink a tea made by putting a tea-spoonful of 
powdered mistletoe (taken from the white-oak tree) and a 
tea-spoonful of the powdered root of the moccasin flower 
info a pint of boiling water. All possible pains should be 
taken to keep the mind at ease and cheerful, and to pre- 
vent the intrusion of violent and agitating passions. — 
When Epilepsy proceeds from natural defects it is incur- 

AVOYLEXY. —{Apoplexia.) 

Apoplexy is a sudden deprivation of sense and motion- 
while the heart and lungs still continue in regular action. 

Causes. — Intense study, violent passions, wearing the 
neck-cloth too tight, luxurious diet, suppression of urine or 
other discharges, sudden checks of perspiration, hard drink- 
ing, excess of venery, too- large doses of opium; in short, 
whatever determines or throws so great a quantity of 
blood to the brain that it cannot return from that organ, 
has a direct tendencv to produce this distressing and often 
fatal disease. Persons who lead an inactive life — per- 
sons of advanced age, corpulent habit, short neck, and 
large head; also, such as live on full, rich diet, are more 
liable than those of the opposite habits. 

Symptoms. — Itisusually preceded by giddiness and swim-, 
ming of the head, loss of memory, night-mare, noise in the 
ears, drowsiness and difficulty of breathing. It sometimes 
though rarely comes on suddenly and cannot be account- 
ed for — and as it goes off leaves some part of the system-; 
in a paralyzed condition, which is then called Palsy. (For 
treatment of such cases see Palsy.) 

Treatment. — Raise the patients head, place him where 
he can breathe cool air, and remove every thing from, 
about the neck, that has a tendency to compress it. If the 
patient is robust and of a plethoric habit, bleed copiously 
in the loot, bathe the feet in warm water, and then apply 
plasters to the feet in order to produce a revulsion from , 
the head. Apply cloths wet in cold vinegar and water 
to the head, changing them as fast as they become warm. 
Evacuate the contents of the bowels by means of a purge, 
aided by injections, a portion of each injection should co$U 


cist of anti-spasmodic tincture, or some of the articles de- 
scribed in the class of anti-spasmodicsin Materia Medica. 
If the patient should be old and feeble and the counte- 
nance palid, be should be used sparingly, the head should 
be raised and frequently turned; if the patient can swallow, 
give a purge and aid its operation by injection, use the 
anti-spasmodic tincture freely by the mouth and by in- 
jection; rub the feet with the anti-spasmodic tincture and 
apply plasters of mustard-seeds, wet with the same. After 
the violence of the fit has subsided, follow the same course 
as directed for Epilepsy. 

Persons afflicted with either of these dangerous diseases, 
should live on spare diet, and carefully avoid all predis- 
posing causes. 

VE NERIA L. — {Tsu-ne-nu-sup-hitk-sTiah) 

The prevalence of this filthy disease among mankind, is 
another proof among the many that might be adduced, that 
it is the interest of mankind to be virtuous, if they would 
be happy, and he that would be healthy must be tempe-. 
rate. At what time and place this disease had its origin, 
is now unknown to the medical world; but it first attract- 
ed attention in Europe, about the close of the fifteenth cen -. 
tury, and was communicated with great rapidity to every 
part of the known world, and became such a desolating 
scourge to the human family, as to render it an object of 
great medical attention. 

This complaint is produced, in most cases, by a healthy 
person having sexual intercourse or connexion with ano- 
ther who has this infectious disorder in the genitals or pri- 
vates; and most frequently occurs among persons of illicit 
habits, and hence disgrace is attached to if: and on this 
account, may have been induced to conceal their situation, 
until, by endeavoring to hide their shame they have ruin- 
ed their constitutions. Y«t it sometimes happens, that 
this contagious complaint, is caught innocently: but the 
difficulty of proving innocence, almost always leaves a 
blight upon the character of the sufferer. After this, dis- 
order has been taken in the manner I have described, it 
will depend very much on the state of the system and other 
peculiarities of the system not distinctly known, at what 
particular time the disease will make its appearance. In 
some persons, whose systems are very irritable, it will 


show itself on the third or fourth day after sexual connex- 
ion with a person infected with the disorder; in other per- 
sons, it will be eight or ten days, and even a longer time 
before it makes its appearance. In fact, cases are men- 
tioned by good medical' writers, in which the venerial mat- 
ter has remained as it were asleep in the system, for % 
much greater length of time. Some say one month, some 
three, some six, and others a year and so on. But I sus- 
pect the fact to be in those cases in which the disease is 
supposed to appear after* a considerable time, that the per- 
sons have not been entirely cured; or, in other words, that 
the disease has merel}' been driven back by quackery, and 
afterwards showed itself under the following forms: In 
the throat, in the eyes, in the nose, on the legs, in swell- 
ings of the groins, in splotches or sores on the body, &c. 
When it makes its appearance in the above forms, it is 
called Constitutional, because it is firmly seated in the 
whole body by the venerial poison having been absorbed 
and carried i;«to. the whole circulation. The venerial dis- 
ease is very . contagious. I copy the following from the 
writings of Dr. Gunn; "The venerial disease may be 
communicated by wounding or pricking any part of the 
body with a lancet, having on its point any particle of thiy 
venerial poison. I recollect a student of medicine, who 
came very near death from cutting his finger slightly when 
dissecting a person who had died of the venerial disease; 
the poison matter was communicated to the slight cut in 
twelve hours afterwards; he labored under violent fever, 
which continued'ten or twelve days, before the inflamma- 
tion could be subdued. This disease may also take place 
from an application of the matter to a scratch, to a 30m- 
mon sore, cr to a wound. Several instances are men- 
tioned of Venerial or pox sores being formed in the nos- 
trils, eye-lids and lips, from the slight, circumstance of per- 
sons having the disease touching their nostrils, eyes, or 
lips with their lingers, immediately after handling the 
venerial sores on their own privates. These remarks are 
made with the intention of showing how easily this loath- 
some disease, with all its impure and life corrupting taints 
may be communicated, and to place physicians and indi- 
viduals on their guard against infection." 

Venerial diseases have two distinct forms. The first 1 is 
Pox, properly 'so called, and the secdnd, Clap, called by 


physicians Gonarrha. iThere is also another form, which 
however, always arises from one of the other two, or from 
both in combination, and is nothing more than the one I 
have before described as constitutional. 

P O X.— [Oo-m-JecA,] 

The Pox is a most contagious, corrupting, dangerous 
and destructive disease, and if suffered to progress in its 
ravages on the human body, never fails in desolating the 
human constitution, or destroying life at its very core. — 
It has two forms. First, local, and second constitutional, 
When it is first received by cohabit ion, it is for & while 
located in and confined to the privates and genital organs; 
but, if let run on for a length of time/without being cured, 
it affects the whole system, and deranges and impairs the 
constitution — it is then called constitutional. It is very 
readily communicated by sexual connexion, or from either 
the father or mother to the offspring; also from the moth- 
er or nurse, who gives slick to the child; and we also have 
it from very respectable authority, that it may be taken 
from inhaling the breath of a person who is affected with 
it, or by kissing, drinking, &c, with such persons, or by 
washing the clothes of those infected with it, &c. Pox 
differs very much from Clap, in the length of time in 
which it makes its appearance from the time of its recep- 
tion. It will sometimes make its appearance in seven or 
ten days, and sometimes it will be two or three weeks, 
and even longer before it breaks out. 

SymrTCMs.-*TMs disease generally makes its appear- 
ance by what physicians call chancres,, and when taken 
frcm sexual connexion with an infected person; the first 
warning of its approach is generally an itching about the 
head of the penis, or on the side of the penis near the end, 
and on the inside of the lips of the privates of females. — 
Little pimples scon rise and fill on the top with a whitish 
cr yellowish looking matter; in a very lev/ day?, these 
pimples enlarge themselves and become what are called 
venerial sores or ulcres. These sores sometimes, after a 
long continuance, gradually disappear and others break 
\ out at the same time. Sometimes the first sores continue 
to enlarge as a kind of eating ulcer, with hard looking 
w edges, and discharge a thin unhealthy matter. The Pox 
•also, makes itsmppearance; in what are called 


buboes. These are hard lumps like kernels or swellings 
which rise in one or both groins. These swellings grad- 
ually increase in size, until they become about the size of" 
an egg and have an angry red color, and unless driven 
away by the application of medicine, they will come to a 
head and discharge a thin briny looking matter. These 
b a bo ss generally produce great pain and some fever. Bu- 
boes sometimes make their appearance in the arm-pits, in 
the throat and about the neck. These last appearances of 
bubo however, are not very frequent, and are often the 
effects of mercury improperly administered in the Pox 
arising from the disease itself. When the constitution is 
very irritable, the disease will sometimes attack the nose, 
the throat, the tongue, the eyes, the shin bones and so on. 
In some cases the whole of the nose and palate bones 
have been eaten out, and the nose flattened down almost 
to the upper lip. When the disease has been communica- 
ted from parents to the offspring, it sometimes comss into 
the world fall of sores, and sometimes skinned and raw 
nearly all over. How the feelings of virtue and common 
decency must recoil at such a disgraceful and yet heart- 
rending and truly pitiable sight. 

..Treatment. — First give an emetic of gulver and wild 
ipecacuanha, or Indian physic, prepared as follows: Take 
two ounces of gulver root, and one ounce of ipecac, or In- 
dian physic, (the root) put them in one gallon of water, 
and boil down to a half pint, and give this in half gill do- 
ses at intervals of fifteen minutes, until vomiting is pro- 
duced. As soon as this medicine commences operating, 
^ive warm water to assist its operation: when the stomach 
is sufficiently cleansed, give water gruel to determine it 
to the bowels. You may also give a teaspoonful of the 
Hour of sulphur with the-gruel, to remove the sickness from, 
the stomach. After the operation of the emetic, the pa- 
tient should drink of the following decoction : Take a 
handful of white sarsaparilla root, (he same quantity of 
yellow sarsaparilla root, a double handful of wild mercu- 
ry root; boil ail ihese articles together in three gallons of 
water down to a half gallon. The patient should drink of 
this decoction three half pints a day. Also give powders, 
made as follows: Take a double handful of agrimony, the 
same quantity of bamboo brier, two ounces of Indian 
hemp; wash these roots clean and dry them in the shade,, 


where they will not be exposed to the dampness of the 
rain or dew; when perfectly dry, pulverize and bottle np 
for use. Of these powders, the patient should take a dose, 
« teaspoonful; if this should fail to operate in two hours* 
give half a teaspoonful, and repeat every two hours until 
it purges. After the first dose, which should purge well, 
give a sufficient quantity each day to keep the bowels 
regulated. If the above powders should fail to operate on 
the bowels with sufficient activity, give a dose ol calomel, 
say from twelve to twenty grains, according to the consti- 
tution of the patient; after which give a moderate dose, 
say five grains twice a day for two - days; the third day 
give one dose, after which give three grains a day, until 
the gums and root of the tongue feels slightly sore. Oh 
the first appearance of the soreness of the gums and root 
of the tongue, the use of the calomel must be discontinued, 
and a tablespoonful of the flour of sulphur taken twice a 
day; also castor oil should be taken twice a day; a table- 
spoonful each time. 

Diets. — When the patient is of full habit of body, the 
diets should be light, such as light soups, buttermilk, bread 
and shortening, a little chicken or squirrel cooked in its 
own oil alone, or something of the kind. But if the pa- 
tient is in delicate health, or much reduced by the disease, 
-or by the use of strong medicines, nourishing diet, wine 
-and tonics will be proper. 


This disease may be communicated by sexual inter- 
course. Or if a woman be afflicted with it while preg- 
nant, unless she be cured before the birth of the child, it 
is sure to have it; some children are born «with it, whose 
mothers have been cured before delivery. These are the 
•only means by which this disorder can be communicated. 
When taken by sexual connexion in sound poisons who 
have never had it before, it will not in general' show it- 
self sooner than from five or six to nine days, but I have 
never known it to go over the tenth day after it was re- 
ceived, before it made its appearance. Persons who have 
frequently been afflicted with Clap, or those of weakly, 
irritable habits, are apt to discover it on them about the 
third day, and it very seldom passes the fifth with such 
persons, without showing some signs of its approach*^* 



The mode of life will make a difference in the length of 
time in its making its attack. If you are temperate, it 
will not show itself so soon as if you are intemperate after 
the reception of the disease. 

Symptoms. — In most instances, the first symptoms are 
an itching, and slightly painful sensation about half an 
inch up the water passage from the end of the penis, and 
burning or scalding sensations or feeling.-; in the urethra, 
or canal of the penis, whenever you urinate or make wa- 
ter. In a short time, say in the space of from five to twen- 
ty hours after these symptoms are felt, there will be a 
slight discharge of matter from the privates, nearly like the 
white of an egg; in a short time it becomes more copious, 
and of a yellow color, and lastly, of a greenish color. In a 
few days the soreness extends up the water passage (ure- 
thra) to the neck ot the bladder, and the system is thrown 
into a general feverish condition. In females this disease 
is somewhat more simple than in males. In its first stage 
it resembles the whites in their, worst stage, and they can 
go much longer, and suffer less. without, a remedy, than a 
male; because the parts are larger, and the matter more 
freely discharged, before it becomes so irritating. But the 
female labors under this disadvantage: The disease soon- 
crpassesup, both the birth place and water canal, and af- 
fects the womb and bladder both. Sometimes the tisti- 
cies of the male swell, and become very painful, and the 
penis inclines to great erections, thereby giving great 
pain. The Chip thows itself much sooner, and progresses 
much more rapidly, and soon becomes more violent on 
those who have it frequently, or more 1 ban once, than it 
does the first time; in such cases it frequently attacks the 
whole water passage at once, or perhaps up near (he first 
place. After the disease has beeft suffered to run on for 
n length of time, the eyes become weak, and the little 
veins are all engorged with blood; the edges of the lids 
look swelled,: inflamed and hard, the hollow around the 
eves assume a dork appearance, and the countenance 
wears a dull, defected, and sickly aspect. 

Treatment. — First cleans the bowels with anti-brllious 
pills or some ether cathartic; and then drink freely of a 
decoction made as follows: Take of white sumac root five 
pounds, of .the small kind red root two pounds, one double 
handful of black or dewberry brier root, a double handful 



of persimmon bark, (the bark of the; root is preferred) boil 
all th$se articles in ten or twelve gallons of water, down 
to a half gallon, and strain for use. Of this decoction the 
patient must drink freely, and keep the bowels regulated 
by the use of anti-billious pills or some other cathartics. 
He should also take a handful of sarsaparilla, and boil it 
in two gallons of water down to a quart, and fake of this 
decoction a half pint or more each day. Tl^e above med- 
icines should be used perseveringly until the discharge 
ceases. The patient should eat no strong diet; a little 
squirrel or chicken may be taken if cooked with but very, 
little seasoning, if wheat bread is used it should not be : 
shortened. Tea or coffee may be drank, but ardent spirits - 
must be avoided or the remedies may be discontinued. — 
The patient should avoids all exposure or vioJent exercise,.. 
and all sexual intercourse with others. 

Another Mode of Treatment. — Cleanse the bowels as 
above directed, and then drink freely of a strong decoction , 
of equal quantities of dewberry brier root and blue flag or . 
gleet root. 

In all obstinate cases where the above remedies fail, 
give a dose of calomel, say from ten to twenty grains, 
and work it off with castor oil or rheubarb, and then 
drink freely of one of the above decoctions, in coonexion 
"with 1 he sarsaparilla decoction. 

There are many other preparations which mayjbe used .-.. 
to great advantage in this filthy complaint, as may be 
seen in the Dispensatory. But those afflicted with this 
loathsome disease, are too apt to be changing- the mode of 
treatment before it has had a fair trial. This is very 
wrong, and should by all means be avoided if a speedy re- 
covery is desired. After having pursued one remedy for 
Jen days without an alteration ior the better, it may be 
changed for some other mode, but not sooner, and temper- 
ance must he strictly observed. 


A discharge of Bloody Urine, may be occasioned by the 
lodging of a small stone in the ureter, or in the kidney, 
which wounds the part with which it comes in contact; 
when in this way it usually deposites a sediment of a dark 
brown color, sometimes clotted, and is attended with an 
a cute pain and sense'of weight in the back, and difficulty 


in making water; when the above symptoms occur, and 
it is supposed to be caused by the lodgment of a stone, 
look for a remedy under the head of Stone and Gravel. — 
"When the blood proceeds immediately from the bladder, 
its discharge is usually accompanied with a sense of heat, 
and pain in the lower part of the belly. 

Treatment. — Give a tea of the powdered root of Jeru- 
salem oak, a table-spoonful to a pint of boiling water; also 
give powders of egg-shells and alum, equal quantities. — 
The egg-shells must first be browned or parched in an 
•oven and reduced to a fine powder; they should be finely 
pulverized, and the two articles mixed together. Dose, a 
tea spoonful night and morning. The bowels must be 
kept open by the use of anti-bilious pills or some other ca- 
thartic, such a3 rheubarb, oil, &c. Bitters of yellow sar- 
saparilla in common spirits will be found of great advan- 
tage in this disease. 


Gravel and Stone, though distinguishable from each 
other, appear to originate in the same causes, and require 
similar treatment. Gravel is usually understood to mean 
calculi, (from the old word calx) a limestone, or Utile sand- 
like stones, which pass from the kidneys through the ure- 
ters into the bladder. Stone is a strong concretion of 
matter, which enlarges, and hardens by time; seldom 
found in the ureters or tubes themselves, but generally 
lodged in the kidneys or bladder; when the Stone is in 
the kidney it is because it is too large to be passed off 
through the ureters (ureters are small tubes which ex- 
tend from the kidneys to the bladder and convey the urine 
into the latter) into the bladder; and when found in the 
bladder, it is from the fact of its being too large to be. 
passed off through the channel of the penis. 

Symptoms. — "When a disposition to Gravel exists in the 
urinary system, there will be occasional paroxysms or fits 
of pain in the back, which sometimes shoot downward to 
the thighs, and sometimes a numbness of one of the legs 
inside, accompanied with a retraction or drawing up of 
one of the testicles or stones in men, almost constant de- 
sire to make water which is attended with the most ago- 
hizing pain; and is sometimes terminated by a discharge 


of small gravel stones from the urethra with the urine, 
sometimes. The stone which is usually found in the kid- 
neys or bladder, sometimes in both, is a disease of more 
serious and dangerous consequences. When the stone 
has acquired some size, if situated in the bladder, there is 
an almost constant desire to make water, which is voided 
in very Small quantities, sometimes, drop by drop with 
great pain--and sometimes in a small stream, which oc- 
casionally stops short, and is attended with almost insup- 
portable pain. In some persons, the violence of straining 
to void the urine, makes the rectum or lower gut contract, 
and expel its excrements; or if that gut be empty, this 
straining occasions tenesmus or a constant desire to go to 
stool. There is often blood to be seen in the urine, and 
sometimes pure blood is passed off in small quantities. — 
When calculus or stone is formed in the kidney, in addi- 
tion to the general symptoms of stone in the bladder, there 
will be felt a dead, heavy, dull pain in the loin, where the 
kidney containing the stone is seated, frequently accom- 
panied with chillness or creeping coldness, in and over 
the part affected. In severe cases of calculous or stone, 
either in the kidneys or bladder, there is frequently experi- 
enced, during the time of passing the urine, sickness of the 
stomach, a desire to vomit and much faintness. The gra- 
vel and sometimes stone, when the latter has not become 
too much enlarged from the lapse of time, may much 
more easily be removed from the bladders of females than 
from males. 

Treatment. — The bowels should be kept open by mild 
and cooling purges, such as cream of tartar, American 
senna or some similar article. There are two small 
bones in each drum fish's head, they are nearly round, and 
about the size of the thumb nail, reduce a number of these 
bones to a very fine. powder, and take ateaspoonful of these 
powders morning and night. This is a certain remedy for 
stone or gravel, it will dissolve the stone, and cause it to 
be passed off in the urine. 

There are many other valuable articles for this truly 
painful and distressing complaint. A decoction of cat 
tongue, drank freely seldom failes to give relief. The 
Horse radish is very good, and the common garden rad- 
ish is also good; the proper mode of using the common 



radish is in decoction, or the expressed juice; this is a 
valuable remedy, and it is said by many to possess the 
property of dissolving and carrying off the urine. 

The index will point to numerous valuable articles for 
suppressed urine. Every thing of a heating nature, both 
in diet and drink, must be strictly avoided. 

The patient should take regular,, but moderate exercise. 
The index will also refer the reader to several valuable 
preparations for gravel in the dispensatory. 

Turk in his pamphlet, which was published in 1843, 
says, "I have cured this disease of long standing, in four 
or five days, with a root in alcohol or good spirits; I have 
'mover failed, and until I do, I will continue to believe in its 
efficacy. I could cite many cases of the most notorious 
kind, but as I intend a small work, I will give but one. A 
gentleman in North Carolina had been afflicted for 15 
years, and so much so, and so' many trials had been made, 
that all hopes of a cure was abandoned; he had to draw 
his water with a catheter; he celled upon me, and I furnish- 
ed him the medicine; he declared to me that, I cured him 
ia three or four days; 1 saw him occasionally for three or 
four months, and he remained well." The root I cure this 
disease with, grows in every part of the United States, 
where I travel; it grows on upland, and low grounds — 
I have mostly found it in fence Corners; in good land, it 
grows irom live to eight feet high, has a bushy top and 
yellow blossoms, and blooms from the last of July, and 
through August. The root is the part for use, and hard 
to dig — has man}'' roots growing horizontally, when dug 
out, and exposed to the sun, inclines to turn red, between 
the bark and the woody part of the root is a sticky rosin. 
The rosin contains the medicine, the stalk while green 
ha 1 he appearance of four square, but when close exam- 
ined, it is found to be round, and four feather edges. As 
I know ot no other root that contains this kind of rosin,! 
cannot see how it can be mistaken, and another proof, it 
makes a very pleasant drink, and |Will remind us of the 
pure rosin. This medicine acts directly up6n the water 
passage, and will dissolve any stone in the kidneys or 
bladder. It seems to have nothing to do with any other 
part of the system; the graved, after being dissolved, is 
thrown off, and looks like lime. The mode of preparing 
and using it is as follows. After the root is dug and well 


•washed, cut fine and fill a quart bottle with the root, then 
put in the spirits; and it will soon be fit for use. The bot- 
tle will bear filling two or three times, without renewing 
the roots. This tincture should be drank as freely as pos- 
sible, according to the age, strength, and constitution of 
the patient, — it should be used most freely from 10 to 4 
o'clock in the night. In all diseases, the system should be 
in good order, and costiveness in this disease should be 
particularly avoided. This root will cure any'inilamma- 
t.ion of the bladder, diabetes, or involuntary flow of urine. 
I have never tried the above remedy, as the pamphlet very 
lately came to my hands, but thought proper to give it a 
place, as the root abounds in our country, and it certainly 
deserves a trial. 

The Uva Ursi of the mountainous regions of Europe, 
and possibly of this country, is said by physicians who 
profess to be acquainted with its medical virtues, to stand 
unrivaled as a remedy for gravel or stoine. A full des- 
cription of this article may be seen under its proper head 
to which is added several cases of actual experiment, and 
the result in cases of gravel or stone. 




Which means an immoderate flow of urine, commonly 
without any particular pain in the urinary organs. 

Symptoms. — The quantity of water usually discharged 
in this disease is more than double the quantity of liquid 
taken both in food and drink, and it is as transparent as 
spring water — it has a sweetish taste like sugar and wa- 
ter, and a very faint smell, as if mixed with rosemary 
leaves. After this disease runs on for a length of time, the 
mind becomes dull and melancholy, the skin dry and hot. 
immoderate thirst which cannot Jbe satisfied, the appetite 
becomes voracious. There is a gradual emaciation of . 
whole body, attended with great debility, a -sense cfweari- 
■ and great aversion to motion. There are frequent 
darling pains in the privates, accompanied with a chill, 
heavy pain in the small of the back, the bowels are costive 
the pulse irregular. As the disease advances, fever takes 
place, similar to that in hectic and ccmsumptive cases, the 
feet begin to swell, and death in a short time ensues. The 
attacks of diabetes arc generally slow and -gradual. It is'' 


sometimes two or more years in making its advances on 

the constitution. 

Treatment. — Cleanse the stomach with an emetic, fol- 
low the emetic with a cooling purge. Purges should not 
he used in this disease any further than to prevent cos- 
tiveness. The patient should drink daily of a tea of piny- 
weed or gleet-root or both combined, and take a chalybeate 
pill night and morning. 

The diet should be nourishing, principally flesh; vegeta- 
bles should be avoided. 

C H L I C t . — [Tsu-ne-yoh-low-tis-scoli.~\ 

Of this disease there are generally reckoned three kinds, 
as flatulent, bilious, and nervous or cramp Cholic. The 
causes which predispose to an attack of Cholic, are flatu- 
lence, indigestible food, unripe fruits, fermenting drinks, 
windy vegetables, excess of bile, costiveness, sudden check 
of perspiration, cold, worms, other diseases improperly or 
imperfectly cured, &c. 

Symptoms of Flatulent Cholic. — This Cholic may be 
distinguished by a rumbling in the bowels, and a disposi- 
tion to belch or discharge wind from the stomach. Jt is 
also attended with sickness and sometimes vomiting, a 
violent pain is felt in the stomach, and if undigested food 
has passed from the stomach into the bowels, the pain will 
extend from the stomach to the bowels and be most severe 
at or near the naval. The stomach and bowels both being 
distended or tightly swelled. 

Treatment. — This kind of Cholic may generally be re- 
moved by very simple means, such as a drink of warm 
loddy, to which may be added fifteen or twenty drops of 
oil of penny-royal, essence of peppermint, or strong mint 
tea — a tea of black or red pepper, ginger, spice, calamus, 
dog- wood berries, are all good and will generally give re- 
lief; a tea cf bubby-root is also good. Hogs hoofs burnt 
and reduced to powders, taken in tea-spoonful doses mix- 
ed with honey, every few minutes, will be found an im- 
mediate remedy. tSpikenard-root taken in powders or 
bitters, is very good; spirits into which has been put balm, 
of gilead buds, is excellent, a dram of camphor is good. 
Persons who are addicted to Cholic should use balm of 
gilead buds, spikenard-root, prickly-ash bark of the root. 


or asafoedita digested in common spirits for a daily bitter. 
These articles may be used alone or combined at pleasure. 
In a violent and stubborn attack, bleed and bathe the pa- 
tient; if bathing vessels are not at hand, bathe the feet, 
and apply cloths wrung out of hot water, to the belly, as 
hot as can be borne, warm salt, applied in the same man- 
ner is very good. If costiveness prevails, give laxative 
clysters, such as butter-nut syrup and gulver tea combined; 
the clysters should be continued until >the contents of the 
bowels be thoroughly evacuated, after which. give a few 
clysters of new milk and water. 


Symptoms. — Loss of appetite, a bitter taste in the mouth, 
an acute pain about the naval, costiveness, attended with 
.sickness and vomiting of a bilious matter. 

Treatment. — Open the bowels with some active Cathar- 
tic, aided by injections. If the pulse be frequent and high, 
bleed. After the bowels have been thoroughly cleansed, 
give a few injections, composed of new milk and water, 
with a little hogs lard in it. When the stomach is irrita- 
ble, it may be quieted with mint tea, or a tea of cholera 
morbus root; peppermint bruised and applied to the pit of 
the stomach, will aid in checking the vomiting. After 
relief is obtained, it will be advisable to take an anti- 
dyspeptic or hepatic pill night and morning for a few days. 
This will restore the liver to healthy action, and increase 
the tone and strength of the stomach. 


Nervous or Cramp Cholic may be distinguished by a 
disposition to cramp, accompanied with pain similar to 
other Cholic. 

Treatment: — Bathe the feet in warm water and bleed 
in the foot. If the blood can be taken from the vein 
which lies nearest the ankle-bone on the inside, it is pre- 
ferred. Give laxative injections — butter-nut and gulver 
if it can be had. At the same time, let the patient drink 
freely of sampson snake-root tea, a tea of bubby-roor, or 
the root or bark of the prickly ash. Warm applications to 
the pained part, such as cloths wet in hot water or warm 
salt, will aid in subduing the spasm or cramp Cholic, 


sometimes it extends to the blood; this kind of Cholic pro- 
duces a dull, heavy sensation throughout the whole sys- 
tem; this cholic is most common among pregnant women, 
and may be relieved by keeping t,he bowels open, by the 
use of mild cathartics and drinking freely of bitters com- 
posed of spikenard, white sarsaparilla and the bark of the 
root of prickly ash. These articles maybe used all to- 
gether, or either of the articles used alone. The express- 
ed juice of prickly ash root is not surpassed by any other 
remedy in oar knowledge for Flatulent or Nervous Cholic. 


Locked-Jaw may be considered an involuntary cramp 
or contraction of all the muscles of the body. It most 
frequently arises from wounds, and in some instances from 
very slight wounds, such as the slight puncture of a pin. 
needle, or splinter under the nail; also from cuts, snags, &c. 

Symptoms — Are a dull stiffness of the head and neck, ari 
uneasiness in the breast, soon followed by a change of 
speech, and a difficulty of swallowing, the patient fre- 
quently remains perfectly in his senses. The stiffness in 
the jaws gradually increases, until the teeth becomes 
clenched, the tongue also becomes stiff, and violent and 
alarming proxysms nov/ take place in the muscles. 

Treatment. — When: this painful disease proceeds from 
a wound of any kind, the wound should be immediately 
opened and cleansed of any matter that may be in if; then 
fill it with. spirits of turpentine or warm salt, and cover it 
with a warm moist poultice. If the patient can swallow, 
give a purge of gulver and butter-nut syrup combined, or 
caster oil: the cathartic should be aided by injections. — 
For preparing and administering injections, see utfder the 
head Clystering. Also give a tea of seneka or black snake- 
root. If the patient cannot swallow, give injections free- 
ly of some active cathartic, as it is all important to have 
the contents of the bowels immediately evacuated. To- 
bacco or tincture of lobelia may be combined with the pur- 
gative injections to great advantage. The warm bath 
should never be dispensed with in this alarming disease, 
as it will aid both in relaxing the muscles and in the oper- 
ation of the cathartics, whether administered by injections 
or otherwise. For an external application to the jaws, 


use the- red pepper poultice, a thin cloth should be put be- 4 
tween the skin and the poultice to keep it from burning the 
skin. The poultice should be wet with antispasmodic 
tincture, and from a half to a whole tea spoon hi 1 of this 
tincture should be taken internally, repeated at intervals 
of ten or fifteen minutes or oftener, as circumstances re- 
quire it. If the patient cannot swallow, this tincture 
should be put into the mouth, it will soon find its way to 
the root of the tongue and will aid greatly in relieving the 
spasm and cause the parts to become relaxed. A poultice 
of life-everlasting or sassafras buds is very good, applied 
to the jaws and throat, to produce a relaxation of the 

TOOTH- ACHE.— (Oo-yok-quak-li-skee.) 

This ex<3rutiating and distressing complaint, is thought 
by many persons to originate in the teeth. This idea, how- 
ever common it may be, is very erroneous. It is in most 
instances, a symptom of other diseases, which diseases 
must be nought out and removed before relief can be ob- 

Treatment. — When this disease is supposed to arise 
from rheumatism, look under that head for a remedy. — 
When it is caused by the stoppage of periodical evacua- 
tions in females, refer to that head among the diseases of 
women for. a remedy. When it is attended with costive- 
ness, headache and fever, purge freely with salts, caster 
oil, rheubarb or antibilious pills. Toothache is frequently 
caused by the nerve of the tooth being exposed to the at- 
mosphere. When this is the case, wet cotton or lint in 
cederoii, essence of peppermint, penny-royal or spirits of 
camphor, and plug the hollow of the tooth with it, renew 
this lint frequently and it will generally give relief; cotton 
or lint wet with laudanum is also very good. Toothache 
sometimes arises from rheumatism, when this is the case, 
both the sound and decayed teeth will be pained; there 
will also be a dull heavy pain extending along the jaw- 
bone, and the whole side of the face will be affected to a 
greater or less extent. When this is the case, wilt the 
t leaves of the Jamestown- weed ( jimson) by putting them 
in hot water and then pressing them tightly in the hand, 
then put them on a cloth large enough to cover the pained 
part, and bind them to the jaw as warm as can be borne; 


when the leaves become cold, warm them by pouring a 
hot tea of the same leaves over the plaster, and again ap- 
ply it. This will in most cases, give relief if properly at- 
tended, to. Extracting should be the last means resorted 
to for relief. I have known sound teeth extracted, and af- 
terwards other diseases were discovered to be the cause, 
which had to be removed .before health could be enjoyed. 
Toothache is very common among pregnant women, par- 
ticularly daring the first stages of pregnancy; cold is al- 
most always the exciting cause; it may be relieved by 
the use of mild cathartics, bathing the feet in warm wa- 
ter and drinking some diaphoretic teas. 

( Coh-yoa-cah-tsi-tuh-n u-tis-lay.) 

Bealed Jaw is generally caused by cold settling on a. 
iccayed tooth. The patient should drink freely of some 
sweating tea, such as pennyroyal, balm, mint, sage, 
&.G. Also steam the wound over bitter herbs, such as cat- 
nip, hoarhound, &c. For an external application, I have 
never found anything so good as the Jamestown leaves, 
(jimson) as directed above for Toothache. This, if ap- 
plied in any reasonable time, will allay the inflammation 
and prevent it from beaiing. The leaves may be procur- 
ed in summer, and cured in the shade and made into a 
poultice when needed. In this way they may be had at 
all times in the vear. 

PALSY — (Tsu-m-luh-tah.luh-uh-skah.) 

This disease is characterized by a numbness or want of 
feeling in the part affected. It sometimes affects one 
part and sometimes another. If it attacks the heart or 
iungs it must inevitably prove fatal — its danger or fatali- 
ty is to be expected in proportion to the vitality of the 
part affected. 

Causes which predispose to an attack of Palsy, are apo- 
plexy, obstructions of necessary evacuations, excessive 
venery, any injuries that obstruct the passage of the ner- 
vous fluid to the brain, to the organs of motion, injuries of. 
the spinal marrow, intense study and great distress or an- 
xiety of the mind. In short, any thing that has a tendency 
to weaken and relax the nervous system in an extreme de- 
gree, has a tendency to produce this alarming disease. 


Symptoms — Are giddiness, torpor, uneasiness in the 
head, failure of the memory, dullness of intellect, coldness, 
tremor, creeping and pain in the part affected. 

Treatment. — First dig a pit in the ground, just deep e- 
nough for the patient's shoulder to be even with the sur- 
face of the earth when sitting on a chair in the pit; build a 
fire in the pit, and let it remain until the pit becomes hot, 
then take the fire out as soon as the pit becomes cool e- 
nough for the patient to bear it; place him or her in it 
on a chair, and cover it over with a blanket, only leaving 
the head of the patient to the air. Let the patient remain 
in this pit until copious sweating is produced, or as long as 
the constitution and strength will allow. When the pa- 
tient is taken from the pit, scarify the joints of the affected 
part, and very especially the back bone, and wash the 
scarified parts with the tincture of Indian hemlock. For 
a full description of this shrub or bark refer to that head. 
The mode of preparing the tincture is as follows: Take oi' 
the powdered leaves of Indian hemlock a table spoonful, 
put it into a half pint of hot water, and let it remain thirty 
minutes or more, then wash the scarified parts with this 
infusion or tincture, every hour for twelve hours, if the 
natural feeling does not return in a shorter period; but if 
it should return, '(which is not uncommon under this treat- 
ment,) the use of the hemlock should be discontinued, and 
the parts should be frequently and well bathed with strong 
vinegar. The patient should drink freely of a beer mado 
as follows: Take malt enough to make ten gallons of beer, 
put it into ten gallons of water, add to it one quart of fine- 
ly ground mustard seed, let this beer ferment (work or 
become sour) and it will be fit for use. The patient should 
drink freely of this beer until health is restored. Diets 
should be light and nourishing, and if the bowels be cos- 
tive, they should be relieved by mild purges, and injec- 

W E N . 

Wen is a fleshy substance growing between the skin 
and the natural liesh, without any known cause. When 
it makes its appearance on the neck, it frequently grows to 
such an enormous size, as to render breathing very diffi- 

Treatment. — First annoint the Wen with cedar oil. — 


(For the mode of preparing this ointment, look under its 
properhead.) — It should be annointed with this ointment 
every twelve hours, then apply a plaster made of 
equal quantities of common soap, and table salt, mixed 
well together; the fourth day this poultice should be 
changed, for one made by boiling the pulverized root of 
maycock in water, and thickening it with corn meal. If 
the leaves are green, they 'may be applied if preferred, be- 
ing first bruised or wilted. These poultices should be 
changed occasionally, keeping the first kind on about one 
third of the time, and the maycock the other two-thirds. — 
The wen should be regularly annointed with cedar oil ev- 
ery twelve hours; the ointment should be bathed in with a 
warm iron. 

Dr. Wright gives the following easy and simple remedy 
as an infallible one: "Wash it with common salt dissolved 
in water, every day, or make a strong brine of alum salt; 
simmer it over the fire; when thus prepared, wet a piece 
of cotton in it every day, and apply it constantly for one 
month, and the protuberance will disappear." I have 
never tried Dr. Wright's prescription, but have no reason 
to doubt its efficacy. It is at least so simple, and so easi- 
ly tried, that Iiiave thought proper to give it a place. 


The close connexion which exists between the stomach. 
bowels, and skin, is evidently demonstrated by the fact. 
that in many instances where the stomach and bowels are 
internally disordered, the skin exhibits external evidence 
hi' the disease. Many eruptions which show themselves on 
the skin, are positive proofs of the deranged state of the 
system internally. Care should therefore be taken to as- 
certain the'true cause of those eruptions. If they are pro- 
duced by -no impure state of the blood, foul stomach, cos- 
tivencss, or from some constitutional disease derived frb'm 
parents; if either of these causes produce eruptions of the 
skin, it will be obvious to all, that it is to be removed by 
internal remedies. When eruptions are produced by the 
above causes, and should be driven from the skin, by ex- 
ternal remedies alone, it will generally produce, and in 
many instances, seat some fatal disease on the vital or- 
gans. Dr. Gunn says: "Whenever diseases exhibit their 
effects on the skin, you may be assured that they are the 


efforts of nature to relieve herself from oppression; and, 
the real business of the physician is, to assist nature, and 
never to retard or stifle her operations." The cause, ofe- 
ruptions should be sought out and remoyed, and when they 
proceed from internal disease, they will have to be re- 
moved by internal remedies. 

Treatment. — The first thing to be attended to in case of 
eruptions, is the bowels, which must be cleansed by a ca- 
thartic, and then kept open by the use of salts, cream of 
tartar, and sulphur, or a free use of yellow poplar root 
bark, taken in decoction, bitters, or powders, as may be the 
choice of the patient. A tea ofsarsaparilla, sassafras, or 
spice wood drank cool, will be found beneficial. For ex- 
ternal applications use common starch or flour. These 
simple applications will be found a cooling, and pleasant 
remedy; they will allay the itching and uneasiness of the 
skin for a time, and when these unpleasant sensations re- 
turn, the application should be repeated. Persons that 
are subject to eruptions of the skin, should live on light 
fand refreshing diet, and avoid everything of a heating; 
nature either in food or drink. They should also keep their 
bowels open by the use of cooling cathartics as above 
directed. The skin should be kept clean, and moist, by 
frequent bathing, and washed in warm water. 

( Tsa-nah-U-stah-iw.) 

Sca'd-head is an inflammatory eruption of the skin of 
the head. It generally commences with an uneasy ting-- 
ling, itching sensation, as though something was crawling 
through the hair. In a short time, numerous small white 
pimples, arise at the roots of the hairs, under which are 
cry small ulcers, which will in a short time, discharge a 
whitish matter. At other times it commences more bold- 
ly, and presents clusters of small red pimples or pustules. 
dispersed throughout the head. Some even advance t<> 
supcration, leaving pits filled with pus; many scabs fall off 
like bran, white others adhere closely to the skin. Chil- 
dren are most liable to this disease, but the adult is not ex- 
empt from it. Neglect of cleanliness, bad nursing, or a 
want, of a due portion of wholesome, food may produce 
this disease. It is contagious, and is of en taken by chil- 
dren from wearing the hat or cap of a person at- 


fected with it, by sleeping in the same bed, or by combing 
with the same comb. It also descends in some 'instances, 
as a hereditary disease, and when it occurs in connexion 
with a scrofulous habit, it is tedious and difficult to cure. 
Treatment. — The hair must be shaved or trimmed, as 
close as convenient, and the head well cleansed with warm 
water and soap; the first attempt to remove the scabs, and 
cleanse the head, will require some time, in order to soften 
the scabs that they maybe removed without pain. When 
this is done, the head should be washed in a decoction of 
the small kind of smart weed; (for a description of this 
weed, look under that head;) after the head has been wash- 
ed in the above decoction, take a feather and dip it in ce 
der oil, and touch it lightly on the deepest pustules or 
scalds. Then anoint the head with an ointment made by 
stewing the bruised smart weed in hog's lard or fresh but- 
ter. Next apply a poultice of corn meed mush, made with- 
out salt; after it is spread on a cloth large enough to cov- 
er the affected part, sprinkle on its surface a thin coa.t of 
the flour of sulphur, and apply it to the head. The head 
should be dressed in the above manner, once in every 24 
hours, and not more. After it has been dressed in the a-, 
bove manner six or eight days, instead of the smart weed; 
decoction, you may wash it with water in which swee 
gum leaves have been bruised and soaked. I have neve 
known the above course to fail in effecting a cure if per- 
sisted in. The patient should keep the bowels open, 
the use of mild and cooling purges, and drink freely of sar 
saparilla in decoction or bitters. I have known it cured 
by the smart weed alone, applied as above directed, and 
keeping it well cleansed with soap suds; I have also knowr 
it cured by cleansing it daily with soap suds, and apply- 
ing a salve made by stewing the buds of the balm of gile 
ad in sheep's tallow or hog's lard, and adding a little swee 
gum rosin. Cleanliness must be particularly attended t 
in this disease, for without it a cure will be sought for in 


Symptoms. — This disease assumes a variety of forms in 
different persons. It sometimes come in broad itchy spots, 
which run into each other, and form extensive excoriations 

■ : 


of the skin, or terminate in bad ulcers. Sometimes the 
skin thickens, wrinkles and cracks, being very tender and 
painful. In some persons, this complaint is most severe 
in winter, while others suffer most from it in summer.— 
This disease is' sometimes constitutional and hereditary; 
when this is the case, it is very difficult to cure. 

Treatment. — When this disease is in the skin only, it 
may be cured by very simple means. The root of the 
common dock, either the wide or narrow, stewed in hog's 
lard, and used as an ointment, will in most cases effect a 
cure. Puccoon root bruised, and steeped in vinegar, and 
used as a wash, seldom fails to effect a speedy cure. — 
When the case is obstinate, apply cederoil; if it is too se- 
vere, it may be rendered more mild by stewing it with an 
equal quantity of hog's lard or fresh butter. I have never 
known this remedy to fail. When the disease is constitu- 
tional, in addition to the above external applications, give 
cooling purges and bitters to cleanse the blood, such as sar- 
saparilla, poplar root bark, sassafras or burdock. They 
may be taken in decoction, if preferred by the patient. 


Symptoms. — This disease of the skin is characterized by 
small red pimples which break out in a circular form, con- 
taining a thin acrid humor. It is attended with itching 
and smarting, which is greatty increased by over-heating 
the body. In a general way, the eruption does not spread 
to any considerable extent, but instances have occurred 
in which it spread over the whole body, and the skin as- 
sumed a leprous appearance. In cases of this kind, the 
itching is too intolerable to be borne with any degree of 
patience. * 

Treatment. — Ring- worms very often disappear of them- 
selves in the course of a few days; but are apt to return in 
a short time. The expressed juice of either kind of dock 
will kill them in a short time; the juice of the walnut hull 
will kill them, or the juice of the inside of white walnut 
bark. An ointment made of equal quantities of cedar ®il 
and hog's lard or fresh butter will also cure it. But I 
have seldom failed curing it, with a much more simple 
application. When you first discover a ring-worm, rub it 
w r ell with spittle every morning before eating or drinking. 


and it will soon disappear; it should be rubbed until it 
smarts a little. 

ITCH.— [Oo-ni-tsi-ldh.') 

This dirty disease is infectious or catching, and is not 
unfrequently produced by neglecting to pay due regard 
to cleanliness. Some authors suppose it to be produced 
by a little insect which makes its way under the skin, 
and thus produces tne eruptions and itching. I believe it 
to be confined to the skin, whether produced by an insect 
<or not. Cleanliness and early attention to this disease will 
prevent its being communicated to a whole family. Some 
persons have no more regard for themselves nor others 
than to take this filthy disease to school and in this way 
communicate it to the whole neighborhood. This, how- 
ever, may be prevented by the occasional use of sulphur. 
This disorder may be communicated by sleeping with a 
person who has it, or by sleeping in the same bed and bed 
clothes, where a person has lately slept that was infected 
with it. In this way travelers often catch it. 

' Symptoms. — It shows itself first between the fingers and 
around the wrists in small watery pimples and gradually 
extends over the whole body. 

Treatment. — Take the root of common wide or narrow 
dock, bruise it well and stew it in hog's lard, strain it and 
add sweet-gum rosin, and a small quantity of cedar oil, 
use this as an ointment. Kit should not have the desired 
•effect in a few days, add the flour of sulphur or pulverized! 
brimstone. A small quantity of sulphur ma)^ be taken 
internally, which will prevent in a great degree, any in- 
jury by cold from its external use. To wash frequently 
with a strong decoction of cedar tops or berries will p^Tip- 
rally cure the : : o a strong decoction of Vir- 

ginia or bin ek - root, or Jamestown weed leaves or 

s we™ gum leaver, or bark, or a decoction of buck thorn. 
Any of the above applications will cure the itch in a short 
time, provided there is due regard paid to cleanliness, with- 
out which a care never can be affected for any length of 
time. The application should he irade until the erup- 
tions disappear, then the skin should be well washed witl 
.warm soap-suds and clean clothes put on. The be 
clothes should also be changed, and those that were wor 


while having the itch should be well washed before they 
are again used. 


This disease is characterized by an eruption or clusters 
of small blisters on some part of the trunk, and spreading 
round the body like a girdle. They sometimes extend 
over the shoulder and round under the opposite arm in the 
form, of a sword-belt. An attack of this complaint is 
sometimes preceded by headache and nausea, but this is 
not very common. The usual symptoms are, hear, itching 
and tingling, in some parts of the body, which is covered 
with small red patches of an irregular shape, and upon 
each of these patches may be seen very small pimples 
clustered together. In a short time these pimples become 
enlarged and are rilled with a clear fluid, and the whole 
pimple has a transparent appearance. If the disease is 
not checked other clusters will appear and in a short time 
extend quite round the body. 

Tteatmext. — In most cases this disease will require 
nothing more than the free use of some diaphoretic teas. 
If cosfiveness prevails, remove it by the use of mild ca- 
thartics, such as cream of tartar, salts or castor oil. The 
parts affected should be washed with a decoction of sour- 
dock, or some cooling tea. If the contents of the bowels 
should be hard to remove, laxative injections should be 
used to aid the cathartic. All exposure to cold ami damp 
should be avoided, such as damp feet, damp clothes, &c. 
The diet should be light, and moderate exercise regularjy 

All persons are liable to attacks of this disease — but fe- 
males are most liable. The infant of a few days old, and 
the very aged, are equally liable to its attacks. It is gen- 
erally regarded as an inflammation seated in the skin, and 
mostly appearing on the face, hands legs and feet, though 
all parts of the body are liable to its attacks. In warm 
climates it bears a much more inflammatory character 
than in colder ones. It may be produced by obstructed 
evacuations, such as a sudden check of perspiration, stop- 
'oage of the menses in females,^ the drying up of ulcers, 
cec. Persons of a sanguine, irritable temperament,, are 


most liable to its attacks; and those who have it once are 
much more liable to be attacked again, for that peculiar 
condition of the system which gives birth to it once, is 
more apt to occur again than if it had never existed. 

Symptoms. — For a few days, before it makes its appear- 
ance on the skin, great drowsiness and weakness is exper- 
ienced, bad appetite, and sometimes hard breathing; more 
violent attacks come on with chillness, head ache, nausea 
and sometimes vomiting, heat and great thirst. When it 
makes its appearance externally, the skin becomes thick 
and of a crimson color and is attended with great restless- 
ness and a burning itching sensation. The pulse is small 
and frequent, in a short time the skin will be covered with 
small red pimples containing a clear fluid. If the disease 
be pimples, or blisters sometimes termi- 
nate in bad ulcers, which rapidly tend to mortification. — 
This complaint is usually most dangerous when it attacks 
the face. When it attacks the face and the inflammation 
runs high, inflammation of the brain is to be apprehended, 
and should be gaurdecl against by all possible means. 

Treatment. — On the first appearance of this disease, if 
the attack be mild, drink freely of some sweating tea, and 
cleanse the bowels with antibilious pills or some other ca- 
thartic. But should it put on an aggravated form and 
the inflammatory symptoms run high, it will be necessary 
to loose a little blood. Evacuate the contents of the bow- 
els speedily as possible, and then give some diapharetic 
teas freely, f;uch as sage, hysup, balm, pennyroyal, mint, 
or some kind of snake-roof; the patient should also take 
the flour of sulphur occasionally, if this is not at hand, 
pulverize brimstone as fine as possible and put it in the 
tea. Far an external application to the skin, use fine 
starch or flour. If the eruption should become very pain- 
ful, make a tea of red pucoon-root and use it as a wash. 
I have also applied a plaster made of tar mixed with a 
sufficient quantity of hogs lard to prevent it from sticking; 
this last is an excellent application, when the eruptions 
are so painful as to require it. 


This disease, in large cities and densely populated com 


tries has proved a most fatal scourge, and has formed one 
of the great outlets of human life. It is contagious and 
extends from one country to another, spreading terror and 
dealing death wherever it goes. This appaling and fatal 
malady was unknown to the man of the forest, until their 
country became inhabited by the whites, and their rivers 
navigated by steamboats, and cities and towns were erec- 
ted on their banks. It was then communicated by the 
whites to the Indians ; it was .a new disease and one for 
w T hich they knew no remedy; they died indiscriminately 
as fast as they were seized with this king of terrors — their 
medicines, which they used with so much success in oth- 
er diseases were tried in vain; hundreds of their tribes 
were hurried into eternity, while the remainder had little 
else to expect than soon to follow, and that in the most ag- 
onizing manner imaginable. Notwithstanding the little 
success they at first had in treating this alarming disease, 
the courage of their physicians was undaunted — they ful- 
ly believed that their own happy land contained a remedy. 
Their former articles of medicine having failed they re- 
sorted to experiment. Every new patient afforded a 
new opportunity, and it was but deathif the exper- 
iment should fail — and as it was death under any 
former treatment known by them, the poor sufferer readi- 
ly consented. Those experiments were crowned with suc- 
cess far beyond their most sanguine expectations. They 
found the remedy in their own native land and in consid- 
erable abundance. This disease is now considered by 
them as a curable one, and that with simple and not disa- 
greeable remedies. The art of vaccination was taught 
them by the whites: they use this as a preventative with 
great success, as may be seen under that head. 

Symptoms.-- -Small-Pox is contagious, 1 hough like mea- 
sles, it, seldom, if ever, attacks the same person but one 
Some individuals appear to be unsusceptible to the infec- 
tion of this disease, although exposed to it often through 
life. A few days before the appearance of the eruptions. 
an uneasy restless feeling and a great dislike to motion of 
any kind is experienced. Also 'dullness, followed by hoi 
flashes and attended with slight fever. A dull heavy pain 
is felt in the back and in the head, accompanied with great 
thirst, stupor, a quick pulse, and in children violent con- 
vulsions frequently occur. About the third or fourth day; 



the eruptions make their appearance on the fac% neck, 
breast and arms, in small red spots, which feel hard when j 
pressed^ with the finger. These spots or pimples continue . 
to spread until the whole body is covered with them. — .. 
They also continue to increase in size and about the fifth 
or sixth day, they begin to turn white on the top and feel 
very painful. About this time the face swells and the 
ieatures appear changed, the eyes are frequently closed by 
the swelling and the quantity of spittle greatly increased 
The throat swells and is attended with hoarseness and dif- 
ficulty of swallowing; by the tenth or eleventh day, the 
pimples have increased to about the size of a common pea, 
on the top of each pimple or pustule there will be a small 
black spot, whilst the remainder of the pimple or pustule 
will be filled with yellow matter. ' In a short time the 
swelling in the face in some degree subsides, and a swel- , 
ling in the hands and feet follow. The pustules gradually 
become rough, break and discharge an offensive matter. 
When these pustules are large or long in drying, they leave 
deep holes or scars in the skin. Some writers divide this 
disease into two species, distinguished as the distinct and 
confluent. The above are the symptoms attending the dis- 
tinct. The confluent is more rapid in its progress than the 
distinct. It assumes a typhoid or nervous form, but as our .. 
mode of treatment is similar in both forms of this disease, 
the distinction need not be minutely drawn. 

Treatment. — First give a large dose of antibilious pills 
and aid their operation by laxative injections. (See un- 
der the head of clystering.) After the contents of the bow- 
els have been thoroughly evacuated, let the patient drink 
freely of a tea or decoction of water big-leaf, called by the 
Indian, Oo-cah-lo-ka-quah-ah-my-yeah. A5so wash the pa- 
tient frequently all over in a tea of the same; the bowels 
must be kept open by the use of antibilious pills, and the 
free use of the tea continued until relief is obtained. For . 
directions to prepare the antibilious pills refer to that 
head. Also, for a full description of the Water-Big-Leaf • 
refer to that head. — This valuable medicine is considered 
by us an infallible remedy for this alarming scourge, the 
Small-Pox, depriving once of its former terrors atid , 



Vaccination? is the introduction or insertion into the arm 
by means of the lancet, of the matter by which the Cow- 
pox is produced in the human system. About fifty-five or 
sixty years ago, vaccination was discovered to be a pre- 
ventative of Small-Pox. This valuable discovery was 
raade in England,, and- has since been made known to the 
different portions of the globe. It was communicated to 
the Indians by the English, and is now used by th'em as a 
preventative of this dreadful scourge, and however easy 
may be the cure, yet the preventative is to be preferred. — 
The matter should betaken before the ninth day, will 
be too inactive to produce the desired effect. 

When vaccination takes proper effect on the system, we 
believe it to be a safe preventative, and one that may be 
relied on without the least anticipations' of danger. The 
proper mode of communicating the vacine matter to an 
individual, is by scratching the skin with a needle or lan- 
cet, until a small quantity of blood appears; then put a 
small quantity of the matter in the scratch or incision. If 
the matter is good, it will appear transparent; on the con- 
trary, if it has become opaque, jt should not be used. This 
matter is sometimes brought to this and other countries on 
thread: when this is the case, make the incision as above 
directed, and put a piece ofvhe thread which contains the 
matter in the incision, and confine it there. The Cowpox: 
sometimes fails to take the proper effect on the system; in 
this case it only produces a s-light redness in the arm, and 
is attended with no other disagreeable feeling. On the 
contrary, when it has ihe^esired effect, it generally pro- 
duces a slight head ache, pain under the arm, and some 
lever, — these symptoms generally pass off in .the course of 
a. few hours, without medical aid. The proper place for 
inserting the vacine matter, is on the arm above the elbow, 
and when it takes the desired effect on the system, it is ea- 
sily known by the appearance of the lump or postule, 
which rises at the place: where the matter was inserted. 
If a pustule or pimple should arise of a full and oval form, 
with a dent or indentation in the centre, and contain mat- 
ter, tho vaccination has had the proper effect. These 
pustules generally make their appearance about the third 
diy — about th a, eighth da^the pustule is completely from- 


cd. In a short time the disagreeable feelings subside, *n$ 
the pustule generally disappears. 


This is an infectious disease, and never attacks the same 
person but once through life. It is characterized by pim- 
ples or pustules, on the skin which bear some resemblance 
+o those of the small-pox— though of a much milder form. 
The appearance of the pimples or pustules is usually pre- 
ceded by slight fever, attended with chillness and stupor, 
or drowsiness — a pain is felt in the head and back, great 
thirst, restlessness and a quick pulse. About the third or 
fourth day, the pustules become filled with a watery sub- 
stance, "which, however, never becomes yellow as is the 
ease in small pox. A few days after the pustules be- 
come full, they dry away — leaving a crust or scab over 
each pustule — which sometimes leaves a scab when it 
comes off, 1 hough not very often. A malignant form of 
chicken pox is called swine pox. The same treatment will 
answer both, only it should be followed with more prompt- 
ness in the latter, than in the former case. 

Treatment. — The bowels should be kept open by the 
use of mild cathartics, such as castor oil, cream of Tartar, 
American senna, or any other cooling laxative that may 
he preferred. Let the patient drink freely of some dia- 
phoretic teas such as Mountain dittany, black dittany, sag« 
balm, hysop, pennyroyal or either kind of snake root; and 
avoid all exposure to cold or sudden changes, in order to 
prevent the eruption from striking in and producing sick- 
ness. Where the disease assumes a very aggravated 
form, the water big leaf may be used as directed for small 
pox. By the observance of the above rules, no danger 
should be apprehended from the swine or chicken pox.— 
The diet should be light and nourishing. 

This is a contagious or catching disease, but like many 
others it attacks the same person but one time during lite. 

Symptoms. — Between the third and ninth day — some au- 
ihors prolong the time to the fifteenth day — after the in- 
fection has been received, it produces sickness at the sto- 
mach, stupor, dullness, gseat thirst, frequent sneezing, as if 


talcing a severe cold, a short dry cough, redness and wat- 
ering of the eyes, and the running of a watery mucous 
firom the nose. In a short time after these symptoms, the 
eruption generally makes its appearance on the lace and 
neck in small red pimples, which soon spread, over the 
whole body. The fever and cough does not abate in the 
measles on the appearance of the eruption as it does in 
small poz, but continues until the eruptions-begin to disap- 
pear, which is generally in about three or four days after 
it makes its appearance. . In some instances the cough and 
fever has been known to continue for several days after the 
eruptions had entirely disappeared, this however is not 
very common. 

Treatment. — The treatment for measles in ordinary ca- 
ses, when the patient in other respects is in health, is sim- 
ple — nothing more is necessary than to drink freely of 
some diaphoretic or sweating tea, and keep the bowels open 
by injections or mild cathartics. But in no disease with 
which I am acquainted is there more serious consequen- 
ces to be apprehended from taking cold,. than in Measles. 

The above treatment will in most cases cause the Meas- 
les to strike out in due time. But should the above mild 
means fail to bring the eruptions to the surface, and the 
fever is high, bleeding will be necessary^ and a purge, of 
castor oil or cream of tartar will also be necessary. ]t 
there is an inclination to puke, an emetic will not be im- 
proper. After bleeding and puking, if the occasion re- 
quires, let the patient sit over a steam of ceder tops, and 
drink ireely of a tea of the same; bathe the feet frequently 
in warm water; continue this -course until the eruptions 
make their a ppearance on the skin. When the cough i& 
severe, and the throat very sore, suck the steam of hot wa- 
ter or vinegar from the spout of a coffee pot. Cold drinks 
must not be indulged in, warm sage, balm, hysop, or pen- 
nyroyal tea will be proper for their drinks. Spirituous li- 
quors must not be used in this disease under any circum- 
stances, unless it is at the commencement of mild attacks.. 
When the throat swells and inflames, treat it as directed 
for malignant sore throat. After the abatement of the in- 
flammatory symptoms, if the patient is very weak, give 
ionics to increase the strength of the system. 


MUMPS — (Te-le-g-nah-tsi-hihho-tii-say.) 

Symptoms. — It usually commences with a slight fevei% 
head ache, a stiffness of the neck, and a swelling under the 
lower jaw, on one or both sides. On attempting to swat- 
low a severe pain is felt precisely at the point of the lower 
jaw, and extending to the ear; the swelling increases, and 
by the fourth or fifth day, the part is greatly swelled. 

In some instances, the color is but little changed; in oth- 
ers, the skin assumes a red appearance — about the fifth or 
sixth day, the swelling begins to subside, and by the sev- 
enth or eighth day, the swelling is nearly gone. If cold 
has heen taken, during the above symptoms, the swelling 
as it leaves the jaws, is apt to settle in the testicles, if the 
patient be a male, and in the breasts, if a female. It is in- 
fectious, but I believe, it never attacks the same individual 
but once. Some writers assert that it has been known to 
occur in the same individual more than once; others say 
that it will, in some instances, affect one side, and at some 
future period, when the disease prevails, the other side may 
be affected. But as neither of these latter cases has ever 
come within my own knowledge, I am unable to say any 
thing in reference to the correctness or incorrectness of 
these statements. 

Treatment. — The bowels should be opened by the use 
of castor oil, cream of tartar, American senna or someothr 
• er mild cathartic, aided by injections, if necessary, arid a- 
void exposure to cold, such as damp or cold air, wet or 
damp feet, damp clothes, &c. Flannel should be kept a- 
round the jaws, to prevent exposure to the atmosphere* — if 
this is not at hand, a thin bit of wool will answer, equally 
well. 5t should be confined around the jaws by means of 
a handkerchief. If the jaws become very painful, apply a 
plaster made as follows. Put beeswax into an oven of 
warm water, and when the wax is melted, take a cloth 
large enough to cover the swelling in the lower jaws as 
the case may be: dip the cloth into the oven, and when ta- 
ken out the wax will adhere to the cloth; apply this to the 
swelling as warm as can be borne. If this does not abate 
the swelling in two days, apply a plaster made in the a- 
bove manner of bees-wax, tallow and red pepper. A free 
use of diaphoretic or sweating teas will be found highly 
beneficial. Such as pennyroyal, hysop, dittany, &c. &c- 


BURNS AND SCALDS.— [Q&ne-log-yef-mk.-] 
These painful accidents are often the offspring of negli- 
" gence, and when first received, are very painful. It is ve- 
ry desirable, therefore, to have a remedy at hand, that 
will at once relieve the pain and extract the fire. Nature, 
in her libera] dispensations of blessings on madkind, has 
not failed to provide a soothing and effectual remedy for 
this painful emergency. On receiving a scald or burn, 
immediately plunge the part into cold water, and keep it 
there until the fire is extracted, which may be easily 
known by taking it out of the water, if the fire be not out 
it will smart and pain you as a burn does, as soon as it is 
out of the water and exposed to the atmosphere; but if the 
fire is out, no such pain will be felt. If the burn or scald 
is so situated that you cannot immerse it in water, imme- 
diately exclude the atmosphere by means of cloths, which 
should be several piles thick over the bum, and keep them 
wet by pouring cold water on them; the air should be ex- 
cluded twelve hours by means of the cloths, which should 
be kept wet with cold water. ' If this is properly attended 
to, as soon as the scald or burn is received, it will in nine 
cases out often prevent it from blistering, and consequent- 
ly prevent the formation of a sore or ulcer from the burn. 
To-prevent the patient from taking cold from the applica- 
tion of cold water; let him drink pepper or some other 
sweating tea freely, or warm toddy, will answer equally 
well. To small burns, where the skin is broken, apply a 
salve made by stewing equal quantities of pulverized bark 
of elder, and the white part of hen dung in hog's lard. — 
Where a person is badly burnt on the body, kill a cow 
brute, and cut it open as soon as possible; the maw or 
paunch should be opened also; the patient should be put 
in it as soon as possible, and remain there until the animal 
becomes cool, then take him out and wash him off with 
cold water, and dress the wound with healing salve, and 
wrap him in comfortable cloths. The patient should drink 
freely of some sweating tea and warm toddy, to keep up 
the internal heat, and if possible produce a determination, 
to the surface, or in other words sweating. If the bum 
should produce a chill, drink freely of sage, balm or pep- 
' per tea while the chill continues. Then take antibillious 
pills to evacuate the cdhtents of 1 the bowels as soon as pos- 
sible, at the same time treating the wound as above drrec- 


ted. I was, says Dr. Foreman, "called upon to attend a. 
boy whose body was so badly! burned as to render the* 
motionof the abdominal viscera, (which means the intes- 
tines or guts) very visible through the thin membrance 
which covered them. This case was thought to be be- 
yond the reach of remedies, by all who saw it. I had a 
cow brute slain immediately, and the boy put in it, while 
it was warm and bleeding; when it became cool, he was 
taken out, and treated as above directed. He lived and 
recovered in a short time. This is the most horrible and 
alarming burn I have ever had, and the only one in which 
I resorted to that mode of treatment. But it has been the 
custom of m3 r people, (the Indians,) for many years, and 
has been attended with admirable success. Dr. Gunn 
mentions Turner's cerate, as being one of the most sooth- 
ing applications that can be made to a bad burn on the 
body. I have never tried it myself, but feel disposed to 
place implicit confidence in the statement of this gentle- 
man, he being a very successful physician of the old school, 
It is easily prepared, and if it is possessed of the active 
medical virtues ascribed to it. by Dr. Gunn, it should be 
kept in every family for immediate application. The In- 
dex will refer you to its proper head, where may be seen 
the manner of preparing and using this valuable salve. 



When a joint is dislocated or a bone fractured, apply 
cloths wrung out of a tea of ivy as hot as the patient can 
bear, the vessel containing tea should be set neat and 
the tea kept constantly pouring on the cloths for fifteen or 
twenty minutes— if the ivy is not at hand, hot water will 
answer — then take the cloths off, and if it is a dislocation, 
pull the limb steadily until it returns to its proper place, 
after which pour cold water on the joint for a minute or 
tWo in order to prevent a second dislocation. If the joint 
should be painful apply brown paper wet with vinegar or 
camphor, or a poultice of sprain- weed. In case of frac- 
tures or broken bones, when the cloths are taken off, thd 
bone or bones should be placed in their proper situation by 
some skillful person, and confined to their place by splints. 
Kit is the leg or thigh bone, it should be laid on a box, 
and secured by bats of cotton, and the foot kept nearly 


level with the knee. The bandage which confines the 
splints should not be drawn too tight, as is the custom with 
many persons who profess to understand replacing and; 
bandaging broken bones, this obstructs the circulation and' 
greatly retards nature in effecting a cure. After it is 
splintered apply a poultice of sprain-weed or young elder 
root pounded fine and mixed with cold water and wheat 
bran to the consistency of a poultice; the part should also 
be wet frequently with cold vinegar or camphor. The 
splints may be taken off after the fifth day, once every day 
by some careful person and the limb held with great care 
in the hands in order to give the patient some rest, and 
again put on. This must, however, be done with the 
greatest caution imaginable, as the bone will not re-unite 
until between the ninth and twelfth day, the splints should 
not remain off before the fifteenth day. 

WOUNDS AND CUTS— (Oo-nah-tah-leh-ger.) 

Most ordinary cuts require but little attention, except 
binding up with a cloth or bandage, and occasionally wet- 
ting the cloth with cold water, until it begins to matter; 
then apply healing salve. If inflammation should take 
place, reduce it with a poultice of beach % dog- wood, or . 
either kind of oak-bark; or tar plaster will in most instan- 
ces effect a speedy cure, without other remedies. But 
when the cut is large and bleeds freely, wash off the blood* 
with cold water, cleansing the wound of all dirt or filth, 
then draw the edges of the cut together, and bind it up 
carefully, and occasionally pour cold water on it; this 
should be done as often as it feels hot. The patient should 
at the same time drink some sweating tea : if the blood 
should flow rapidly, use styptics. If the incision or cut be 
very large, it will be necessary to confine the edges togeth- 
er with a few stitches, or bythe application of an adhesive? 
plaster. When large arteries are wounded, and the blee- 
ding cannot be stopped by styptics, a ligature is. necessary 
for this purpose; prepare a cushion or roll up a handker- 
chief in the form of a cushion^ and place it on the artery 
above the wound; then draw.a ligature around the eush- 
ipn and limb,, tight enough to^stop the blood, then tie the 
artery. It may be readily k|jpwn when an artery is woun- 
ded by the blood, which does not flow in a continual 
stream, but by spirts. Bleeding is often stopped by mis- 


ing the wound above the heart or head, bi'nding it up 
tight, and pouring cold water on it freely. If the wound 
inflames, apply poultices to reduce the inflammation. 


All persons who have never had this complaint are li- 
able to it. It attacks but once through life, and is conta- 
gious, or catching, and epidemic. 

Symptoms. — It begins nearly like a slight cold, but is at- 
tended with more weakness, head-ache, hard breathing, 
sneezing, hoarseness, with a little cough, which gradual- 
ly increases until the face becomes bloated and turns pur- 
ple, the eyes swell and become prominent. 

Treatment.— -Keep the bowels regulated by mild and 
cooling purges, and give a tea of Gulsay-tse-e-you-see. — 
(See proper head,) — where it is fully described. A little 
laudanum or paregoric given at bed time, will not be "ft- 
uiiss in severe cases. 




Previous to the age of puberty, the femals is scarcely 
subject to any disease not common to both sexes,' but 
when that period arrives, they are not only liable to all 
the ordinary diseases to which men are exposed, but in 
consequence of their sexual organization, they are also 
subject to many diseases peculiar to themselves. "The or- 
ganic machine in women is >more complex than in men, 
and the functions performed by these organs are easily de- 
ranged, from which diseases of an inveterate and danger- 
ous character often arise. Woman is liable to painful ir- 
regularities in her menstrual discharges, which may not 
produce ill health at the time, but lays the foundation of 
lasting and dangerous diseases. These irregularities must 
be early and properly treated, or they will involve the gen- 
eral health, ruin the constitution, and bring on dropsy, 
consumption, or some other fatal disease. After puberty, 
almost every stage of female existence is subject to some 
complaints peculiar to itself, as well as to those diseases 
common to all. These will be treated of under their prop- 
er heads. 



Menstruation is that periodical discharge which takes 
place from the womb, commonly called menses or courses. 
The term Menses is derived from the Latin word vicnsis t 
which signifies a month, because in healthy women, who 
are neither pregnant nor giving suck, this discharge gen- 

• erally flows regularly at intervals of a lunar month, or a- 
bout twenty eight days. ^With some, the intervals are a 
day or two longer, whilst with others, it is a day or two 

The period at which Menstruation commences, depends 

v very much' upon the climate, constitution, and mode of 
life. In warm climates, the menses often appear at eight 
or nine years of age. Intemperate climates, they gener- 
ally make their appearance at. from twelve to fourteen,' 
and in cold climates, they do not appear until the eigh- 
teenth or twentieth ' year, and even twenty-fifth year.— 


There will also be a difference even in the same climate 
m to the time of Menstruation, which depend upon 
the constitution and passions. Those who have a rapid 
growth of body and development of the organs, with warm 
passions, will have an earlier discharge of the Menses 
than those who are different in these respects. 

The time required for the Menstrual purgation, at each 
periodical return, is from three to six days. The Menstru- 
al fluid appears to be a regular secretion from the womb, 
which in its appearance very much resembles blood, and 
its regular discharge, at the proper intervals, are impor- 
tant- to the health of a woman, from the time of its appear- 
ance until the age at which it should entirely cease, ex- 
cept during pregnancy, and during the period of giving 

The period during which the menses continue, until they 
coase entirely, varies according to the time of their com* 
meiieement, — the time being generally about double that 
which elapse previous to their commencement. When- 
ever the menstrual discharge makes its first appearance, 
it announcers puberty, and not maturity of the generative 
organs, which renders them capable of performing the 
functions for which they were created; and when this dis- 
charge ceases, or leaves off entirely, it announces the ina- 
bility of the generative organs to perform their peculiar 
functions. Both these periods are critical with women, 
and much depends upon the precautions in avoiding expo- 
sure to cold and wet, or overstraining in lifting, working, 
6ce. Many girls have their discharges without inconven- 
ience, while others suffer considerably when the period 
is about to come on; such as great restlessness, slight fe- 
ver, head-ache, heavy dull pain in the small of the back 
and lower part of the abdomen, swelled and hardened 
breasts, &c. The appetite becomes delicate, the limbs 
tremble and feel weak, the face becomes pale, and there is 
a peculiar dark streak or shade under the eyes. When 
these symptoms and feelings occur, every possible care 
should be taken to avoid cold, damp, &c, and everything 
should be done which would assist nature in bringing for- 
ward this discharge., This is a critical periodjof life, and 
•much indeed depends upon the result. The greatest pos- 
sible precautions; should be used to prevent the girl from 
S&kingcold at thistimg, because, by .very slight exposure. 


fiature may be prevented from performing this Very impor- 
tant office; by the failure oi which, some of the most fatal 
female diseases are produced. Exercise should be taken 
on horseback, or indeed any exercise that will give free 
'circulation to the blood. The emotions and passions of 
the mind, ought to be particularly attended to; a cheerful 
disposition should be produced and kept up; and 
every effort should be made to banish grief, despondency, 
or any of the depressing passions, which if indulged in, 
will net fail to have a poweriul effect in preventing ihe 
due discharge of the menses, or courses. About this time 
of life, girls should not be allowed to get wet, wear damp 
clothes, sleep on damp beds, walk in grass wet with dew 
•or rain, nor walk bare foot on cold or wet ground. You 
should also avoid everything that will have a tendency to 
injure the digestive powers, and particularly costiveness, 
'or being bound in the bowels, loss of sleep, exposure of any 
kind, tight lacing, &c. When the first symptoms of men- 
ses make their appearance on young girls, they should use 
all mild and gentle methods of courting nature to the per- 
formance of her office, by sitting over the steam of warm 
herbs, bathing their feet and legs in warm water as high 
as the knees, and drinking of warm pennyroaltea. These 
means should be used immediately befors going to bed, so 
that a gentle moisture or sweat may be produced on the 
skin, which generally causes the menses to flow. A lit- 
tie care and attention en the part of the parent at this 
period, may be of lasting benefit. 

The menstrual discharges on their first appearance, ar-e 
generally in very small quantities and somewhat irregular* 
as to time, but by attending to the simple course which I 
have laid down, they will gradually increase and flow 


By retention of the Menses, is meant the retaining oi* 
keeping of the menstrual fluid, after the period of life has 
arrived when this discharge should take place. 

When girls arrive at the age of puberty, the menetraaj 


purgation is essential to their health, and if it does not 
take place, there will be headache, loss of appetite, weak- 
ness of the limbs, a peculiar paleness of the face, accom- 
panied with a sinking of the spirits, hysterical affections 
and other derangements of the general health. When girls 
have arrived at the age when this discharge should ap- 
pear, nature generally gives an indication of the by-pains 
in the back, hips and loins, a sensation of weight, fullness 
and heat in the pelvis, attended with a forcing or heaving 
down.* If no discharge takes place, these symptoms some- 
times occur periodically, until continued bad health is pro- 
duced, and will ultimately seat some fatal disease, if not 
counteracted by the aid of remedies and prudent manage- 

Treatment. — The vegetable kingdom affords many val- 
uable articles for this painful and extremely dangerous 
eomplaint, as is fully shown in Materia Medica. By re- 
ferring to that part of this work, the reader will find a full 
description of many valuable roots and herbs for this dis- 

The. patient should take exercise in the open air in fair 
weather, but she must carefully avoid damp air, night air, 
walking in dew, or going barefoot in cold or wet places; 
exercise on horseback would be best. She should keep 
the .bowels regulated by the use of mild and cooling pur- 
ges„bathe her feet frequently with warm water, and drink 
freely of some diaphoretic orsweating tea, just before going 
to bed. She should also drink daily of bitters, composed 
of ginger root, star root, rattle root,, Sampson snake root, 
wi,ld cucumber bark, or common tansyl The above roots 
and barks may be used alone, or several of them together 
in; spirits, as the patient may prefer. 



The Hymen is a thin membrane, found at the mouth 
of the vagina, and, in general, it partly closes the entrance 
of the vagina. Some instances have occurred, in which it 
entirely closed the vagina, and was so strong as not to give 
way at the proper time, for the commencement of the 
monthly courses or menses; in which case, it must pro- 
due^ at no' mature age, serious, and unless removed, fatal \ 


consequences. An imperforation of the Hymen; is atten- 
ded with no inconvenience, until the monthly purgations , 
should take place. If this membrane be imperforated, and 
the menstrual fluid being regularly secreted, must accu- 
mulate, both in the vagina and the womb, as it can find no 
outlet through the Hymen. In some intances the quan- 
tity accumulated has been so great as to subject the un- 
fortunate sufferer t<5 the suspicion of being pregnant. At 
each return of the menstrual period, considerable pain is 
experienced by the patient, and as these pains greatly re- 
semble those of labor, in cases where the enlargement of., 
the abdomen was considerable, they have been mistaken 
for labor. After these pains continue for some time, they . 
cease, and do not recur until the return of another men- . 
strual period. 

When the menstrual fluid has been contained, in conse- 
quence of the imperforate state of the hymen, it assumes a 
dark tarry appearance, and unless its evacuation be pro- 
cured by opening a passage through the hymen, serious 
injury to the health will be sustained, or some fatal disease 

The only means of removing the difficulty, is by ma- 
king an artificial perforation or opening, through the mem- 
brane. This operation is quite simple, and may be per- 
formed by any sensible female friend, with a lancet. — 
Care should be taken not to cut any of the contiguous 
parts, and no particular danger is to be apprehended from P , 
the operation, nor is it attended with much pain, as the, 
membrane does not possess great sensibility. 




When the menses have made their appearance, , they 
are liable to be obstructed by cold, &c, this is called sup- 
pressed or obstructed menses, and is attended with greater 
or less misery according to the state of the system at the 
time this obstruction takes place, and more particularly,, 
if-any other part of the body is laboring, under disease*^ 
The bad effects of taking cold do not always show them- 
selves immediately, but they generally .become, manifest^ 


' after the repeated return of the period at which the men- 
strual discharge should take place, if the obstructions be 
not removed. Women that are in good health, may not 
experience any inconvenience for some months, that is, un- 
til the periodical returns shall have passed several time* 
"without the necessary discharge. 

But such is the sympathy existing between the womb 
and other parts of the system, that the general health will 
be effected, and sometimes the most incurable diseases are 
firmly seated in the system, by neglecting to remove the 
obstructions at an early period. Hysterics, depression of 
spirits, sickness of the stcmach, pains in the head, back 
and bowels, coldness of the hands and feet, flashes of heat 
over the body, spitting blood, bleeding at the nose, colics, a 
dry short cough, pains in the abdomen, a hard, quick pulse, 
a hot skin, and a burning sensation of the palms of the 
hands, and bottoms of the feet, are symptoms generally 
met with, when the menstrual discharge has been obstruc- 
ted long enough to produce some disordered state of the 
womb. When the last above named symptoms occur, 
they indicate great danger from the consumption, and un- 
less relief is immediately had, that fatal disease will be 
confirmed — negligence at tin's critical period, will, inmost 
■cases, be followed by fatal consequences. 

Tr.EATr-iENT. — As scon as it is discovered that the month- 5 
ly purgation is obstructed, and it is believed that cold and 
not pregnancy is the cause, you should* take measures t-o 
remove the obstruction, which is much more easily done in 
an early stage than at a more advanced period. About 
the time the menses should flow, the patient should drink 
freely of a tea of t.ansey, dittany, balm, rattle-root, penn}N 
royal or seme sweating tea. The feet should be well bath- 
ed before going to bead, and every mild and gentle means 
should be used to produce perspiration or sweat. If these 
remedies should fail, the patient, should drink bitters, as di- 
rected for Retention of the menses. And at each periodi- 
cal return when the menses should flow she should drink 
sweating teas and bathe her feet as above directed. She 
should also sit over a steam of young pine tops, cedar top* 
or spruce pine tops; while over the steam she should take 
a strong decoction of seneka. snake-root and pleurisy root 
in table spoonful doses every ten minutes. When the pa- 
tient leaves the steamy she should cover up warm in bed: 



and continue drinking some sweating tea for a length of 
time, in order to keep up a free perspiration. Great care 
must be taken to cool off by degrees after the above course 
as there is danger to be apprehended from taking cold in 
case of neglect. The treatment for suppressed or obstruc- 
ted menses, and retention of the menses, is nearly or quite 
the same— what is good in one case is also good in the 
other, and either of these complaints may be overcome by 
mild and gentle means, in ninety-nine cases out of a hun- 
dred, if taken in due time and perseveringly attended; on 
the other hand, negiect is invariably followed by serious 
and sometimes fatal consequences. Where there is irri- 
tation of the nerves, some of the articles in the class of 
anti-spasmodics may be combined with the bitters and 
teas, such as the moccasin-flower root, ginseng, asafcetida 



This painful malady is often met with in our climate, 
and is often not only accompanied with great sufferings 
but is frequently obstinate to cure. The causes of this 
complaint, are supposed to be taking cold during the flow 
of the menses, or shortly after abortion. 

The quantity of menstrual fluid discharged is generally 
small, and is accompanied with severe, bearing down 
pains, similar to those of labor, the pains come on at inte- 
vals,and continue until small clots of blood are discharg- 
ed, after this discharge some ease is experienced until"*, 
fresh production of this suhstance is to be expelled when 
there is a return of the pains. Women afflicted with this 
complaint seldom bear children until cured. 

Treatment.— The patient should first take a dose of 
anti-bilious pills or some other cathartic to cleanse the 
bowels. About the time the menstrual discbarge is ex- 
pected, she should drink freely of tansev or some worm- 
wood tea, and set over the steam of young cedar jot pine 
ops; sweating teas should be drank freely just before 
going to bed; the patient should also make a daily use of 
some laxative tonic in bitters, or some of the preDarations 
recommended under the head of bitter laxative tonics, in 
the dispensatory. In many instances, bitters of Columbo 


root ami Burdock root will answer admirably welL At 
the time of menstruation, when .the pain is very severe,, 
the patient may take a teaspoonful of paragoric or Bate- 
-man's drops in her tea. A tea of chamomile, either the 
herb or flower is very good; as is also a tea of the esm- 
mon garden marigold flower, or a tea of winter clover: — 
one berry. 



When the menses or courses have been retained or 
stopped for any length of time, and the whole system be- 
comes diseased from want of this discharge so necessary 
to the health of every female, it terminates or ends fre- 
quently in what is called ehlorois or green sickness. In 
this disease the skin turns of a pale yellow or greenish hue, 
the lips become pale or of a purple color, the eyes have a 
dark or purple tinge around them, there is frequent sick- 
ness without knowing the cause, on making the least exer- 
tion the heart palpitates or beats, and the Knees tremble 
— the cheeks are frequently flushed as in consumption, 
the mind is feeble and the woman seems to lack the power 
to attend to her domestic affairs, the feet swell and the 
whole system seems to sink under great debility or wenk- 

Treatment. — In this disease the patient, labors under ex- 
treme debility; therefore, tonics and strengthening'medi- 
oines are required. If the bowels are costive, give some 
laxative until their condition is changed, as soon as the 
contents of the bowels have been evacuated by the-., use 
of laxatives, commence giving the chalybeate pill night 
;uid morning, say two small pills for a dose — if these pilis 
cannot be conveniently had, give iron or steel dust in same 
way. The patient should also use the hepatic pill o-nce a 
day, two for a dose, and drink bitters of siar-root, eolumbo- 
root, wild cherry-tree bark, rattle-root, or any of the hit- 
ters recommended for retention of the menses. The pa- 
tient snould bathe the feet, and drink some sweating tea, 
every night before going to bed. All exposure to cold, 
damp and wet, must be avoided. The patient should 
take moderate exercise, but avoid fatigue! The diet 
.should be such as the stomach will easily digest, but. i*t it 
be nourishing. 




The menstrual discharge may be too profuse, either from 
m too frequent recurrence, or from. the great quantity dis- 
charged, when recurring at the proper periods. 

The causes are too great a determination of blood to 
the womb, or in other words too great an action in its ves- 
sels. This over quantity, or large discharge, generally 
fakes place in delicate women, particularly those who take 
but little exercise, or those who sit a great deal. 

Treatment.— The patient must -be kept cool and quiet, 
and spend as much of her time in bed as possible, with her 
head very low. A decoction of cumfrey root may be used 
to great advantage, it must be drank cool. A tea of prin- 
ces feather queen of the meadow, and red root are all good. 
But if these remedies should fail, give a tea of a decoction 
of Oo-na-tah-cah-tsee-!e-shee. I have never known this 
article to fail. Any astringent tonic is good in profuse 
i.ienstruation. ' After, temporary relief is obtained, the 
Chalybeate pill or some strengthening medicine must be 
used to improve the general health. 



Cessation of the menses or courses means an entire 
stoppage of this discharge, or a change of nature, when the 
female has arrived at than period, in life, when these or- 
gans become incapable of performing their peculiar func- 
tions. .This change usually takes place between the forty 
second and forty seventh year, though in those of delicate 
constitution, it stops before that period, and in those of ro- 
bust constitution, it sometimes continues later— it is a cri- 
tical and extremely dangerous period of a woman's life 
and notwithstanding thousands pass through it without' 
- > riencing any inconvenience; it is a period which re- 
quirc*particular care and attention: All exposure to cold 
and damp must be scrupulously avoided, and particularly 
wet feet, and remaining long on the damp ground. Sud" 
den changes of dress and every thing that produces suckL™ 
revolutions hahe bodily system fronusxfremes of heatend < 


cold, and dampnesg. But not attending to the above pre- 
cautions, you will be sure to lay the foundation of diseases 
of a multiplied and stubborn character, which will be sure 
to embitter and destroy the remainder of your days, let 
them be many or few. 

The cessation usually takes place gradually. They 
first diminish in quantity, and become more irregular, un- 
til they return no more. Strict attention to temperance 
and exercise, so as to preserve the general health, and 
promote the free exercise of all the other functions of the 
body, is necessary. 

If any disease should ensue, treat it according to the di- 
rections laid down under its proper head. 


WHITES AND FLOUR ALBU 8.— (Oo-na-yak.) 

Whites or Flour Albus is an unnatural and white color- 
ed discharge from the birth-place, and is produced from va- 
rious causes, such, for instance, as the powers of the womb 
being impaired by severe labors, repeated miscarriages, 
getting out of bed too soon after child-birth, or by taking 
cold at this time, or any other time when the menses are a- 
bout coming on; this disease is sometimes brought on by fa- 
tigue, or weakness produced by general bad health. Wo- 
men of weakly and delicate constitutions, sucli as take but 
little exercise, and those who have had many children are 
much subject to flour albus or whites; in some instances, 
this discharge makes its appearance monthly, instead of 
the natural menses or courses. This is generally the case 
where the woman is laboring under suppression of the 
menses or some derangement of the whole system. The 
most aggravated form of this disease, and the mildest form 
of clap in females bear a strong resemblance. Some wri- 
ters on this subject say, that they may be distinguished by 
the discharge in clap producing a scalding and burning 
sensation, whereas no such feelings are produced by the 
discharge in Flour Albus or Whites — this, however, is not 
the case, for the discharge in Whites often produces itch- 
ing, uneasiness, great heat and scalding of tne parts. In 
clap, there is a swelling ol the parts and the scalding sen- 
sations increase iR severity much faster than in Flour Al- 

The whites are called by this name, because the dis- 


charge resembles the white of an egg. There are several 
stages of the complaint, and between the mildest and se- 
verest form, if permitted to run on, it will entirely destroy 
the constitution and seat some incurable disease on the 
system. The complexion will change first to a pale sickly 
color, and if the disease is permitted to run on, it will at last 
assume a sickly, greenish hue, and the lips become pur- 
ple; at this state seek for a remedy under the general head 
of green sickness. 

Whites and green sickness are sometimes produced by 
the falling of the womb. When either of these complaints 
is caused by the falling of the womb, look at page 200 for 
a remedy. 

Treatment. — The bowels should be emptied with anti- 
bilious pills, and costivenesss prevented by the occasional 
use of the same in small doses, or by the use of gulvers 
root, castor oil or cream of tartar. After the bowels have 
been emptied, give the chalybeate pill, night and morning, 
two common sized pills for a dose, and make a constant 
use of the tea of Oo-wa-sco-you, called by the whites blue 
flag or gleet root, a pint of this tea should be drank each 
day tolerably strong. Particular attention should be paid 
to cleanliness of the parts. They should be washed fre- 
quently with warm water, and some astringent article jn- 
jected up the birth-place, such as oak oose, brier root tea, 
wild alum root tea, &c. 





Pregnancy, though not a disease, is often attended with 
diseases peculiar to that state which are very troublesome. 
The diseases commonly attendant on Pregnancy, are not 
of a very dangerous character; yet some of them produce 
the sorest ills that afflict the female race. " Many a fe- 
male appears to have the curse pronounced upon Eve ful- 
ly verylied in her own case. Sorrow marks her for her 
own from the time gestation commences until the period 
of her deliverance." But this is not always the case; 
some women enjoy an unusual portion of health while in a 
state of pregnancy, "but these favorites of heaven are like 
angels visits, few and far between." The system during 
pregnancy experiences an increased susceptibility of dis- 



Young healthy women, whose monthly terms appear re- 
gular, may commonly know when they are pregnant by the 
terms or menses not returning at the proper period; there 
is often sickness and vomiting, particularly of a morning; 
it is frequently attended with heart-burn and sourness of 
the stomach, loss of. appetite, craving for food which be- 
fore was disliked, and often a particular dislike to diets as 
had previously been held in high esteem. The face be- 
comes pale, the features sharp, the waist grows more slim 
and lank than usual and continues so for some time. The 
breasts become more full and the rose-colored ring around 
the nipple becomes darker. Toothache is frequently an in- 
dication of pregnancy. The rising of the naval so as to be- 
come flat and smooth with the belly, may be considered al- 
most a certain sign of pregnancy. 

During pregnancy, some women become peevish duff., 
and gloomy, and others are more lively and agreeable 
than usual. The pulse during pregnancy, is considerubfv 
quicker than common, and there is frequently a dizziness 
•©^swimming in the head. ;• Pregnancy never does exist 
"without some or all of the above named symptoms^yetlthe 


most of them may exist without pregnancy, ^hereisbut 
one certain sign of pregnancy, which is the motion of the 
■child felt by the mother, between the end of the third 
month and the beginning of the fifth the motion of the child 
can be distinctly felt by the mother, which is called quick- 
ning, and when quickning is felt it is a certain sign of 


Very lew females escape this distressing and common 
attendant at the earlier stages of pregnancy. If the vomi- 
ting is not severe, it will do no injury, but if it should be 
very severe and produce considerable debility, means 
should be used to lessen its severity or stop it entirely. 

Treatment. — The bowels should be kept regulated by 
the daily use of laxatives of a coolling nature, cream of 
tartar will answer well for this purpose. The gentian 
and columbo root taken together or : alone are excellent, 
they may be taken in bitters if preferred, to which may be 
" -added the essence of peppermint — or they may be taken 
" in tea or a decoction and the peppermint added; it should 
be permitted to get cold before it is drank, ginger may be 
jput in the' bitters or decoction, with advantage. If any 
particularkind of food be craved it should be procured, as 
the gratification of the capricious appetite seldom fails in 
diminishing the severity of the symptoms. A cup of gin- 
ger or mint tea will often give relief. The principle rem- 
edy however, and the one most to be relied on, is keeping 
the bowels open by cooling laxatives and clysters. More 
than halt the diseases which arise during pregnancy, are 
more or less occasioned by a costive state of the bowek, 
and every pregnant woman should bear in mind the vast 
necessity of keeping the bowels so regulated as to have a 
stool daily, whenever she falls short of this she endangers 
her health. 


Cramp, with some, is a,n early attendant syihptom of 
' "■■ pregnency, but it generally comes on about the fourth 
lmontK ; of 'pregnehcy* it fe commonly most troublesome a.% 


night while in bed. It attacks different parts of the body T 
and is generally most severe during the latter stages of 

Treatment.-- When the Cramp comes on, get out of bed 
immediately, stand a few minutes on the coldest rock that 
can be procured. This will give present relief. To pre- 
vent its return, keep the bowels in good order with purga- 
tives or injections, and confine the flour of sulpher or pow- 
dered brimstone around the legs by means of a garter or 
belt. If the attacks are frequently and violent, in addition 
to the above, rub the parts with the essence of pepper, and 
if the patient be of full habit draw a little blood. 



Unpleasant sensations of this kind, very frequently oc- 
cur dining pregnency; they are in most instances occa- 
sioned by the blood vessels being too full; but sometimes 
in delicate, weakly women, they arrise from an opposite 
cause, such as a want of a due circulation of the blood 
which induces debility or weakness. 

Treatment. — If the woman thus afflicted be fleshy and 
strong, draw blood from the arm and keep the bowels open 
by the use of some laxative medicine, such as anti-bilious 
pills, castor oil, cream of tartar, rheubarb, &c. But if she 
be weakly and delicate, bleeding will be highly improper. 
She should take moderate exercise, but avoid fatigue by 
all means. The bowels should be regulated by the use of 
very mild laxatives or injections. She should drink freely 
of columbo and spikenard bitters, and bathe her templee 
frequently with spirits in which camphor has been dissol- 
ved. The warm bath is excellent in cases of this kind. 



This swelling is produced by the weight of the womb 
pressing on the vessels which return the fluid from the 
lower parts of the body. The womb is greatly enlarged 
during pregnancy, and in the advanced stages of pregnan- 
cy these swellings frequently give great pain. 

Treatment, — Let the woman go to bed and remain as 


quiet as possible, if she be stout let her loose a little blood, 
and regulate the bowels by the use of mild and cooling 
medicines, such as cream of tartar, rheubard, &c. Wo- 
men afflicted in this way should spend as much of their, 
time in a lying posture as convenient. There need be no 
danger apprehended from thes swellings, although they 
often prove troublesome. 



Very few women escape this distressing complaint du- 
ring pregnacy: it generally arises from acid in the stom- 

Treatment. — If heart-burn is attended with sickness at 
the stomach and a constant hawking up of a tough phlegm, 
it will be necessary to cleanse the stomach with a gentle 
emetic, such as ipecac or indian physic. But if it is ac- 
companied with a hot sour taste in the mouth, and a belch- 
ing up of sour water, it may be relieved by the use of 
weak lye or lime water, or by a tea-spoonful of magnesia 
in a cup of cold water, or it may be eaten if preferred. — 
Ground ginger is also good for Heart-Burn; it may be ta- 
ken in half tea-spoonful doses as often as necessary or the 
roots may be chewed at pleasure. Cinnamon bark is also 
good for the Heart-Burn. Slippery-elm bark powdered 
and taken in cold water, is an excellent article for this dis- 
tressing complaint. Comfrev, either the gardeu or wild, 
will generally give speedy relief. The slippery-elm bark 
and comf rey will act as an aperient, and will probably af- 
ford the most permanent relief of any of the above named 
articles, lor costiveness should be strictly avoided by per- 
sons afflicted with Heart-Burn. 



This is generally most troublesome in the latter months 
of pregnency, but it is sometimes during the first months. 
It is owing to an iritable state of the womb after concep- 

Treatment. — Light and cooling purgatives, such as anti- 
qilious pills, oil, senna, rheubarb, cream of tartar. &c, : 


gaits should never be taken in this complaint, as ft has^ 
tendency to increase the iratability of the partsj salts is 
by no means a good purge for pregnant females, it increas- 
es the excitement of the parts and leaves the bowels in a 
costive state. Warm clysters of slippery-elm tea, or new 
milk and water 'thrown up the fundament three or four 
times a day, will give great relief, and sitting over a pot 
or tub of water, every time she wants to make water, will 
enable her to pass off the urine with greater ease, it will 
also lessen the mflamatory condition of the womb. ^By 
pursuing the above course and avoiding violent exercise, 
this troublesome Complaint may be mitigated and some- 
times entirely relieved. 



Stoppage of the urine is not uncommon in the latter 
months of pregnancy. It is occasioned by the weight' of 
the womb pressing on the neck of the water-bla/Jder; this 
pressure prevents the water from flowing from the blad- 
der at those periods when nature requires the evacuation. 
1 Treatment. — The contents of the bowels must be evac- 
uated by means of warm injections of milk and water, or 
slippery-el m tea. Apply cloths wrung out of warm water, 
to the lowest part of the abdomen or belly. Let the wo- 
man stand upon her feet and support the weight of the 
"" c'hild with her hands, and endeavor to raise or change the 
'■■ position of the child; this often gives speedy relief. But 
. if all the above remedies should fail, resort must be had 
' immediately to a cathetar. Instruments of this kind may 
generally be had at any of the doctor shops and not unfre- 
-jQuently at the stores. For a description, of the cathetar 

and tn'emode of using it, look under that head. 


■ Flooding, when in a state of pregnancy, may always be 
considered as dangerous, and requiring the immediate aid 
of a skillful physician. No dischSrgi ,M blood ever takes 
,.jti£&ce from the womb in astfund state of pregnency, when- 
ever such a discharge does take' place it is proof that there 
U something wrong. 


Treatment. — As soon as this dangerous complaint is 
discovered, put the woman in bed, keep her as cool as^pos- 
gible, and admit plenty of fresh air, give her nothing 
of a heating'nature either to eat or drink. Give her a? tea 
of Oo-na-stah-lah-cah-stee-le-skee to drink freely, if thi« 
cannot be had, turn to Materia Medica, there you will find 
many valuable astringent tonics fully described. Give 
any article of this class freely, without the apprehension 
q1l dangar from their use. 



Women are frequently troubled with pains which re- 
semble labor in so many particulars as to give great un- 
easiness. False pains may be produced by costiveness, 
eating such articles of food as produce wind in the bow- 
els, by fatigue, dysentary, &c. They may be relieved by 
regulating the diet, attending to the bowels, avoiding ex- 
posure and fatigue, and drinking freely of a tea of mocca- 
sin flower root, and the leaves of the ; English raspberry. 



Abortion may take place at any time during gestation 
after the fm.t month, but it frequently occurs between the 
eighth and twentieth week. After a woman has onco 
miscarried, she is much more liable to the same accident 
than before, and when a habit of miscarrying is once form- 
ed, it is a difficult matter to prevent it. Abortion is gen- 
erally caused by sudden frights, violent, fits of passion, ex- 
ternal injuries, such as falls, blows, &c, violent puking or 
purging, oppressive exercise, excessive venery, or great 
uneasiness of mind. Aborlion is generally preeeeded by 
pains in the back, loins, and lower part, of the abdomen, 
there will be a looseness or softness of the breasts, and a 
chilliness of the body. Slight discharges of blood will 
take place from the womb, which sometimes increases un- 
til it amounts to flooding. 

Treatment. — When symptoms of Abortion appearwith- 

' out a belief that the child is dead, every possible means 

'most be used to prevent the loss of the child. If she ft as 

, f fever and is of full 'habi;, blood should be drawn, but if 


■he be in a cold state which is generally the case, give 
rtimulating and sweating teas. Let cayenne pepper be 
ised freely, ginger and whiskey stew is an excellent arti- 
;le to warm the system. I forgot to tell you when speak- 
ng of flooding, that if the patient be in a cold state, 
warming teas, such as red pepper, ginger with spirits in 
it will be of great utility; but if the patient has fever and 
is flooding, eold applications should be used in their stead. 
The bowels should be well attended to and costiveness 
avoided by the use of injections, and mild purgatives. A 
tea of eommon hemp-seed may be used with great advan- 
tage, this tea alone often prevents abortion. Women who 
are liable to have discharges of blood from the womb du- 
ring pregnency, should make constant use of spikenard 
and columbo-root bitters. After symptoms of miscarriage, 
the patient should remain in bed for several days, and as 
ahe values her own safety and the life of her child she is 
to avoid all the above named causes which tend to prodnce 
accidents of this kind. 




Labor means the interval of time between the period 
when the woman begins to be delivered of her child, and? 
her final delivery. Although Labour is an operation pure- 
ly natural, it is preceded by various symptoms which indi- 
cate its approach. A few days previous to delivery there 
is a shrinking of the waist, sometimes this does not take 
place until within a few hours of actual labor. Pains are 
next felt in the back, loins, and a slimy matter is discharg- 
ed from the birth place, generally colored with blood. — 
The pains are at first short, and only return after consider- 
able intervals; but they gradually increase in length and 
severity, and the intervals of ease are much shorter. There 
is often dullness, sickness and vomiting. To ascertain 
whether the woman is in actual Labour, the midwife is to 
introduce her finger to the mouth of the womb, (having 
first oiled it well,) if there is much pressure from above on 
the mouth of the womb, and if it appears to dilate or open 
during the continuance of a pain, the woman is in actual 
Labour. During the first stages of Labor, nothing is to be 
done by the midwife only to keep the mouth of the womb 
in its proper place; it is often turned so far back as to pro- 
duce much unnecessary suffering, this is to be done with 
great tenderness on the part of the midwife. The contents 
of the bowels should be evacuated by injections or a dose 
of castor oil, the urine should be passed off whenever she 
feels the least desire to evacuate it. During the stage of 
Labor the woman is to be kept quiet, and all rational 
means employed to inspire courage, bear up the sinking 
spirits and prevent entire despondency. As the womb- 
gradually becomes more and more dilated and the pains 
become more frequent and severe, the patient often be- 
comes impatient and dissatisfied with every body about 
her, frequently demanding help from the midwife. This is 
a Critical time and any force on the part of the midwife 
may do serious injury. She may lie in bed with a pillow 
placed between her knees so as to keep them sufficiently 
wide for the child to pass. When the pains become se- 
vere and bear down considerably, if she should desire to 
be placed in another position, her request should certainly 


be granted. Most women prefer sitting on the knees of-**-. 
not her and this is certainly the most natural and' easy po- 
sition. As the pains increase the child's head descends ra- 
pidly at every bearing down pain, and soon fills the basin' 
or pelvis — this is called the second stage of Labour, and it 
is at this time that great support must be given by the mid- 
wife in pushing with the palm, or soft part of the hand a- 
gainst the percnium, which is that part between the birth- 
place and -the fundaments This must be strictly attended 
to, for it is easilv torn, and when torn it can never be rem- 
edied. The lacerating or tearing of this part connects the 
opening of the fundament and birth place, and leaves the 
poor innocent sufferer inxi most unpleasant and miserable 
conditition through life. , The third stage of Labour com- 
mences at the time the child's head starts through the ex- 
ternal part of the birth-place. In this stage you are to be 
very particular in supporting the percnium. When the 
pains come on with violence and rapidity you are to. push 
gently against the perenium in a manner, rather to retard 
than to' hasten Labour, especially if thechild's head seems 
to advance too fast. If it should advance very slow at 
this stage, the midwife may assist the birth by taking bold 
of each side of the head with her hands when it is suffici- 
ently advanced, and pulling gently during the continuance 
of a pain. When the head is born, the mother will gene- 
rally have a little rest, which should be alowed her — she 
abould be soothed and cheered by the midwife. The hand 
must still be pressed gently on the perenium, bearing it 
somewhat upwards, this pressure must be continued until 
the hips and thighs have passed the mouth of the birth- 
place. . When the child is born, let it and the mother be 
perfectly quiet for a -few minutes, taking the naval-string 
between the finger and thumb, and so soon as the pulsa- 
tion in the cord has ceased, tie a string firmly about three 
inches from the naval, then apply another tie about two 
inches from the first, still nearer the placenta or after- 
birth, then cut the cord between the ties. The naval-cord 
must in no instance be cut until the breathing of the child 
is established. Generally the child, cries immediately af- 
ter it is born, but if it does not, its mouth should be cleared 
of every thing that is calculated to obstruct breathing. — 
Its body should be wet with spirits, and the naval cord stript 
between the thumb and finger from the mother to the child, 
Ifthese means fail, so soon as the glacenta or after-birth 


is expelled, place the child in lukewarm water and giye an 
Injection, in which put a portion, of spirits. If all tap a- 
bove means should fail, take the child, ta a door or window 
immersed in warm water to the chin, and place the after- 
birth on a shovel of hot embers, stripping the cord from tho « 
after-birth to the cbild'as above directed. . When the 
child's head is born, the, midwife should ascertain whether 
the naval cord is drawn, about the neck of the child. If 
she finds it drawn around the neck of the child, she must 
gently draw it over from the back of the head Jo the face. 
After the woman is delivered of her child, the placenta 
or after-birth has yet to come away. This commonly 
takes place in from five to forty-live minutes after th« 
birth of the child. But, if nature should not expel the af- 
ter-birth in the course of fifteeen minutes, the operator 
should move the cord very gently, but. do not pull it, the 
patient may blow gently in her hands and rub the abdo- 
men to aid the contraction of the. womb. If these means 
should not cause the womb to contract and expel the after- 
burthen in the course of an hour, you may take the cord in - 
the left hand, and follow the cord with the fourfinger of the 
right hand up the birth-place, and if yon readily feel tho§ 
root, of the cord, continue rubbing the lower part of the 
belly with the hands, and let. her continue blowing in her 
hands, these means will generally throw out the afier-birth. 
But, if you cannot '/each the after-birth with your finger, 
and nature seems quiet on the subject, a further examina- 
tion is necessary. If the after-birth seems fast to the 
womb, take a part oi' it softly in'o ihe fingers and press it 
gently, Si iil rising the above mild means. If this should 
fail to expel the after-birth, you may feel cautiously, and 
separate between the edges of the afier-birth and the womb, 
any part;; which may adhere as the womb gradually clos- 
es. When the after-birth is expelled and any great dis- 
charge pnsucs, treat it as directed under the head flooding. 
But let me here tell you that more dangerous floodings are 
produced by hastening the expulsion of the after-burthen 
than in any other way. Many unskillful midwifes think 
the sooner ihey can expel the after-birth, alter the birth of 
the child, the better. This is a very erroneous idea, and , 
has caused the death of many a woman. As soon as con- 
venient after delivery, the woman is to be placed in a clean 
dry be d, she m?.y take some nourishment such as a cup of 
t&u coffee,., or light penada. She should, not encourag# 


conversation, but remain quiet, and if she feels disposed to 
sleep, she should indulge it ; her room should be kept 
comfortable, if the weather be warm, give her plenty fresh 
air, if cold, make it comfortably warm, and- do not annoy 
her with company. 

As soon as convenient, a broad bandage is to be placed 
round the abdomen, comfortably tight. This bandage is 
to be worn at least one month. This will prevent the wo- 
man from having an ill-shaped abdomen, alter recovery. — 
The day followiug her delivery, she should take some 
mild purge, such as oil, cream of Tartar or rhubarb. If 
she is allowed to become costive, child bed fever may be 
expected. After having cut the naval-cord as above di- 
rected, you are to wash it clean with warm water and 
soap, and wipe it dry. The naval is to be dressed by burn- 
ing a hole through a fine cloth of several folds, greasing 
the under side with tallow or oil, then drawing the naval 
cord through the hole, then, apply a bandage round the bel- 
ly comfortably tight. In four or five days, the cord will 
slough off; the naval should then be anointed with an oint- 
ment made by stewing heart-leaf root, or bearsfoot root in 
fresh butter. This ointment will soon remove the tender- 


A natural presentation is when the crown of the head 
presents, and the body follows in a straight line. When 
any other part of the child presents, it is unnatural, and 
will produce difficult labor, when the membrane contain- 
ing the water has broke, the midwife can easily ascertain 
what part of the child presents. 

When the feet present, she should endeavor to get them 
both, and ihe labor may be snffered to progress in the natu- 
ral way; ihe midwife may assist the birth by gently draw- 
ing the child during each pain. She should with b©fh 
her hands, bring down the arms along with the child — 
When the breast and arms are born so far as the shoulders 
if the face of the child be not downwards, it must be turn- 
ed to that position, in order to prevent its being stopped 
by the chin over the share bone; having brought it to the 
shoulders, the operation is to pull the child forward during 
ihe next pain; so that the head may take the place of slioul- 


tiers, and not be stopped in the passage. The operator 
must be sure, that she has the feet of but one child, if there 
he two children, and she should get the left foot of one, 
and the right foot of the other, it would prove fatal both to 
the mother and children. To ascertain this, she is to slide 
her hand gently up the leg and thigh, until she finds them 
both joined to one body, When the breech presents, you 
should endeavor to bring it feet foremost as above direct- 
ed. When the hands and feet present together, the hips 
of the woman should be raised a little higher than the 
head and shoulders; and when the mouth of the womb is 
sufficiently dilated, the hand is to be introduced far enough 
to reach the breast of the child, which is to be gentty thrown 
back towards the bottom of the womb, leaving the feet in 
in the passage, after which the child is to be brought forth 
feet foremost as before directed. When the hand 1 and 
shoulder presents, the operator should gently try to push 
back the part and keep it so, and in most instances if prop- 
erly done, the pains will force the head into the pelvis, and 
bring the presentation to a natural one. But if these 
means should fail, the feet are to be searched for with great 
tenderness and caution. Having found and secured both 
feet, they are to be brought down by the child's face, for if 
brought down by its back, it will endanger the lives of 
both mother and child. If the woman is feeble and much 
exhausted, the delivery must be aided and hastened by the 


Twins are generally smaller than other children; and 
on this account, their birth is more rapid, and easy than 
that of single children. After the birth of the first child, 
it may be easily ascertained whether there is ah b thei 
child contained in the womb. When there is but one chiia 
the womb diminishes very much in size soon after the birii 
of the child, and the bowels which have been kept out ol 
their naturalsituation, during the latter months of nrejr. 
nency, immediately get forward to the fore part of thu 
belly, and render it soft and yielding. But where a second 
child remains, the womb does not appear to diminish in 
size, and the fore part of the belly has the same hardness 
as before delivery. Sometimes the pains advance rapidly 


and the infant comes soon after the first. In such cases, 
all the practitioner has to do, is to be assured that the child 
is in the proper position, and so conduct the extraction of 
the afterbirths, that no alarming discharges may follow. — 
When the pains cease, after the birth of the first, child, the 
operator should not interfere, until the woman has measur- 
ably recovered from her fatigue., If the pains do not re- 
turn for the expulsion of the second child, in the space of 
an hour, after the birth of the first child; give her a tea 
of red raspberry leaves, oneberry leaves, or white hazel 
leaves made pretty warm with red pepper. Rub the ab- 
domen witli the hand, and the womb will contract, and 
bring a return of the pains. The naval chord of the first 
is to be tied as directed for single children, securing the 
chord to prevent it from drawing back. The afterbirths, if 
there be two, will both be expelled at once, after the birth 
of the last child. When the first child presents natural, 
which is headforemost, the second may be expected to pre- 
sent feet foremost or in. some worse position, it is to be 
treated as 1 have already directed for the different presen- 





These pains are occasioned by the contraction of the 
womb, in its exertions to expel the clots of blood and secrer 
ti'ons which are' contained in the womb after the birth. — 
When they are not too severe, and produce but little iii- 
conyenjeiice, it will be be&t to let them alone. But when 
rhey become so severe as to weary and weaken the wo- 
man, they are to be relieved by the use of a. tea of red rasp- 
berry leaves and moccasin-flower icot,, in which put 
a tea-spoonful of the antispasmodic tincture to each ha li- 
tea-cupiul: the dose should be repeated as often as circum- 
stances require it. Thi: 5 treatment will often relieve flood- 
in"; afier delivery. 



The discharges, which take place from the womb and 


Virth>place, for several clays after delivery, are- termed 
Lochia, which, in English, means cleansing. If these dis- 
charges do not flow so plentifully as may be expected or if 
they entirely stop, no regard need be. paid to this circum- 
-stance, if the patient be otherwise as well as can be wish- 
ed, for this evacuation is not only different in different 
women, but even in the same women in different 
lyings-in, from which she recovers equally well. But if 
they should become scant or stop, and produce ill feelings, 
they are to be increased by the use of warm stimulating 
teas, and sitting over the bitter herbs. The birth-place is 
to be washed once or twice a day with warm milk and 
water, and occasionally thrown up the birth-place. This 
will greatly facilitate her recovery, and in many instances 
it will prevent disease. 


Inflamed and sore breasts are caused by cold settling in 
them and obstructing the passage of the milk.. 

Let the patient keep the bowels regular by the use of 
mild purgatives, minding not to use salts. She should 
drink some sweating teas to keep up a perspiration, and 
bathe the breast frequently in: a strong decoction of beach 
leaves or bark, and apply a poultice made by' thikening 
the above decoction with wheat brand. The face of the 
poultice should be smeared with fresh butter, hog's lard 
or some kind of oil, to prevent its sticking. A. beeswax 
plaster made as directed for- mumpsy and applied to the 
breasts, is an; excellent remedy. If you find the above- 
means will not prevent it from coming to a head, boil su- 
mac-root bark in sweet milk, thicken it with flour and it 
will draw it to a head-as* speedily as necessary; when it is 
perfectly ripe,, and not before,, have it opened, and continue 
the application of the poultice. 


Take red-oak bark and boil it until you have a strong 
decoction, then strain and continue boiling until it is re- 
duced to the consistency of thick molasses; apply this ex- 
tract over the nipple in the form of a plaster, and it will, 
cure almost any sore nipple. 



In a few days after delivery, the breasts become disten- 
ded with milk. There is generally headache, thirst, hot, 
dry skin, quick pulse, &c. These feverish symptoms are 
ocoasioned by the change of the system after delivery, by 
the swelling and iritation of the breasts from the milk se- 
creted in them. This feVer may be relieved by taking a 
dose of cream of tartar to evacuate the contents of the 
bowels and cool the system, bathe the breasts with warm 
water or a tea of catnip. Drink mild teas, such as balm, 
sage, or hysop, and let the child stick frequently. Putting 
the child to the breast soon after it is born, and continuing 
to do so frequently, minding not to feed it, so as to prevent 
it from being desirous for the breast, will often prevent 
this fever entirely. 



This disorder may attack at any time, from the second 
to the fourth Week after delivery. It is generally suppos- 
ed to arise from some irritating matter being left in the 
womb. It is a complaint that seldom occurs where due 
caution and cleanliness are observed. The symptoms, 
dejected spirits, general uneasiness over the system; thera 
are succeeded by a pain inside of the leg, extending from 
the heel to the groin — the slightest motion gives great pain. 
There is a slight pain about the womb, the discharges from 
the birth-place become very offensive,. The pulse becomes 
quick, the skifi hot, the tongue white, the urine thick. In 
a short time, the leg begins to swell and the skin turns of 
a pale glossy color, its peculiar appearance has given it 
the name of the White-Leg. 

Treatment.^— When symptoms of this complaint appear, 
lose no time in injecting forcibly up the birth-place warm 
milk and water, ior the purpose of cleansing the womb of 
any irritating matter that may be in it. If she be costive, 
let her use cream of tartar freely, or in sufficient quanti- 
ties to regulate the bowels. Steam the leg over bitter 
herbs or bathe it in a strong tea of catnip, after which, 
bathe it with a decoction of pepper and vinegar, and keep 

t wrapped in flannel. This course is to be pursued until 

elief is obtained. 




This disease is technically termed puerperal fever, and 
it may be regarded as one of the most fatal diseases to 
which lying-in women are subject. It usually attacks in' 
a few days after delivery, when it does occur. The symp- 
toms are, chilliness, soreness about the womb, fever soon 
follows, and generally ceases in a profuse sweat, the sweat 
soon dries up and the skin becomes dry and burning, the 
face is flushed the thirst great and the tongue whitish. 
There is great pain in the head & back, sickness at the sto- 
mach, and sometimes vomiting. In a short time the belly 
swells, feels full and becomes very painful, so much so, 
that the lightest covering cannot be borne without giving 
pain. In some cases the bowels are quite loose, and in 
others much constipated or bound. The social discharge* 
cease, the milk dries up and the breasts become flabby. — 
When this fever continues for a time, it is very apt to 
change to a typhus fever. This is marked by an abate- 
ment of the infiamatory symptoms, the tongue and teeth 
now become covered with a dark brown coat, small sores 
break out in the mouth and throat, the breath smells bad- 
ly, the stools are dark and very offensive. 

When Child-Bed Fever changes to the Typhus, refer to 
the head of Nervous Fever, where you find the proper 
treatment. The treatment in the first stage, or in Child- 
Bed Fever properly so called, is as follows: 

Treatment, — During the cold stage, warm applications 
to the feet will be of service, she may also drink warm 
teas, such as balm, sage, &c. When the hot stage comes 
on she is to be bled from the arm. After being bled she is 
to take a purge of cream of tartar, rheubarb, senna, or 
anti-bilious pills. If there is sickness at the stomach it will 
be proper to empty the stomach with some mild emetic. — 
Apply a cloth wrung out of hot water to the belly, and 
inject warm milk and water up the birth place this will 
lessen the pains and inflamation, cloths wrung out of a 
strong tea of catnip is an excellent application over the 
belly. When the fever is on give ipecac every hour in 
small portions, so as to produce slight sickness at the stom- 
ach, and gentle moisture of the skin. Injections of slip- 
pery elm tea will be of service. After the stomach and 
bowels have been attended to as' above directed, give a 



sweat 1 of senfccka snake root tea, after which let the patient 
use mfid teas to keep up a gentle perspiration. At the 
commencement of this disease the diet must be very light 
and cooling but as the disease advances, and she becomes 
weaker the nourishment should be increased. 

The spirits of turpentine taken in table-spoqiiful doses 
every morning, in a mucillage of peach tree gum, and 
followed by a table-spoonful of castor oil in the evening 
until ihe violence of these symptom's cease, is said to cure 
this # dangerous disease, with much more certainty than 
blood-letting. When the loss of strength is great, from 
purging, or from other causes or if the disease seems to be" 
approaching the typhus or nervous fever it will be necessa- 
ry to support her system, by the use of good wine or toddy. 
Equal quantities of wild cherry-tree bark, dog-wood bark 
and swamp-poplar bark, boiled together and the decoction 
perfectly cooled, taken in doses of a wine-glassful three 
or four times a day, given when the patient is clear of fe- 
ver and weak, will be found an excellent strengthener of 
the system. 



This disease is common both to the pregnant and un- 
pregnanted state. It is brought on by going about too 
soon after delivery or the monthly discharge, before the 
womb has gained its usual tone and strength. It may al- 
so be brought on by jumping, or some violent exertion 
during or soon after labor. The symptoms are: a sense 
of bearing down pains in the back, groins and privates, 
and if the complaint is suffered to progress, the urine is fre- 
quently stopped by the womb descending into the vagina 
and pressing on the nock of the bladder. In the worst 
stage of 1 his disease, the womb protrudes beyond the mouth 
of the vagina a considerable distance. 

Treatment. — In the first stage of this dssease, or before 
it has protruded without the vagina, it may be relieved by 
bathing the small of the back and lower part of the abdo- 
men iii the essence, of red-pepper. (See Dispensatory.) 
and applying a strengthening plaster to the back; she 
should bathe every twelve hours. To restore the, general 
Jhealth, let her drink bitters of white sarsaparilla and wild 


mercury in good whiskey. When it has protruded with- 
out the vagina ahd made its appearance, take five pounds 
of white-oak bark, boil it in two gallons of water* down to 
three pints, then strain the decoction and add three pints 
of honey, mix it well and simmer it a few moments over 
a slow fire. The womb must be washed with casteel 
soap, and then bathed in strong alum water, and then 
anointed with the white-oak syrup and honey. It is to be 
dressed in the above manner every twelve hours. After 
it has been washed and dressed as above directed it is to 
be supported by a bandage and cushion. There is to be a 
bandage worn around the body just above the hips, and 
' the bandage which is to confine the cushion to the! womb, 
is to be fastened to this belt or bandage before and^ehind. 
The cushion should be covered with a fine, soft cloth eve- 
ry time the womb is thus dressed. She is to drink the same 
bitters as directed in the first stage, and bathe the abdo- 
men and back in the same manner, and also applying the 
strengthening plaster to the back. This course is to be 
regularly pursued until relief is obtained. The above re- 
medies effected an entire cure where the Womb had been 
protruded without the vagina seven years and the woman 
was rendered unable to go about. — The Womb returned to 
Us proper place and she recovered her health in a few 
months. The patient should confine herself as much as 
possible to If ing and sitting; she should avoid violent ex- 
ercise, and, above all, lifting and" stooping. 



Many of the diseases that children in common with grown 
persons are subject to, I have described, and the general 
treatment laid down in the foregoing part of this work, it 
will therefore be unnecessary for me to enter into a minute 
detail of all the diseases to which childhood is exposed. — 
I will confine myself principally to the diseases of infants, 
and such complaints, among children as have not- been pre- 
viously treated on in this work. 


All children at their birth'iiave a dark colored matter in 


their bowels called by phisicians Meconium. If this mat- 
ter be not discharged in a reasonable time, it produces irri- 
tation and disease. Nature seems to have designed that 
the first milk drawn from the mother's breast, should so op- 
erate upon the bowels of the infant, as to evacuate the of- 
fensive matter by stool. This is amply sufficient reason, 
I think, why infants should be put to the mother's breast as 
early as possible after birth. If the milk should fail to ope- 
rate on the bowels, it will be necessary to give some mild 
cathartic, sometimes a little molasses and water will an- 
swer; it should be given at intervals, until it operates. A 
tea of rose leaves is very good, or senna tea may be given^ 
but if the above simple remedies should fail, give castor 
oil, or rhubarb; either of these will remove the meconium. 
Injections of cow's milk sweetened with molasses or sugar, 
will greatly aid the other remedies in cleansing the bowels. 




New-born infants are not unfrequently afflicted with 
suppression of urine, and if the difficulty be not removed, it 
will in a short time produce great pain, and in many instan- 
ces, convulsions which sometimes terminate fatally. — 
Particular attention should be paid by the nurse, to see if 
the child discharges urine, in a reasonable time, and quan- 
tity, after its birth, and also that it continue to do so at 
proper intervals afterwards. 

Treatment. — Give a tea of pumpkin seeds, or water-me- 
lon seeds sweetened with sugar or molasses; it should be 
repeated frequently until relief is obtained. The abdomen 
should be bathed with warm water, and gently rubbed, a 
little spirits in which camphor has been dissolved, may be 
added to the water intended for the bath, with the happiest 
effects. Many valuable articles for suppression of the u- 
rine, is named and fully described in the materia medica, 
in the class of diuretics, and by turning to that part of this 
work, you will doubtless be enabled to administer relief to 
the little sufferer without delav. 


This stoppage of the nose is quite common among young 



children, and is occasioned by cold. 

Open the bowejs with castor oil, or some other mild 
purge, grease the forehead, and across the nose with tallow 
or sweet oil, or bathe it with warm vinegar and water. If 
this does not give relief in addition to the above remedies, 
bathe it in warm water, and after the bowels have been 
opened, give it a little finely powdered sulphur, in some 
sweating tea, such as ground ivy, penny's worth or some- 
thing similar. By this means, relief will be obtained, and 
in many instances, a severe attack of croup prevented. 


SORE EYES.— (Tsi-loh-nah-ka-wis-kak.) 

Keep the bowels open with rose-leaf tea, peach-flower 
tea, or any mild laxative, and wash the eyes with warm 
breast-milk, or water in which a little borax has been dis- 
solved. Sore eyes are mostly caused by cold or derange- 
ment of the bowels, and by attending to the above prescrip- 
tion, and keeping the child from taking cold, there will be 
little or no trouble with the eyes. — Water, in which has; 
been soaked the inner bark of sassafras or slippery-elm, 
forms a good wash for sore eyes. 


In this disease small red or yellow pimples break out on 
the face, neck, and often over the body, containing a wa- 
tery fluid. The child appears sore, and frequently screams. 
as if pins were sticking in it, when it is handled. 

Treatment. — No outward application should be mad© 
to remove this eruption, for by so doing, you might sudden- 
ly drive it from the surface, that is, strike it in, and thereby 
deetroy the life of the infant. The child, while afflicted 
with this complaint should be kept from fresh, damp cri- 
coid air. The bowels should be kept open by the use of 
castor oil, senna or rhubarb, and from half to a whole tea- 
spoonful of sulpher should be taken in sage or ground: ivy 
tea. The only danger m this disease is in driving it in, 
when it is driven in by cold, it produces great restlessness 
and misery, and not unfrequently convulsions. Should 
the eruptions suddenly disappear and the child become 
sick, put it immediately into warm water ta the neck, and, 


give it some sweating tea. with a little sulpher in it.— 
This should be repeated every hour or two until the erup- 
tions again appear and a moisture is produced. 


This complaint in infants is similar to jaundice in adults. 
The skin becomes yellow, the eyes and urine are tinged 
with yellow, and the stools are clay-colored,, and the bow- 
els generally costive; in some infants this complaint takes 
place in a few days after their birth. 

'Treatment. — Give a purge — rhuebarb, I think, is some 
the best, but the butternut and gulver syrup will an- 
swer. If these cannot conveniently be had, give cas- 
tor oil, senna, or peach flower tea, until the bowels are 
cleansed. After the bowels have been cleansed, give a 
strong tea of wild cherry-tree bark or poplar bark, in tea- 
spoonful doses three or four times a day, still keeping the 
bowels open by the use of cathartics until a cure is effect- 
ed. If the child should appear sick, it would be well to 
bathe it in warm water several times a day, untill it ap- 
pears relieved: 

SECTION ¥1.1. 


This is a very common complaint among infants or 
small children, and is caused by a foul stomach and bow- 
els. It sometimes appears in small white specks resem- 
bling coagulated milk on the tongue, inside or the lips 
and corners of the mouth. At other times it makes its ap- 
pearance in yellow blisters on the tongue, gumsand in- 
side of the mouth. In some, instances when suffered to 
run on a longtime, it extends down through the alimenta- 
ry canal and shows itself at the fundament. Some chil- 
dren afflicted with Thrush are very costive, while others 
suffer givatly from bowel complaint. 

Treatment. — If the bowels are costive, the first step 
should be to evacuate their contents by ihe use of cathar- 
tics, such as rhuebarb, senna, castor oil, or butter nut and 
gulver syrup. If the bowels are distressed or laxative, 
give a tea of sweet-gum bark. The mouth should be fre- 
quently washed with water in which borax has been dis- 


solved, and the child permitted to swallow some of the 
same; borax finely pulverized and put into the mouth and 
let it dissolve by degrees, is a very good mode of applying 
it. A mouth water made of persimmon bark and dirt out of 
a chimnej", where fire has been kept for some length of 
time is very good; the bark and dirt should be boiled, the 
decoction strained and sweetened to a syrup. Hens oil 
will often cure Thrush, the mouth and gums being fre- 
quently greased with it. The child should always swal- 
low a portion of the mouth water, as the stomach is al- 
ways more or less affected. Any stringent tea will be 
found good for Thrush, and by turning to the Index, you 
will be referred to various kinds of this class of astringents. 
In the Dispensatory you will find several valuable recipes 
for mouth-water, used in the cure of this disease. 

SlBt'<TIO:V IX. . 

CHOLIC IN INFANTS:— ITsu-ne-yah-lowJis-scoh.] 

This is a very common and troublesome complaint among 
young children and is easily known by the child suddenly 
screaming and crying, at the same time drawing up its 
le«rs; the complaint, is sometimes so severe that the child 
cannot make water. This complaint is not unfrequently 
produced by over-feeding and suckling small children,, by 
costive bowels, and by taking them out of warm rooms 
into cold or fresh air, or by putting damp or cold clothes 
on them. 

Treatment. — If Cholic arises from flatulence, give a tea 
'of peppermint, ginseng, angelica, calimus, or all-spice, to 
which you may add a few drops of paragoric, Bat email's 
drops, or laudanum; if the laudanum is used, do not give 
more than from one two drops. The essence of pepper- 
mint or pennyroyal will be found most valuable remedies 
in flatulent Cholic among infants. Bathe the infant's bel- 
ly before the fire, and rub it with spirits in which camphor 
has been dissolved, a few drops of laudanum may be ad- 
ded to the bath, if the child appears very much distressed. 

When cholic arises from acidity, it may be known by 
the bowels nor being bound and the stools of a green color 
and sour smell. In addition to the above remedies, give 
the child, occasionally, a dose of magnesia or the infusion 
•of rheubaib in small doses to regulate the stomach and 
J)ow3ls. However easily the Cholic ma}" be relieved it is 



very desirable that we do something to prevent its attacks, 
for let the cure be as speedy and as easy as it may, the 
preventative is always preferable. To prevent cholic in 
infants, let the mother drink daily of spirits, into which has 
been put asafoetida or garlic, and some of the same may 
be given to the infant occasionally; the chidren of women 
who make constant use of either of these articles while 
suckling, have very little if any use for laudanum, para- 
garic, Bateman's drops, &c, &c. 



Children of both sexes and all countries, from infancy, 
up to ten or twelve years, and even older, are liable to this, 
complaint. It is a very dangerous disease, and the rapid- 
ity with which it proceeds, requires immediate and prompt 
attention. The head of every family should be acquaint- 
ed with the symptoms and treatment of Croup, for of all 
diseases to which children are liable, it is certainly the 
most dangerous, and in many instances it makes its advan- 
ces with such amazing rapidity that suffocation takes 
place before medical aid can be procured. The most fat, 
gross children are most liable to it, and next to them, the 
extremely puny. It often seems to run in families, and is- 
thought by some to be hereditary. 

Symptoms. — It very often attacks suddenly, with a short 
dry cough, hoarseness, wheezing, and great difficulty of 
breathing. The face looks flushed and swelled, the child 
throws its head back, its mouth open, and its eyes and 
neck veins look like they would burst. Sometimes a cold, 
clammy sweat breaks out. At other times this complaint 
comes on very slow, either with hoarseness and symptoms 
of a common cold, or else with looseness of the bowels, 
as if from cold, every symptom gradually becomes more 
and more violent, until a spasm attacks. 

Treatment. — On the firsi; appearance of Croup, give 
onion syrup, and apply a poultice of onions or garlic to tho 
throat and breast. If the bowels are costive, lose no time 
in evacuating their contents by injections ol warm milk 
and water, with a little lard and salt in it,, repeat the injec-- 
libn until the bowels are cleansed. It the attack bd vio- 
lent, put the child in warm water up to. the chin, give it a 
j>uke of the tincture ot lobelia and Iradian physic, if th:> 


puke should be slow in operating, wet tobacco leaves in 
warm water and vinegar, and apply it over the breast and 
throat. If the child is so far spent as to be unable to swal- 
low, the emetic or puke may be given by injection, at the 
same time, applying the tobacco externally as above direc- 
ted. In children of full habit, where the attack is violent, 
blood should be taken, either from a vein or by cupping; 
for several days after the spasm, the bowels should be 
kept open by the use of sulpher taken in some sweating 
tea, such as spice- wood, pennyroyal, &c. In nine ease* 
out of ten, a strong tea of the fine roots of spice-wood,, 
made very sweet and combined with sulpher intolerable 
large doses, will entirely relieve croup if given in the first 
•stages. We copy the following from the writings of a re- 
spectable physician among the whites: "After using the- 
remedies generally prescribed without success and the case- 
is desperate, the best remedy I have ever tried as a last re- 
sort, is calomel in large doses, from thijty to fifty grains,, 
repeated in ten grain portions every fifteen minutes, until 
relief is obtained, (do not be alarmed at this dose,) I know 
by experience, in a hundred instances,, ©f the lives of chil- 
dren being preserved by large doses of calomel, whicE 
otherwise must have been lost. Then let rae urge upon 
you the necessity of laying aside your prejudices againsf 
this medicine, and not to slacken your hand in this trying 
moment if you wish to preserve the infant. So powerful 
and safetary is this medicine, that it frequently Believes 
the complaint in tenor fifteen minutes, without resourse te> 
any other means." I give the above in order that those 
who may choose the use of calomel in cases of eamergen- 
cy, may give it in doses sufficiently large t© produce the 
desired eliect. 



There are a variety of Worms which infest tlie human? 
system, and grown persons are often troubled' with them 
as well as children. But as it is generally viewed as a 
childs complaint, I have thought proper to give' it a place 
among the diseases of children, but will try to give a satis- 
factory treatise on the subject. 

The first class are those which inhabit the whole rang* 
-of the intestinal canal, they are the long tape-wor% in, 


broad tape- worm, the flat two-headed worm, the long round?" 
worm, and the long thread worm. Those which inhabit 
the lower part of the intestinal canal, belong to the second: 
class, as the thread- worm, the bot-worm and the mane*- 
worm. There is another or third class, as the maggot- 
worm, &c. Worms are sometimes passed with the urine, 
and must originate in the bladder and kidneys. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms indicating worms are vari- 
ous and contradictory, often resembling the symptoms of 
other diseases in so many particulars, as to render it diffi- 
cult to determine whether worms really exist. The child 
or person, in general, has a larger belly than usual, and 
pains are felt in the stomach and belly; the appetite is va- 
rious, constant hunger, and 'yet* the system becomes weak. 
At times, there is sickness at the stomach, and vomiting; 
looseness at the bowels, interrupted sleep, bad breath, pick- 
ing at the nose, a peculiar paleness about the mouth; a 
short dry cough, slow fever, and sometimes convulsions. ' 

Treatment.— The roots, leaves or seeds of the Jerusa- 
lem oak, boiled in sweet milk, the decoction made sweet 
■with honey given in such portions as the stomach will bear, 
of a morning, on a fasting stomach, and repeated at night, 
will carry off worms in a surprising manner; it should be 
repeated for several days, still giving a purge of butternut 
and gulver syrup; every other day cleanse the bowels. — 
Wild ginger boiled in sweet milk, and gk*en in the same 
way, is one of the best warm medicines in the world.-; — 
Spirits of turpentine is a valuable article' for worms; to 
children, give from a half to a whole teaspoonful in sugar, 
and repeat every morning for three mornings, and the third 
day give a purge, and if the patient is not entirely reliev- 
ed, repeat the course in a few days. (ETarolina pink root 
given in powder or decoction, is good to expel worms; it 
should be given in honey or molasses; when it producey- 
any unfavorable symptoms, give a purge, and all will be 
well. The China tree is a valuable warm medicine; the' 
fruit, bark of the root or bark of the tree may be used;. 
when it produces giddiness in the head, give a purge. — 
The yellow poplar root bark in powders mixed with sweei- 
ning, is good tor worms, and as a family medicrhe is not 
surpassed by any thing in my knowledge as a preventative 
of worms, for puny children and such as are frequently , 
troubled with warm spells; it acts like a charm; it should 
lie taken every morning in honey, sugar or molasses; .t 


tea spoonful is a dose. Those" who wish to avoid worm 
sickness among their children, need only to give the pop- 
1-ar root every morning on an empty stomach. The China 
berries mashed, and put in spirits, is also very good to prer 
vent worms. When persons commence doctoring for 
worms, they should continue it for several days and weeks, 
unless relief is obtained; but after a fair trial has been 
made, without its having produced the desired effect, there 
are strong grounds to suppose, that some other disease, 
and not worms is the cause of bad breath, for in many 
instances, children have been physicked to death for worms, 
when they had none, but were laboring under some other 
disease. In the class of Anthedmetics, in materia medica, 
you will find many other remedies for worms. When 
worms produce choaking, give honey and the patient will 
experience considerable relief, then give warm medicin- 
to expel the worms, and the cure is effected. When takii 
medicines for worms, the patient may eat as much hone 
sugar or molasses as he desires.* 





This disease in infants is the same as cholera morbus 
grown persons. The symptoms are, vomiting and pu 
ing, a quick pulse, hot skin, and great and constant thi 
It makes its appearance in the heat of summer, and its 
verity is in proportion to the heat of the weather, it { 
erally prevails as an epidemic when it takes a start i 
section of country. 

Treatment. — Give a tea of cholera-mcrbus root, i 
the vomilirig is checked, next cleanse the stomach 
bowels with gulver syrup. After the first attack is rel 
ed, give the child a Tonic or strengthening medicine 
Yellow poplar bark will be very good, or the little w 
root called by Cherokees cul-sa-tse you-stee will be f< 


When giving the treatment of the different disear ' 
have frequently directed the use of injections. It wii. 


probably not be amiss to give some farther directions, as 
to the mode of administering injections &c. When the in- 
jection is to be administered by an assistant, the patient 
is to be laid on a bed near the edge, the knees are to be 
drawn up, the attendant is then to take the clyster pipe, 
the finger is to be placed before it to keep in the contents, 
after it is well, oiled it is to be placed to the fundament. — 
The pipe is to be gently pushed up the fundament about 
an inch, and the contents are to be forced out, by gently 
pushing the handle of the syringe with one hand, while it 
is firmly held by the other. Injections are sometimes giv- 
en by putting the clyster into a bladder and injecting it up 
the fundament by means of a quill. After the quill is in- 
troduced up the fundament the bladder is to be squeezed, 
together with the hands. 

Clystering is one of the most mild, innocent, powerful 
and safe remedies known in the science and practice of 

Any medicine given by Injection should be given in 
much larger portions than when taken by the mouth. 



Materia Medica means nothing more than simply the 
materials of medicine; it is that part of the medical sci- 
ence which treats of the nature, and properties of sub- 
stances, whether simple or compound, mineral or vegeta- 
ble, which are employed for the arrest or cure of disease, 
and for restoring health. 

The Indians derive the materials of medicine employed 
by them in the healing art, almost entirely, from their own 
native forest. Notwithstanding their remedies may ap- 
pear simple to those unacquainted with their medical pro- 
perties; yet it is frankly acknowledged by the whites 
who have had an opportunity of personal observation, that 
in many instances they have arrested disease, with appar- 
ent ease, when the remedies prescribed by White physici- 
ans of character and skill had failed. 

Botanical materia medica is yet in its infancy, but little 
has been done towards classing the articles composing this 
branch of medical science* We shall attempt to class 
them, according to their most active medical properties 
We deem the classification here proposed, best calculated 
to simplify the healing art, and thus render it more readi- 
ly comprehended, and consequently more useful to the 
community in general. The articles described under one 
class, in many instances, possess also the specified prop- 
erties of other classes, though in a less active degree. In 
such cases, I will place the article under the head, where 
I think its most distinguishable, and active medical prop- 
* erties entitle it to be placed; but at the same place, I will 
describe all its medical qualities, so far as I have learned 

The Indian name of the articles will be placed at the 
head, immediately under the Indian name will be seen the 
most common names applied to them by the whites and 


to the right of the common name will be given the botanhy 
technical name — so far as I am acquainted with them. 

In some instances the opinion of white physicians with 
regard to the medieal qualities of different herbs or roots 
are given, in such cases it is given as their views and 
plainly distinguished from the Indian theory. 

CLASS No. 1. 


Emetics are a class of medecines, which on . being, re- 
ceived into the stomach, produce vomiting, or puking — 
They are called by physicians emetics, and are given in a 
great variety of cases to rid the stomach of its noxious con- 
tents. Their operation will always be increased, and 
rendered much easier, by drinking water made milk of 
blood warm, in considerable quantities after the first ope- 

IPEC ACUANH A— (Raicilla.) : 

Ipecacuanha is a native product of South America, and 
this word in the Spanish language signifies emetic root. — 
This name is applied in Spanish America to various plants 
that possess emetic properties to. any considerable extent 
— this fact gives rise to the confusion which is so common 
concerning this- pi ant — ifc also accounts for the several va- 
rieties found in the shops,. bearing the same . name. The 
botanical name for this root is Raicilla., By paying atten- 
tion to the- proper or botanical name, the genuine article 
may generally be procured from the shops without difficul- 
ty. The genuine ipecacuanha, in its dry state, is a small 
wrinkled root, about th© size of a hen's quill, variously 
twisted, and' marked with projecting parts, apparently like 
rings — ash colored. It has a sickening and slightly bitter 
taste, and very little smell. The outer bark is very brittle 
and it is, in this part, lhat the power and activity of this 
root as an emetic resides. This is generally sold in the 
shops, in the form of powder; that being the form in which 
it is administered as an emetic or puke. The powder is 
the color of common ashes. I have npw described to you 
the imported ipecacuanha or the medicine which is most 
commonly used by physicians, amoug the whites under 
that name. I will now give for, the further information of 
the reader, the opinion of Dr. Gunn respecting its medical 
properties. He says: "I may justly remark, that it stands 
at the head of the vegetable emetics for promptness, effi- 
cacy and safety of its operations* In powder, which is the^ 
manner in which it is generally given, rt full/vomiting will? 


be produced in a grown person, by a scruple or half & 
drachm, or you may put a tea spoonful of the powder, in- 
to six table spoonsiul of warm water, and give a table- 
spoonful every few minutes until it operates; or you may 
steep it in wine, and give it in small doses, until the effect 
you desire is produced. 

The medical uses of this powder, when properly applied 
are very great and valuable. In addition to acting as an 
emetic, it will, when given in smaU doses, so as to produce 
nausea(sickness at the stomach) generally produce moisture 
of the skin or evacuation of the bowels, and in still smal- 
ler doses, generally stimulates the stomach, increases the 
appetite, and assists digestion. When given in small do- 
ses, it acts, not only as a diaphoretic, (sweating) but as an 
expectorant, (which means a free discharge of tough mu- 
cus and spittle from the mouth and throat.) It is also val- 
uable, when given in small doses, to stop violent hemorra- 
ges (bleedings) from the lungs and womb. In intermittent 
fevers, it has generally succeeded in stopping them, especi- 
ally when given about an hour before the coming of the 
fever, and also when given so as to produce vomiting at 
the time of the fever or end of the cold stage. Great bene- 
fit is often derived from the medicine, in continued fevers- 
and particularly in the commencement of typhus fever; an 
emetic or puke oi ipecacuanha, followed by a sufficiency 
of this medicine, in very small doses, to keep up a gentle 
moisure or sweat, will, if attended to, in the early stage 
of this complaint, probably at once cut short or greatly les- 
sen the severity of the attack." 

I have given the above views of Dr. Gunn, for the infor- 
mation and benefit of those who prefer the imported to the 
American ipecacuanha. 

In my practice, the American ipecacuanha or Indian phy- 
sic is most generally used. 



This very useful, and somewhat singular plant, is said 
to be exclusively a native of the United States, and may be 
found in great abundance, in the middle, southern and wes- 
tern States, growing in loose, moist, sandy soils, and fre- 
quently in beds of almost pure sand. The leaves of thi« 
plant vary so much in shape and color, and in fact, the 


whole plant varies so much in its different situations, that 
it is often mistaken by those unicquainted with its habits, 
for several distinct species of plants. It has a large, long, 
white, or yellowish colored, perrenial root, which sends of)' 
towards the upper part, many small roots about the size of 
small quills. The stems' are numerous, of a reddish, pale 
green, or yellowish color. The leaves grow opposite to 
each other, and are generally of an oval form — but some- 
times, they are of a long, oval — sometimes pointed — and 
at others linear. The flowers appear in the month of 
May, at which time, the leaves are very small, but as it ad- 
vances in age, the} 7- become greatly increased in size. — 
The flowers are succeeded by three square or triangular 
capsules, or seed vessels, each capsule containing three 
seeds. The. root of this plant is the part used for medicine, 
and is, in my opinion, far superior to the imported Ipecacu- 
anha. It is a powerful emetic, both safe and certain in its 
operations, and is applicable to nearly all the cases, in 
which emetics are required. In doses of from five to ten, 
or fifteen grains, it is an excellent emetic: in doses of 
twenty grains, it operates as an active purge. In very 

large doses, it produces, in addition to the above effect?-, 
vertigo (giddiness in the head,) heat and great prostration 
of strength. When it is not convenient to weigh this arti- 
cle, put from one to one and a half tea-spoonfuls in a half 
pint of hot water, and when it becomes sufficiently cool. 
give it in table-spoonful doses, at intervals of from live to 
ten minutes, until vomiting is plentifully produced, aid it 
by the free use of warm water; after every motion to vo- 
mit, when the stomach is sufficiently cleansed, give gruel 
which wilLturn it to the bowels. This is an excellent, ar- 
ticle in Asthma, (phthisic,) colds, &c. Take in good spi- 
rits, a handful of the root to a quart of spirits, drink enough 
of this tincture twice a day, to excite slight (nausea) sick- 
ness at the stomach; it is also very good, taken in this way, 
for an inactive -state of the liver — this tincture may be 
rendered better for the liver, by adding to the Ipecacuanha 
equal quantities of gulver roof, and boneset leaves. For a 
full description of these herbs, refer to their heads. The 
American Ipecacuanha is mnch stronger than the import- 
ed Ipecacuanha. In administering the American Ipecacu- 
anha for an emetic, I have added one fourth gulver, and 
found it much better than the Ipecacuanha used alone. 


The root is the part used. 



Some writers among fhe whites make no distinction 
between this plant and the American Ipecacuanha, while 
others represent them as being two distinct species. It is 
not material which of these opinions be correct if we but 
understand the medical properties of both. We believe 
the Indian Physic to possess the same medical properties 
as the American Ipecacuanha and may be used to advan- 
tage in all cases 'where the Ipecacuanha Would be advis- 
able. It is combined with other articles in almost, all 
cases where an emetic is required, by the Cherokee Indi- 
ans. It is to be found in great abundance, in almost every 
part of the Western country, inhabiting shady woods and 
the sides of rich hills on mountains', from the Lakes of 
Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. It has a perennial root, 
composed of several long, slen'der, brown-colored branch- 
es, issuing from one common caudexor head, and running 
some distance underground. The stems which rise from 
the root, vary in number. Sometimes there is but a single 
one, and at others, there are many — they are round bran- 
ches towards the top and commonly of a redish color and 
grow to the height of from two to three feet. The leaves 
are of a deep green color, long and pointed, flowers white.- 
I again tell you that this root is valuable in all cases in 
which the American Ipecacuanha is recommended. -=- 
When administering it as an emetic, I combine it with qui- 
ver root, sometimes equal quantities of each, and some- 
times two-thirds gulver to one of ihe Indian Physic. In 
preparing the emetic take the root after it is Well sleansed 
and boil it in water to a strong decoction and give a half 
gill of the decoction every fifteen minutes until vomiting 
is produced. Encourage (he operation bf the tree nse of 
warm water; after ihe stoma die is proper] cleansed, give 
gruel to determine it to the bowels. The tincture of this 
root, is an infallible remedy for that dreadful malady Milk- 
Sick, as may be seen in the treatment of that disease. — 
This root, also forms an ingredient in Foreman's anti-bil- 
ious pills. Combined with bone-set leaves and gulver- 
root, it forms a valuable bitter for an inactive state of the 
liver and spleen. 



LOBELIA, EMETIC HERB, &c— {Lobelia Inflate.) 

Lobelia Inflata is a beautiful plant, that is, it requires 
two years from the time it comes up from the seed before 
it comes to perfection and produces Its seed. The stem' is 
erect, milky, branched, growing : from one to two and a 
half feet high. The leaves are alternate, oblong, acute, 
serrate and sessile, they contain like the stem a milky sub- 
stance. The flowers are small, of a pale bine or whitish 
color, and generally put forth from the stalk solitary, im- 
mediately above each leaf. The seed vessels are small* 
oblong, roundish pods, seeds many, very small and oi a 
brown color. 

The first year this plant only sends forth a few radical, 
roundish leaves, which lay close to the ground — the second 
year it produses the branches and seeds. Lobelia is a 
common plant in many parts of the United States, growing 
mostly in old fields and open lands, rarely in the woods. — 
It is often found growing in great abundance in stubble 
fields, if left uncultivated the next year after the crop is 
taken off. When any part of this plant is broken, a milky 
substance or juice exudes from the wound, of a most pen- 
etrating, diffusible nature. This juice when applied to the 
eye has a most powerful effect, and hence it is called eye- 
bright; it has also received the name of Indian- tobacco, 
from the circumstances of its being used as a medicine, by 
them, and was thought, by some of the whites, to produce 
effects similar to the common tobacco. 

Dr. Thompson, and several later writers on the same 
system, esteem it as being far superior, as an emetic, to 
any -other article of that class in the compass of their 
knowledge — it is their alpha and omega in all cases. But 
we beg leave to differ with them on this subject, (as well 
as on many others,) we believe it to be two severe in its 
operations for weak breasted persons. It is an excellent 
medicine in case of croup and asthma or phthisic. The 
tincture given in small doses is good for infants, to prevent 
cholics, croup, &c, for this purpose it should be given in 
very small doses, just sufficient to produce slight nausea. 

The most important use we have for this herb, however, 
is in the bite of reptiles and stings of insects. In the bite 
of the copper-head or rattle snake, we give it as an emetic : : 
the tincture is preferred, but if this is not at hand, bruise 


the herb, put it in spirits, shake it well, and administer it 
in large drinks until copious vomiting is produced. If the- 
other articles directed for external; application, are not at 
hand, this tincture or bruised herb: may be applied to the 
wound, until some o£ the other articles can be procured. 
The tincture forms an excellent application for the sting 
of insects or bite of spiders. 

This plant may be used at any age from the time it first- 
springs up until it gets its full growth and ripens — the 
same Quantity possessing at all ages the same strength or 
virtue. The best time for gathering this plant is in the- 
latter part of the second season, when it has arrived at 
maturity, which may be known by the leaves and pods.; 
beginning to turn yellow, at w T hich time the seeds are ripe,, 
and they are the most active part of the whole plant.— 
When it is gathered, it should be kept clean, and the night 
air excluded as much as possible. The tincture is made 
by putting the pulverized leaves or seeds into proof spirits 
and let it digest ten days in sun heat, the green leaves will 
answer. This article may also be used in an infusion in 
warm water, not hot, for anything above blood heat de- 
stroys its virtues and deprives it of its emetic property. — 
When you wish to give this herb as an emetic, in any case 
except snake bite, it is best to give it in small doses, repeat- 
ed every few minutes until it operates; in snakei bites it 
must be taken freely. The powdered leaves generally 
require a tea-spoonful and sometimes more to produee 
vomiting — of the tincture from one to two table-spoonsful. 
In case of snake-bite it requires much more. 


VERVINE OR VERVANE— ( Verbena Hastata.) 

This well known plant is commonly found growing in 
uncultivated fields, fence corners and about yards. 

This herb forms a tolerable good emetic, but not equal 
in our estimation to the Indian Physic. For an emetic, it 
may be used in a decoction of the green or dry herb, or 
in powder like lobelia. The leaves, s^ed and roots, are all 
used for medicine, but I prefer the root in all cases, except 
for an emetic. The root combined with black-root and 
puccoon-root and digested in any kind of spirits, except 
peach brandy, and taken for chills andjfevers, will be found 
of great benefit. A jingle handful of this root a,n.d. 9. ta,ble* 


spoonful of steel-dust, put into a quart of prooft' spirits, is 
good for Dropsey. The decoction is also good for flux 
and old bowel complaints, either among children or among 
grown persons. The decoction given in early stages of 
fever seldom fails to throw it off entirely. It is an excel- 
lent sodorific and is valuable in decoction for colds, coughs, 
female obstructions and afterpains. It ha been employed 
with considerable success in the treatment of consump- 


This plant has a perenial root, which runs horizontal 
and sends off man v fibers — this root has a dark color and 
a strong rich taste. Several stems arise from one root to 
a height of two or three feet, they are round, faintly stri- 
ped and covered with hair or down which is scarcely per- 
ceptible, the leaves are scattering, supported on long fool 
stalks, which sheath the stem, and like it are covered with 
down, which becomes hard and rough as the plant attains 
maturity. Flowers are large and yellow. 

This root is much used in the cure of fevers bv the 
Cherokee Indians, and it seldom fails, in their hands, to ef- 
fect a speedy cure. A strong decoction of the root when 
drank free!}-, operates as an emetic and gentle purgative* 
and promotes a Iree perspiration. It is a very valuable 
article in colds and female obstructions. It may be used 
alone or combined with other emetics. 

GILLENIA— {Gillenia Trifoliata.) 

Gilienia grows in rich shady woods, where the soil i* 
light, and has a branched and very knotty root, several, 
smooth, slender, erect stems spring up from the same root, 
considerably branched and. of a reddish tinge, the leaver 
are alternate and slightly toothed, the flowers few and scat- 

A decoction made by boiling this root in- water has a 
beautiful red color, and a very bitter taste.. It is a valua- 
ble emetic and may be taken in decoction, or the powdered 
root taken in warm water,, until vomiting is produced. — 
Dose for an adult is a tea-spoonful of the pulverized root 
put into a half gill of hot water, one-fourth of which must 
be taken every fifteen minutes litntil it operates. 




Cathartics are a class of medicines, which increase the 
'frequency of the stools, by quickning the peristaltic mo- 
tion. Of this class of medicines there are two kinds, which 
are distinguished according to their degrees of activity. — 

Those which operate with mildness are called laxatives, 
and those which operate with violence and activity are call- 
ed purgatives, the harshest of which are called drastic 
purges. Those articles both laxatives and purgatives, will 
be placed under the general head cathartics. 

Very few diseases to which the human family are sub- 
ject can be relieved without the use of medicines of this 
class, which is fully shown in the treatment of the different 

BUTTERNUT, WHITE WALNUT.— {Inglans Cineria.) 

This tree is well known in this country by the name of 
white Walnut. The inner bark of this tree and especially 
the root affords one of the best purgative medicines with 
which I am acquainted. In bilious fevers, bilious cholics 
and in most cases where an active purge is required, some 
physicians object to this article on account of its drastic 
and stimulating properties, but it may be easily rendered 
one of the mildest and yet one of the most certain cathar- 
tics now in use by combining it wilh gulver root. The 
manner of extracting the virtue of this bark is by boiling 
it in water for several hours and then strain out the bark 
and boil the decoction to the consistency of molasses or 
spills, if desired, from three to five of these pills when fresh 
will operate on the bowels of most persons; if the gulver 
is to be added, put the root in and boil it with the butter- 
nut bark. White walnut forms all ingredient in Fore- 
man's anti-bilious pillsy and these pills are used by the. 
Cherokee. Indians in almost all cases where a purge h 
thought by them to be necessary. Butternut may be ad- 
ministered either in pills, extract, cordial or syrup. Its 
fraedical virtues, as I have before told you, are confined to 
the inner bark, and the proper time forgetting it in the 
full possession of its virtues, is about the month of June — 


the bark at this time in the year is considerably morfr 
powerful than at any other season. 

RHEUBARB.— (Rheum Palniatum.) 

Rheubarb is a native of some parts of Asia and of the. 
East Indies, but is now cultivated both in Europe and 
America, for medicinal purposes. The root kept in the 
shops for sale, is imported from Russia, Turkey and the 
E?st Indies, but that which is cultivated in our own gar- 
dens, is equal if not superior to the best imported. The 
greatest inconvenience which attends the cultivation of 
this root is, the great length of time which it requires for it 
to come to perfection. Those acquainted with its cultiva- 
tion say, that it ought not to be used until it is from six to 
ten years of age. Its cultivation is by no means difficult 
it is merely to sow the seeds in a light soil in the spring, to 
transplant the smaller roots the next spring into a light 
soil, well trenched; set the small roots about three or four 
feet apart. The third year the plants will produce the 
flowers; but the root is not fit for use before the fall of the 
-sixth year, and will not have attained the full 
power of its virtues before the tenth year; it may, howev- 
er, be used after the fall of the sixth year, with tolerable 
success as a purge. The proper time to take up the root, 
is in the fall after the leaves decay, or in the spring before 
they put forth. When taken up, ihe roots should be wash- 
ed clean and the small fibers together, with the external 
rind pared off, after which, thev must be Carefully hung 
up in a dry place, no two touching each other, lest they 
mould, until they are completely dried, which will require 
from six to twelve months. 

Rheubarb is one of the mildest, best and most pleasant 
purgatives now in use, with its purgative properties it is 
also astringent and strengthening; in this particular it dif- 
fers from most cathartics. It is superior to nearly all pur- 
ges for anol her reason, it may be laken with opium and" 
act on the bowels as well as if taken without it. This is 
a vast advantage, whsre purging would be attended with 
great pain, it may be relieved by opium, and the rheubarb 
is left free to act on the bowels. 

It ma} T always be given with safety in all cases of extreme 
weakness, where a purge to open the bowels becomes nec- 
essary, and violent and severe purging would be highly 
improper. It is a valuable purge lor children, even at a 


very early period of life and in every situation where their 
bowels become disordered, particularly in dysentery or lax. 
It is also a valuable purge for grown persons laboring un- 
der this complaint. 

There are various modes of administering Rheubarb, 
such as in tincture, which means steeping it in any kind 
of spirits, in tea, &c. But the best and most certain meth- 
od of giving this root is in fine powder. A dose for a 
grown person is from a tea to a table-spoonful. It may 
be used in tea or decoction, but by being heated it looses 
Some of its strength or purgative properties. A valuable 
tincture or bitter, for persons afflicted with asthma, may 
be made as follows: Take of the root of Rheubarb pulver- 
ized, one ounce, of cinnamon bark one ounce, and one 
ounce of cloves, put all three of these articles into a quart 
of peach brandy, let it digest eight or ten days, shaking it 
well each day. This tincture may be used as other bitters, 
according to the strength and constitution of the patient. 


This tree, so common in all parts of our country, not on- 
ly affords us a pleasant, delicious and wholesome fruit, 
but also furnishes us with some very valuable medicine. — 
Medical virtues of great value are to be found in the bark, 
leaves, blossoms, kernels, and gum. The flowers, if gath- 
ered in full bloom, and dried in the shade, are equal, if not 
superior, to either the imported or the American senna, in 
all cases in which it is useful, either among infants or adults. 
A tea of either the bark, leaves or flowers, will purge the 
bowels free!}' and without the least griping. Dose lor an 
infant, is a tea-spoonful every half hour until it operates — 
for an adult, it must be taken in larger quantities; they al- 
so actus a purgative when taken in syrup. The syrup is 
prepared by boiling the tea or decoction of the bark, leaves, 
or blossoms, over a slow fire, with an equal quantity of 
honev, molasses or sugar to the consistency of svruv. The 
bark, leaves, and flowers, all or either, made into a strong 
tea, and taken a gill every hour until it operates on the 
Btomach, bowels and skin, (for taken freely in this way. it 
will puke, purge and sweat the patient) has frequently 
ihrownoif bilious fever in its fust stage, without the aid 
of other remedies. A decoction of the bark, leaves, or 
blossoms, sweetened with honey or sugar, is excellent, giv- 
en to children a tea-spoonful every half hour u til it ope- 


r&tes, for worms, hives, diseases of the skin, fevers, &c— 
The gum ol this tree will answer all the. purposes for which 
gumarabic is used; it forms one of the best injections now 
in use for dvsentary or flux. 

The kernels taken from the peach stone is a very power- 
ful tonic, and may be used alone or combined with other 
articles in cases of extreme debility. Children that are in 
the habit of eating peach kernels are seldom afflicted with 
worms to any extent. These kernels tinctured in brandy 
in proportion about four ounces to a quart, form a power- 
ful tonic, and will be found beneficial in most cases of de- 
bility. It is very good for the Whites or Flour Albus in 
females: — the dose is a tea-spoonful two or three times a 


BOWMAN'S ROOT.— {Leptandria Alba.) 

This root is generally found growing in low wettislt 
lands near streams and open glades or plains. It has a 
dark colored, perrenial root, which grows from a long 
woody candex or head. Several stems spring up from 
the same root — they are round, hairy and generally grow 
from two to four feet high — they are branched towards 
the top, the branches bearing on their tops a spike or tas- 
sle of white, crowded flowers. The leaves are long, nar- 
row, pointed, and their edges indented with unequal teeth, 
growing in whorls of four or five at a joint. I am authoriz- 
ed from personal experience to give this root a high re- 
commendation as an efficient purge, operating with mild- 
ness and certainty, without producing that depression of 
the living powers which so commonly result from the ope- 
ration of purgative medicines. .It forms an ingredient in 
Foreman's anti-bilious pills, and in this preparation rei - 
ders mild the exciting properties of the butternut, and en- 
ables us to enjoy at once the active properties of the but- 
ternut, and the antiseptic properties of the brinton root. — 
This root appears to be peculiarly adapted to typhus and 
bilious fevers — it is with us the most appropriate purge 
to carry off the tarry, morbid matter from the intestines in 
these complaints. The dose is a heaping tea-spoonful in 
a gill of boiling water, repeated in three hours, it seldom 
fails to operate in that length of time. This root may. be 


made into pills if preferred. It also forms-our favorite eme-- 
tic when combined with Indian physic, 05 American .ipeca- 
cuanha, in most cases where an emetic is required}, 

This root is also a diaphoretic, tpnic and antiseptic, 
which properties added to its cathartic- powers, ;; render it' 
so valuable to evacuate the contents qf thq> bowels in fe- 
vers. It is excellent in tincture for chronic or lingering- 
complaints, where persons have,- recovered imperfectly 
from fevers, agues, dropsies. &c. This root may, be use^d. 
either green, dry, in tea, powders, pills,, or tincture. 


AMERICAN SENNA— (Cassia Marilandica.) 

This valuable plant islound-in most parts of the United 
Htates, growing generally in rich soils, and near streams. 
It has a black, woody, crooked, fibrous perennial root. Se- 
veral stems rising from- one root to the height of from three 
to six feet; they are round upright and nearly smooth. Its 
leaves are alternate, large, and composed of many small 
leaves growing in pairs on one central stem or petiole. — 
The flowers are of a bright, yellow or orange color forming 
a square cluster at the top of the stem. The fruit consists 
of long pods, a little swelled at the seeds, and bears a slight 
resemblance to tlie locust pod, though not near so broad. 

The American senna is^cathartic; and is valuable among 
children or infants where a purge is necessary, it may be 
taken combined with sweet fennel' seed to great advan- 
tage. Take a half ounce of the leaves and put them into 
three gills of hot water, take a table-spoonful for a dose 
every two hours until it operates. If the bowels be hard 
to evacuate, it may be taken in. larger quantities. Many 
white physicians use the American in preferrence to the 
imported senna. For an adult it may be prepared and ta- 
ken in the same manner as directed for children only in 
larger quantities. 

[0 J-NEE- SQU A-TOO- K E \\ ] 

MAY APPLE, MANDRAKE.— (Podophyllum Peltatum.) 
The Mayapple is a well known plant growing in most 
parts of the United States, in shady moist lands. It has a 
perennial root, long, round and jointed, with many fibres 
or small roots issuing at each joint, the root runs horizon- 


?,al in the ground, stem erect, smooth, round, from 
twelve to eighteen inches high, of a yellowish green co- 
color, stem forked, , each branch bearing a single large . 
leaf at the top, between which in the fork when it is ia 
bloom there is a.single white flower, which is succeeded by 
a yellow acid fruit. The fruit of this plant is good for 
food. The leaves are poisonous, and its medical virtues 
are wholly confined to the root. The proper time for gath-,. 
ering the root is late in the fall when the leaves begin to, 
die. It should be carefully dried in the shade, and used in 
the form of powders. 

The American May Apple is an excellent, gentle,, andS 
effective purge, when properly used. It is acknowledged 
by many white physicians to be far superior to the jalap 
obtained in their shops; it operates more gently as a purge 
than jalap, and a much longer time. It is also preferable 
to jalap in other respects, it is less nauseous and more eas- 
ily taken; less irritating to the stomach and bowels, and 
may be more easily used by delicate females and persons 
having weak and sensitive stomachs. It is an excellent 
article in intermittent fevers, it is alsp.good in dropsy, pleu- 
risy, and in incontinuence of urine. The dose is from half 
to a whole tea-spoonful of the powders, in very large do- 
ses; it operates with activity and power. If griping is ap- 
prehended, mix it with an equal quantity of gulver-root. — 
The index will refer you to a full description of this root. 
The Indians frequently roast the May- Apple, root* and use 
it in this way; : this renders it more mild and less drastic in 
its operations. A. few drops of the expressed juice, put in- 
to the ear, is a valuable remedy for deafness. The pow- 
dered root is good to cleanse foul and ill-conditioned ulcers 
it destroys the proud flesh without injuring the sound; it 
also removes the morbid matter, and promotes the exfolia- 
tion of carious or rotton bones. The proper manner of ap- 
plying it to ulcers and sores, is by sprinkling the powder- 
once in from two to four days. \ 

MULBERRY, TREE— (Morus Nigva^ 

The Mulberry is too well known to need 'description; it- 
grows in great abundance in almost all parts pf North A- 
merica. The tree bears a very delicious fruit, which in 
common with many other fruits, possesses the property of 
quenching thirst, abating heat, and opening the bowels 


as a gentle laxative. A syrup made of the ripe fruit is one 
of the most innocent, agreeable and certain purges in our 
knowledge for infants of costive habits. 

The inner bark of the root of the common black mulber- 
vry-tree, in doses of from half to a whole tea-spoonful of the 
powder operates as an excellent purgative. 

A strong decoction in the bark made into soup, with an 
•equal quantity of molasses taken in doses of a Avine glass 
lull, not only proves an excellent purgative, but it is also 
useful to expel worms, particularly the tape worm. The 
"inner bark of the root digested in whiskey, makes a valua- 
ble laxative bitter. 


This is a small weed, growing from six inches to a foot 
high. The leaf is stiff and full of little stickers or spines 
all around the edges of it — it bears a small prickly burr 
which contains the seeds. The seeds are black, and are 
the part used for medicine. They are a very gentle laxa- 
tive and anodyne. The mcde of preparing them for use i« 
to boil a gill of ihe seed in a quart of new milk, and of 
this decoction give a gill every half hour until it operate* 
on the bowels or relief is obtained. This preparation is 
an excellent remedy for dysentary, diarrhce and bowel 
complaints generally, giving immediate relief in almost, 
all cases in which it is taken — in obstinate cases it will 
be well to add a few drops of Laudanum to the above de- 

BUCK /THORN— (Rhamnvs Cathoi liens.) 
Buck thorn is- a shrub or bush found growing in the woods 
and about hedges— '& genera Ily grows to the height of from 
ten to fifteen feel — it flowers in June and the fruit ripens 
in September. The fruit "when ripe has a faint disagreea- 
ble smell, and ajjtkening bitter taste. Bolh the bark and 
fruit of this shrimps a very powerful cathartic: it is very 
active and drasne in its operation, unless used in combi- 
nation with other articles to moderate its effects — the ber- 
ries is the part, generally used for the cathartics, and when 
taken alone, they produce griping sickness and dryness of 
the mouth and throat,— leaving a thirst of long continu- 
ance. A decoction of the bark of this shrub, used as a 
wash is a certain cure for itch — it is good for sore or infla- 
ted eyes, 


BENNE PLANT.— [Sesmman Orientate.] 

This plant is much cultivated in the gardens of the 
middle and southern states — it is a native product of Afri- 
ca; but of late years, the seeds have been introduced into 
South Carolina and Georgia, by the African negroes, and 
is now cultivated to a considerable extent, and is highly 
prized for its medical properties. 

It has a large, four cornered stalk, growing from two to 
four feet high, sending out a few short side branches. — 
Leaves are opposite, oblong, oval, and a little hairy. — 
Flowers are small, of a dirty, white color, succeeded by 
the seeds which ripen in the fall. 

The leaves and seeds afford a valuable mucallagenous 
substance in decoction, or infusion; that of the seeds is 
oily. T his infusion of the decoction is valuable in flux, 
dysentary, cholera-infantum or any other disease of the 
bowels. The seeds yield a greater proportion of oil than 
any other known vegatable. One hundred pounds of the 
seeds is said to yield ninety pounds of oil. This oil is a 
good mild cathartic medicine — and is much more pleasant 
to 'he taste than castor oil; it is said to keep many years 
without contracting any rancid smell or taste; it is also 
said to answer all purposes of salad oil. It is mild in its 
operations, and as to the dose, it should be taken until it 
produces the desired effect. 

ALOE OR ALOES.— (Aloe perl ioata.) 

Aloes is distinguished into three kind. < or species — as 
caballine, soeottorine and hepatic. The two last are the 
best for use. Cabalina is called horse aloes. The soco'.- 
tjrine aloes is the resinous product of a plant growing in 
the Indian Ocean. It has a dark yellowish red color, a. 
glossy, -clear surface, and is in some degr%e pellucid; it is 
easily pulverized, and when reduced to a powder, is of a 
bright golden color. Its taste is bitteif and disagreeable, 
though accompanied with an aromatic' flavor. 

The hepatic aloes is so called, because it is said to have 
a more direct and specific action on the liver, than the oth- 
er kinds have. It has a strong disagreeable smell, and an 
intensely bitter sickening taste, accompanied with but very 
little, if any of the aromatic flavor of the socottorine. — 
Aloes is a valuable medicine; and may be used in pills, 


powders or tincture. It is said by white physicians to be 
om? of the best correctors of the bile or biliary system. — 
J4 is also goo4 for worms; from two to four grains will act 
op the bowels. 

CLASS I?o. lift. 


Stimulants are of a class of medicines, whichexcite a 
nev\j and stronger action in the system, brj in some part of 
it, in order to overcome an existing; one, which is morbid, 
or two languid; or so excite the operation of an obstructed 
one. Those which produce permanent, and enduring ef- 
fects are called Tonics. Stimulants are distinguished into 
two classes those which produce a universal excitement 
throughout the system, are termed Diffusable Stimulants, 
and those which are employed to excite in some particular 
organ cr organs, are called Local Stimulants. 

GARLIC— {Allium Sativum.) 

This valuable article is cultivated in gardens for its 
medical virtues and is two well known to require a de- 

Garlic is a stimulant, carminative, diuretic, anti-scarbu- 
tic expectorant, and slightly cathartic* As a stimulant, it. 
is both powerful and diffusable, and on this account is very 
useful for persons of cold phlegmatic habits. It forms an.', 
ingredient in Foreman's Phthisic mixture. The syrupj, 
increases the appetite, assists digestion, removes flatulence,/ 
promotes perspiration and has long been esteemed as use- 
ful for scurvey, dropsey and asthma. A very respectable 
white physician, , f o\ the old school, asserts that twenty 
cloves of Garlic," taken one of a morning, well pounded 
and mixed with common brown sugar, will cure any com- 
mon case of asthma. 

Garlic applied to the soles of the feet, says a respectable 
white physician, "exceeds any other application to produce; 
a revulsion from the head," and on this account, the garlic 
poultice to the feet and the syrup taken internally, is a 
most excellent remedy for collection^of humors in the 
J>rain. It is also very good for croup, sore throat, for this 
apply, the poultice to the feet, and anrioint the throat and 


breast wit a- an ointment made by bruising the gar lie and 
adding some lard. In malignant sore-throat the poultice 
applied to the throat also, will be found of service. 

Cotton or wool, wet in the juice of garlic and put in the 
ear and renewed three or four times a day, is valuable for 
deafness, it has often removed it when other remedies had 

The Garlic poultice, applied to the feet in the low stage 
of accute disorders, and nervous fever, is good to raise 
the pulse, relieve the head and in crease the general action 
of the system. Garlic given in tincture to children of a 
morning, will prevent wormss, cholics, &c. The juice or 
syrup is far preferable to BrCte man's drops, paragoric and 
manv other articles of the kind so often given to infants for 
the cholic; in this case, a few drops of the expressed juice 
or syrup should be given every morning. 

The proper manner of making the Garlic poultice, is to 
mix equal quantities of bruised Garlic and crumbs of 
bread, moistened wit vinegar* The Garlic, when applied 
alone, will draw, a blister. 

CALIM0S, SWEET4FLAG— (Ocorus Cabimus.) 

Calimus grows mostly 3 in low marshy places, and in 
•hallow water. It! has long, sword-shaped leaves, resem- 
bling those of the flag, only they are much narrower and 
of a brighter green, they put out irom the root without a 
stock, in the same manner as those^of the Flag. Its root 
has a strong aromatic .smell, and a warm bitter taste. — 
The flavor is- improved by drying" the root, it possesses 
itimulant and stomachic virtues, and is an excellent arti- 
cle in flatulent cholics, tor both children and grown persons; 
for this purpose, gvate >e& pfund the root and put into wa- 
ter, or make into tea. - . It! • is recommended by some for 
White .Swelling,, prepared as follows.- • 

At the .commencement' of this disease, make a strong 
decoction of. the root of- white willow,\thicken it with flour 
and apply scatter. . If this should fail and the swell- 
ing increase^ when it becomes ripe lance it deep and let it 
run. Then take equal 'quantities of brimstone and cali- 
mus root, both finely pulverized and put them in a dry 
gourd prepared for the -purpose. Then take p£ cpttimon 
lead that will make as much when melted as yp.u r have of 
either of the otherarticles, melt the, lead and pqur it slow 


]y into the gourd, at the same time shaking the gourd; the 
gourd must be well shook until the contents become cool. 
The above process will convert the lead and calimusinto 
a powder resembling gunpowder. Take of this powder 
and introduce it as far in the orifice as convenient, and 
then apply some of the same externally to the affected 
part. The above treatment is said by some to be a never 
failing remedy for White Swelling. I have never tried it 
personally, as the mode of treatment laid down under the 
head of White Swelling in this book, has never failed to 
fill my most sanguine expectations. Calimus is also good 
to expell worms when taken repeatedly. 

MOOR-WORT.— (Androt?ieda Marienna.) 

Moor- Wort grows plentifully in many parts of the 
Southern States. A strong decoction of this plant is high- 
ly esteemed as a stimulating wash, and is very useful in 
ulcerations of the feet, such as toe-itch, ground-itch, a" 
complaint very common and troublesome among the blacks 
in some parts of the Southern States. It is also good for 
ulcerations on other parts of the body, and forms an excel- 
lent wash for indolent ulcers, as it stimulates them and 
disposes them to heal. 



Blue Flag Generally grows in low situations or flat 
lands and near strsams. It is called by the whites Blue 
Flag or Wild Flag, but by the Indians it is called Gleet 
J'oot, from its great efficacy in the cure of Gleet. It? 
leaves are of a deep green color, and in shape resemble 
those of the calimus, they grow to the height of from six 
to eight inches, it blooms in June or July; flowers are blue. 
with a bright yellow tinge in (he centre— the root lies very 
shallow, being seldom entirely covered with earth — on the 
main root grow several small knots or lumps about the 
size of a small bean, they grow from one to five or six 
inches apart on the main root. The root is the part used 
for medicine, and is one of "the most permanent stimulants 
with which I am acquainted, and is generally useful 
where articles of this kind are needed. A decoction made 
by boiling this root with an equal quantity of dew-berry 


brier root, is not surpassed by any article in the Indian 
Materia Medica in the cure of Gleet. It will also cure the 

This root pulverized and stewed in hog's lard, sheep 
suet and beeswax, forms a most excellent salve for ulcers, 
particularly cancerous ulcers; combined with other articles, 
it forms a valuable salve in all cases where a drawing 
salve is needed, but is too severe in most cases when used 

SAGE.— (Sahia.) 

Sage is cultivated in most gardens for its medical vir- 
tues and for culinary purposes. An infusion or tea of the 
leaves sweetened with sugar or honey, is good in colds, 
coughs, nervous, debility, weakly females and persons of 
phlegmatic habits. A syrup or wax made by stewing sage 
leaves in honey until the strength is extracted, affords pres- 
ent relief in Asthma. I do not pretend to say that it will 
effect an entire cure for the disease, but it will relieve the 
*pasm or fit immediately, and give ease until other reme- 
dies can be had. If the honey is not at hand, make a very 
strong tea of the leaves and put in it a tea-spoonful of 
the flour of sulpher, this will also give temporary ease. — 
It is a mild diaphoretic and is valuable in all cases where 
such articles are required. 


MIST LETOE— ( Viscum.) 

Mistletoe, which is sometimes called Misseldine, is an 
evergreen which groes on several kinds of trees. That 
which grows on the oak is best for medicine. It is gocd 
for epilepsy or fits — for this purpose gather the mistletoe 
about the last of November or first of December, dry and 
pulverize it, and preserve it in well corked bottles. 



Is a shrub or herb growing mostly in low, wet, thin soil, 
its height is from eight to ten feet, it is covered with seve- 
ral coats of thin bark, which always appear to be scaling 
or pealing off, has large tough leaves, flowers white, ap- 


' pear in May and remain on the bush the principal part of 
the year. The bark and leaves have a very pungent, ac- 
rid taste, somewhat similar to 'that of prickly ash. 

The inner bark and leaves are the parts used. It is 
stimulant, antiseptic, and antiemetic — valuable applied 
to ulcers, tumors, sprains, &c. Also taken in tea to stop 

CAMPHOR TREE— (Laurus Camphora.) 

The article known in this country as gum camphor, is 
the product of the camphor tree, which is a native of Japan 
and grows in great abundance and to a considerable size 
in the forests, of that country. The branches;, trunk and 
roots, all contain the gum. It is separated from them by a 
process called sublimation, which is something similar to 
distillation. The tincture of camphor is* a very common 
family medicine, and is certainly one of the best common- 
place medicines known to me. It is a valuable sweating 
medicine in all cases that require it, such as colds winter 
fevers, &c. It is also an excellent article in spasmodic af- 
fections. It is good for females in almost all hysterical or 
nervous diseases, and for nervoas head-ache, both snuffed 
and applied externally. It is useful as a stimulant in sick- 
ness, fainting, &c, and as an anodyne in choiie, cramp, 
&c. When persons are choaked with worms a dram of 
camphor will give immediate relief. It is excellent for 
strains and bruises, either in man or beast. Alter the 
stimulus ceases, which has been produced by the use of 
camphor, the person is apt to feel a disposition to sleep, 
without experiencing any bad effects from its use. It 
leaves no disagreeable effect in any way, if but a due por- 
tion be taken. 


INDIAN TURNIP— {Arum Triphijhm.) 
This root has been in high repute among the American 
Indians, time immemorial. It jjrows in most States in the* 
Union, in shady woods where the soil is light and rich. I* 
has a perennial root, which in its shape, bears a great re- 
semblance to the common turnip, though it is smaller; ex- 
ternally it is dark and wrinkled, internally it is white; i;« 
stalk grows to the height of from one to two feet and is ot 
a reddish purple color, the leaves^are three in number of a 


roundish; or ovalform, arid one flower of the samexolor of 
the leaves, succeeded by a roundish cluster of berries, of a 
bright and beautiful scarlet color when ripe. 

In its fresh. or green state, the Indian turnip has a power- 
fully acrid, biting taste; it, is stimulant, expectorant, dia- 
phoretic, and carminative. When dried it loses much of 
its intolerable pungency, together with much of its virtue. 
Some acrimony or sharpness should be perceptible to the 
throat and tongue, dr the root has lost it's powers, and 
should not be relied on. The root pounded to powder and 
mixed with honeys a tea-spoonful for a dose, two or three 
times a day^s good for colds, dry cough?, phthisics, &c; it 
is also good in whooping-cough, consumptions, &c. It may 
be taken by boiling the fresh root in sweet milk until toler- 
ably strong, and take a tea-cupful morning and night, the 
dose must be varied to suit the strength of the patient. — 
An ointment made by stewing the green root in hog's lard 
is valuable 'Tor scald head, keeping the head cleansed with 
soapsuds'once a day. This ointment is also good for rine;- 
worjn,j tetter- worm, scrofulous sores, &c. "Indian turnip t» 
one of the most valuable expectorants with which I anr ac- 
quainted, and may be used alone or combined with other 
articles in forming expectorant compounds. 

(Amomwn Zingiber.) 

The article known in this country by this name,'is the 
root of a perennial shrub, which is extensively cultivated 
in both East and West Indies. Race is a term applied to 
the root to distinguish it from that which is ground or pul- 
verized. The white ginger is that which was washed 
and scraped before drying; and the black is lhat which 
was washed only without having the external, dark bark 
taken off the root. 

Ginger is a warm, stimulating aromatic, and is a most 
valuable article in the practice of medicine. It is good for 
colds and cholics in tea — for cold, weak constitutions it is 
a good tonic. It is good for females at their monthly pe- 
riods, if the discharges be too fccant, and for lying-in-wc- 
; men. A weak tea of ginger is good for infants when they 
* are inclined to be hi vy or colicky. It is also good in all 
' cases of looseness and Weakness of tile bowels or intestines; 
it docs not heat the system a£ muckas the different kind* 


of pepper, but is much more durable in its effects. Exter- 
nally it is a very valuable ingredient in stimulating poul- 
tices. It is one of the best articles to relieve heart-burn 
in pregnant women with which I am acquainted — for this 
purpose they should chew the root, or pulverize it and take 
it until relief is obtained, there being no danger whatever 
in its use. 

In purchasing ginger for medical purposes the root is to 
be preferred, as that which is brought on in the pulverized 
state is often prepared of unsound or worm-eaten roots, or 
adulterated with other articles. 

BLACK PEPPER— (Piper Nigrum.) 

The article known in this country by the name of black 
pepper, is the fruit of a tree which grows spontaneously in 
the East Indies. The berries are gathered and dried before 
they are ripe, and to this circumstance, they are indebted 
for their black color. 

Black pepper is much used as a condiment in cookery. — 
It is stimulus and slightly astringent, and may be employ- 
ed as a substitute for cayenne, or red pepper, where they 
cannot be had. 


, (Capsicum Annuum.) 

Cayenne is a native of the tropical climates, but it is now 
cultivated in temperate ones also. Of this article there 
are several species, all possessing the same medical prop- 
erties to a greater or less extent. That growing in Africa 
is considered the best or strongest, and is generally called 
African Cayenne. 

Cayenne is a very powerful stimulant, and is valuable 
in colds, cholic?, &c. It forms an ingredient in the 
Phthisic mixture. The red pepper poultice applied to thf 
soles of the feet, in nervous or low fevers, is a valuable re- 
medy, as it raises the pulse, and produces a revulsion from 
the head; it has good effects on poultices on gangrenous 
parts. The essence made by putting three or four pods in 
a half pint of whiskey and burning it one third away, is 
an excellent application to remove pains in the side or else- 
where, it should be applied externally to the pained part 
and bathed in well, or a piece of flannel wet in this essence 


and kept to the pained part as long and often as it can be 
borne." It is also a valuable stimulant in animal poisons, 
such as snake-bites, &c. When the other remedies pre- 
scribed for snake-bite are not at hand, give red pepper in 
whiskey freely, until the pulse is raised, and repeat as of- 
ten as the pulse sinks or becomes .weak. 

SAFFRON— (Crocus Swims.) 

Saffron is cultivated in gardens both in Europe and A- 
merica for its medical qualities. It has a pleasant smell, 
and an aromatic, bitter taste; and when chewed it im- 
parts a deep yellow to the spittle. It is a valuable article 
among children — good for hives, jaundice, red gum, and 
eruptive diseases in general. 

BUTTON SNAKE-ROOT— (Liatris Spicatu.) 

This root is a native of all the Southern States from sea- 
board to the. Mississippi. It has a rough, perennial, fibrous 
root, and on the fibres grow little button-like knobs. Its 
stem is round and sometimes branched, bearing on the top 
a spike or tassel of seal}'', purple flowers, which slightly re- 
semble the shape of an acorn. This root possesses many 
medical properties. It is a warming stimulant, a dimetic, 
sudorific expectorant, carminative and anodyne. A decoc- 
tion or tincture of the root is a A r aluable remedy in most 
cases of colic; it is also good for back-ache, pains in the 
limbs, dropsy, &c. It has a sharp aromatic and very bit- 
ter taste, and when chewed it produces a considerable 
flow of saliva or spittle. By many physicians of reputa- 
tion, it is held in higher estimation than the seneka snake- 
root, which it very much resembles in its effects. 

DWARF-BAY, MEZEREON— (Daphne Mezereum ) 

Dwarf-Bay mostly grows in shady woody places where 
the soil is rich, and may be found in great abundance near 
the Ohio river. The leaves are spear shaped, flowers put 
forth in Ihe months of February and March, and are of a 
beautiful red or rose color. 

The bark of the root is the part used for medicine. It 
has an extremely acrid, burning taste, and is so irritating 


that it cannot be used constantly, but may be used in small 
portions, and at intervals, regulating the time and quanti- 
ty by its effects. This article is highly stimulant and dia- 
phoretic, and is one of the most valuable articles in the 
Cherokee materia medica in the last stages of the venereal 
where the constitution has been impaired by the improp- 
er use of mercurv in this disease, "which is too often the 
case under the old system of practice. This article is then 
found most efficient in relieving nocturnal pains and re- 
moving what is called venereal nodes, This root may be 
taken in decoction either alone or combined with other ar- 
ticles, as may best suit the views of the patient. 


ROOT, &c. — (Asdepias Tubcrosa. 

This beautiful plant is a native of every State in the 
Union, but is most abundant in the south and southwestern 
■States. It flourishes best and grows to the greatest per- 
fection in light, sandy, or gravelly soil, and is frequently 
found along fences and near stumps in grain fields. It 
has a large, crooked, branched, perennial root, of a light 
brown color on the outside, and white within, several 
stems rise from the same root, sometimes they are twenty 
or thirty in number, about the size of a pipe stem and stand 
in almost every direction, the}' are round, wooly or hairy, 
and branched, rising from one to two feet high. The 
leaves are placed very irregular on the stalk, and-are cov- 
ered with a fine down on the lower side> thick or fleshy, and 
of an oblong shape. Its flowers appear in Julv or Au- 
gust, they grow in terminal, corymbose umbels,' and are of 
a most beautiful, brilliant, orange color, and is easily dis- 
tinguished lrom-ail the flowers that adorn the fields'. 

This plant is often mistaken for the common silk weed. — 
There is, however, this difference between them, by wlii&h 
they maybe easily distinguished; the flowers of the ^pleu- 
risy root are of beautiful, bright orange color, while tho*^ 
of the silk weed are of a pale purple hue. 

Few articles in the Indian Materia Medica maintain ;v 
higher standing 'for its medical virtues than pleurisy roor 
The powdered root acts as a mild purgative on the bowels 
but it is more particularly and inestimably valuable in 
producing expec.tra'ioiyor throwing 'off muctis from the 


throat and lungs, and in causing perspiration or sweating, 
when other remedies fail. This root possesses one remark- 
able power; given in proper quantities, it affects the skin, 
and produces perspiration or sweating, without heating 
the ,body, or increasing the circulation. It is a valuable 
article in diseases of the lungs generally. It is a powerful 
remedy in pleurisy, as may be seen under that head. It is 
a valuable article in the treatment of bo#eF complaints a- 
mong children. Its use in a strong decoction, tffren give* 
relief to pain in the breast, stomach and intestines, by pro- 
moting perspiration, and assisting digestion. In feverish 
affections, proceeding from inflammation of the lungs, in. 
colds recently taken, anti in diseases of the chest generally, 
it is an excellent remedy. It may be administered, either 
in decoction or potvder,' of the pulverized root a tea-spoon- 
ful or more, may be taken for a dose, and repeated as of- 
ten as necessary; we generally combine it with the silk 
weed root, equal quantities; and if you wish to produce co- 
pious perspiration, without raising the internal heat, no ar- 
ticle spoken of in this work will be better adapted to this 
purpose than the above compound. 


Pool root is found in great abundance in the western 
states, principally confined to dry upland soils, and to 
lands timbered with oak and hickory. 

The root is small and fibrous, growing from six to four 
inches long, and of a dirty white color. Its stem rises from 
one to three feet high, angular and furrowed. The leaves 
are opposite, alternately supported on long foot stalk?, 
broad at the base, acute at the point with edges obtusely 
tentate or toothed. The flowers are white, and grow out 
in beautiful clusters. 

The root is the part used for medicine, is stimulant, ton- 
ic and diuretic, and has a warm, aromatic taste. This 
root may be used either in decoction or tincture, and is val- 
uable in fever and ague, and will seldom fail in effecting.!* 
*peedy cure, if the stomach and bowels have been proper- 
ly cleansed, previous to its use. It is also given for gravel 
wud diseases of the urinary organs generally. It may be 
used to advantage inmost cases, w! ere a stimulant is re- 



{Myrtus Pimenta.) 
The Pimento Tree is the spontaneous product of Jamai- 
ca, one of the West India Islands. What we call All- 
spice, is the fruit of the Pimento tree, it is plucked from the 
tree before it is ripe and dried in the sun. The proper 
name of this fruit is Pimento or Jamaica pepper; but its 
scent resembling that of a mixture of cinnamon, nutmeg 
and cloves, it has received the name of All- spice. It is a 
warm aromatic stimulant, and is useful where gentle, 
stimulant stomachs are needed. It is a valuable astrin- 
gent, stimulant for lying-in-women, whose discharges 
(called by physicans Lochia,) are profuse, but should not 
be used by those whose dischares are scant. It is also 
good for females at their monthly periods, when their 
discharges are profuse and weakning, but should not be us- 
ed by such as are laboring under suppression or obstruc- 
tion of the menstrual discharges. 

CINNAMON TREE— (Laurus Cinamomum.) 

This tree or bush is a native of the Isle of Ceylon, in the 
East Indies, but it is now cultivated in many of the West 
Indies. It grows to the height of ten or twelve feet, and 
is very bushy. Its leaves resemble those of the laurel, 
and when chewed, have the hot taste and aromatic smell 
of cloves. The article known in this country as Cinnamon 
bark, is the inner bark of this tree. 

The bark is a useful and pleasant aromatic — it has a 
very pleasant taste, and strengthening to the stomach. — 
It is stimulant, stomachic, tonic and carminative, and is a 
valuable article for females in the latter stages of preg- 
nancy, it may be used in decoction, powder, or combined 
with spikenard, digested in spirits and taken as bitters, its 
constant use for the last three months hefore delivery, will 
greatly strengthen both the mother and'her offspring. It 
is also good to stop Hooding either before or after delivery. 

MOTHER- WORT.— {Lconurus Cardiaca.) 

Mother- Wort mostly grows in water places; it flowera 
in July and August. The flowers are white on the out side, 
and purplish within, growing in thorny whorls. The leaves 
are opposite; two to each whorl; and have a strong dUa- 


greeable smell, and bitter taste. An infusion of this plant 
is a stimulant, reviving, cordial bitter. It is valuable in 
nervous and hysterical affections, and when taken at bed 
time, it procures a quiet, refreshing sleep, even where opi- 
um and laudanum have faild. It has also feeen used to 
great advantage in faintings, and diseases of thestom 'eh. 
The quantity taken must be regulated, according tojhe 
strength of the patient, and the effect wished to be pro- 


(Asarum Candensis.) 

This herb is found in most states, but is most abundant 
in the South. It generally grows in rich, shady, moist,- 
wood lands. It has a round, fleshy, jointed r perennial root,- 
whieh runs horizontally in the ground having many liber?;- 
, its colors is a bright outside. Its leaves are radical,, round., 
hazy, veined; two from each root; supported on long foot- 
stalks, so close the ground as to be scarcely peJceivable. 

The root, of this plant is a warm, powerful and diffusi- 
ble stimulant, and on this account, it is valuable for colds, 
coughs and female obstructions. It may be used in de- 
coction, tincture or syrup. 

This root combined with star roet and a small quantity 
of sampscn snake-soot, or a small quantity of puccoon dj- 
; gested in common spirits, forms an excellent bitter for IV- 
; males, whose menstrual discharges are scant, and painful. 
| or entirely obstructed. The root is also a valuable An the i- 
, mintic, which means the property of discharging or expel 1- 
j ing worms. When taken as a medicine,it should be boil- 
I ed in sweet milk, and drank freely. It is valuable in warm 
\ levers, and in most cases, where a diffusive st.imulent is 

A snuff made of the dried leaves, finely pulverized, is 
very good, when snuffed up the nose for the head and eyes. 


PINE.— (JPimis.) 

The common pine of our forest, may well be ranged 
among the most beautiful and useful trees with which ou r 


country is blessed. Beside the many s use§v made of it by 
mechanics for lumber,..&c., its buds, bark;' rosin and roots,, 
possess medical virtues that are almost innumerable. 

It is stimulant and acts gently on the bowels as a laxa- 
tive. The buds or inside bark steeped ii^vater is excellent 
for hjA*d, dry coughs, two or three glassfuls a day should be 
takei,,warm. A daily use of the inside bark taken in de- 
coction is valuable in old bowel complaints. The spirits 
or oil made by distilling the turpentine or rosin which ex- 
udes from the tree where an incision is made; when taken 
internally, is one of the most active and diffusible stimu- 
lants within the compass of medicine. In cases where the 
bowels are obstinately constipated or bound, it is the most 
certain remedy with which I am acquainted. It is also 
useful in worms, hysterics, rheumatism, cholics, gout, weak 
back or kidneys, and in the treatment of child-bed fevers. 

The rosin in its natural stateor as it exudes from the 
tree, is good in; spirits for old rheumatism, and weak back 
and loins, or taken in pills it will answer a similar purpose. 
It. forms an ingredient in the pill for dropsey. Many other 
uses are made of the pine rosin in preparing salves, oint- 
ments, &c. The rosin obtained by boiling the root forms 
one of the best strengthening plasters in the world. The 
index will refer you to the proper head for ma.king and ap- 
plying this plaster.; 


This singular, and, valuable plant, is found growing 
principally in the north and north-west, in those sections 
of country that are destitute of pine,. the place of which 
this plant appears expressly intended to supply* It grows 
in rich ground, and is a very large rich looking plant.— 
The roots are large and grow deep in the ground the 
slocks rises from three to ,six feet high, rough, about the 
thickness .of a man's; thumb ; and, crooked .towards the 
top, the leavejs are large,, partly radical, the remainder 
grow irregularly up the stalky and are of a dirty or ash 
colored green. Whenever the. stales is broken or. the bark 
taken off, a roisin exudes from it like the opium does from 
the poppy, and adheres to the stalk ]in dry brittle Jumps. — 
So nearly does this rosin resemble the pine resin in color, 
taste and sm«JL that a person, not,) intimately aqquainted 
with both,, cannot, discriminate between them. 


The rosin may be used in all cases in which the pino 
rosin is recommended, for its effects on the system bear so 
strong a similitude to tlmse produced by the pine rosn that 
they appear, the same. The roots , digested in spirits is 
good for females troubled with the whites (flour albus.)— 
The pine rosin is also good for weakly females. The pine 
and rosin weed is never found growing in the same sec- 
tion of country, I believe; and th^y seem expressly inten- 
ded to supply the place of each .other, and furnish both the 
cold and the warm climates with 3a medicine at once sale 
and valuable in the treatment of many of the diseases to^ 
which the inhabitants of both countries are subject. 



This plant ,is found growing on the banks of creeks, and 
spring branches near the edge of the,. water. Its root is 
white, many fibers issue from the caudex or main root, 
generally two but sometime^ three leaves put up from a 
root, e,ach leaf is supported by a foot-stalk from one to 
three inches iiigh, the leaves and foot-stalks are covered 
with a. kind of hair or furze of a green color, having s 
whitish spots or pides, they are indented around the edges| 
and sometimes grow to the Size of a silver dollar, but are< 
generally much smaller. The . root . is the part used,, 
bruised and applied to the skin it will draw a blister much 
quicker than Spanish-flies. When ablister as large as .the 
hand is desired, apply a plaster of thebruised root as largo 
as a dollar; when the blister, is drawn,, annoinithe edge 
with oil or, lard to from spreading, and dress it 
with cabbage leaves, brier leaves, or plantain leaves, pre- 
pared as is. common for a blister drawn with Spanish-flies. 

WHITE POPPY.— (Popaver Alhvm.) 

The cultivation of the Poppy, the Drug Opium and it* 
medical properties were equally unknown tp the Abwigi- 
nces of our country . previous to ,their. acquaintauce with 
the whites. They. 'frequently use Opium as a medicine 
since it was taught them by the, Pale, Face, and many of 
their physicians believe it to be a mpst excellent remedy 
in many cases. Opium is obtained from thqWhilje Poppy, 


which is said to be a native of Asia, but is extensively 
cultivated in many parts of Europe, it has been cultivated 
in the United States sufficiently to prove that the soil and 
climate are as well adapted to its culture as any part of 
the Globe. The leaves, stalks, and capsules of the Poppy 
abound with a milky substance, this substance or juice, is 
obtained by making incisions or cuts lengthwise on the 
capsules or pods about sunset, during ihe night the milky 
juice will exude from the pods through the cuts, and ad- 
here to the sides of the incisions; on the following day it 
must be collected into an earthen plate. This is best 
done by a thin iron scraper made for the purpose. When 
thus collected, you are to work it in the sun with a wooden 
paddle until the juice becomes sufficiently thick, then make 
it into cakes with the hands and wrap it in the leaves of 
the Poppy, and put it into giass jars or bottles; if these are 
not at hand, wrap it in a hog's or beef's bladder, and it will 
keep as long as desired. The operation of cutting the 
Poppy pods as before directed, may be repeated every eve- 
ning as long as the pods will furnish the milky juice. The 
best time to commence making the incisions, is when, the 
pods are a little more than half ripe, the cuts are most 
easily made with a small knife having three blades, the 
midle blade being the shortest. The cuts should be shal- 
low, not extending quite through the hull. This is the 
whole process of making Opium. There are two kinds of 
Opium. There [are two kinds of Opium imported into 
America for sale, distinguished by the name of the Turkish 
and East Indian Opium. The Turkish Opium is the best 
it is more solid and compact, and when broken presents a 
ernopth shining fracture. When good it is of a reddish 
brown color. When taken into the mouth, it produces a 
nauseous bitter taste, leaving a strong biting impression 
mt the tongue and lips. It is very heavy and easy pulver- 
ized. It has a strong narcotic smell, and the cakes are 
wrapped in poppy leaves, frequent! y having or. them ma- 
say red-colored pieces of the capsules or hulls, which are in- 
dicative of its good quality. The East Indian Opium, 
which is not so good as the Turkish, has not that peculiar 
narcotic smeil. It is much blacker, more nauseous and 
less bitter. It is not near so hard but. more waxy and te- 
nacious, and when broken, has not that uniformity of ap- 
pearance which is found in the Turkish, but frequently 
lias other particles interspersed through it. Laudanum is 


made by dissolving an ounce of Opium in a pint of good 
spirits ot any kind; it is generally fit for use in six or eight 
days. Twenty-five drops of laudanum are equal to one 
grain of Opium. Opium and laudanum given in small do- 
ses act as stimulants; in larger doses they produce sleep 
and relieve pain; in an over dose, when the person is nor 
in the habit of using it, the consequence will .always be 
fatal, in this case it produces vertigo, stupor, tremors, con- 
vulsions, insensibility, succeeded by a total deprivation of 
muscular strength, when death ^usually closes the scene. — 
When it is used as a luxury, (which is the case in China 
and some other parts.) and its use persisted, jn, it effects 
the physical system in a manner similar to the excessive 
use of intoxicating liquors. There is however this differ- 
ence between the effects produced by spirituous liquors, 
and those produced by Opium. The excitement produced 
by spirits, are more acute and powerful while it lasts, but 
are of shorter duration than the effects produced by Opium. 
Spirits disorder the mind, unsettle and cloud the judge- 
ment and deprive us of our intellectual self-possession: 
while Opium on the contrary, soothes and tranquil izes the 
system, arouses all our dormant faculties, and produces :■„ 
just equipois between our intellectual strength. and sensi- 

Opium is a most powerful anti-spasmodic, and may be 
advantageously used to remove cramps, spasms, &c. — 
When given to children, (if given at all) a halt drop or 
laudanum will be sufficient for a child of a few Weeks 
old. In highly inflammatory cases, opium should be sel- 
dom used, as it will tend to aggravate the symptoms. A 
common dose of opium for a grown person, is one grain, 
but the dose must be varied according to the age and con- 
stitution, the nature and stage of the disease, &c. In 
spasms or cramps, it may be employed in much larger por- 
tions with the happiest results. 


The extract of the common garden Lettuce produ-e* 
nearly the same effects as Opium. It possesses the power 
of allaying pain and producing sleep. As a stimulant ; it 
does not act so powerful as the opium produced from the 
Poppy, but.has a tendeney to repress the inordinate heat of 


the system, and to diminish the too frequent action of the 
heart, without producing those unpleasant effects which 
sometimes follow the use of Opium, by persons whose 
constitutions cannot bear the stimulus produced by the lat- 
ter. The extract of Lettuce is obtained as follows: Take 
the leaves and stalks of either kind of garden Lettuce, 
when the plants are nearly ready to flower, bruise them 
well in a mortar and put them in a bag made of flax or 
hemp, then press them un'il they yield their milky juice — 
this juice is to be evaporated in flat vessels in the sun, or 
by placing them in boiling water, until reduced to the con- 
sistence of thick molasses, when it is to be bottled for use. 


This very valuable herb is an evergreen, and is mostly 
found growing on the banks of small streams. The main 
root is about the thickness of a pipe-stem, of a purple red 
color externally, but when broken; the inside has a bluish 
cast; many small fibres issue from the main root,, which 
are white. The leaves are supported by footstalks from 
two to four inches long, which put up from the root simi- 
lar to the puccoon leaves; the} 7 are round, saw-edged, of a 
dark green color, and from three to five in number; they 
vary from the size of a dollar to twice that size. In the 
spring the flower stalk puts forth and grows ."from eight to 
ten inches high, bearing yellow flowers, which very much 
resemble the bloom of the common turnip. The root is 
the part used and is valuable in rheumatism and several 
other diseases as is fully shown in their different treat- 

&§§ m 


Tonics are a class of medicines that increase the tone of 
the muscular fibres, and thereby strengthen the whole bo- 
dy. It has pleased the great Author of our being to fur- 
nish the vegetable kingdom with a a great many valuable 
articles of this class. A class of medicines designed to in- 
crease the tone and strength of the organic system, and in- 
vigorate the living power by improving the appetite,., giv- 


ing vigor to the muscles and to the digestive powers, must 
be of extensive utility. 

Tonics may be distinguished into two kinds, viz: Bit- 
ter Tonics and Astringent Tonics. The former are used 
to increase the tone and strength of the system generally, 
while the latter are peculiarly appropriate in the treat- 
ment of dysentery, diarrhoea; &c. 


TAG ALDER.— {Alnus Serrulata.) 

Tag Alder is a perennial shrub, found mostly in low wet 
soils and along streams. It grows from eight to twelve 
and sometimes- fifteen feet high, several in a cluster, the 
leaves are large, rather obtuse, of a dark green color. — 
This bush or shrub bears tags a little similar to those of 
witch hazle, from which it derives the name of Tag Alder. 

It is an excellent tonic, and is a safe, valuable and cheap 
article of family medicine. The bark, leaves, or tags may 
be used either in a decoction or digested in common spi- 
rits. It is excellent for women troubled with bearing 
down pains, either before or after child-birth. 

Cloths kept wet with the decoction, arid applied warm 
to painful swellings, afford much relief and generally scat- 
ters them. A poultice made of the inside, bark, leaves or 
tags, is an excellent remedy for strains and swellings, ap- 
plied to swelled and pained testacies, whether produced by 
mumps or olher diseases, it seldom fails to reduce the swel- 
ling and relieve the pain. The decoction drank freely is 
valuable in promoting the discharge of urine. The decoc- 
tion or tincture is good for eruptions or diseases of the skin 
and particularly biles. 


(Anthemis Cotula.) , 

Dog-Fennr] is a well known plant, abounding in every 
part of the United States with which I am acquainted, and 
is .said to be a species of Camomile. It has a very offen- 
sive smell and a bitter taste. 

This plant, although generally looked .upon as one of 
the most offensive and useless weeds with which our 
farms are boszt, is nevertheless a valuable^mWi'ci'ne. .- . If i* 


an emetic, tonie, sudorific and anodyne, and may be ad- 
vantageously used in colds, hysterics, epilepsy, dropsy, asth* 
ma, rheumatism and intermittent fevers, or fever and ague. 
A tea of this plant takenin small doses, as warm as it can 
be drank, promotes copious perspiraiton or sweating, and 
has often of itself, relieved persons afflicted with chills 
and fevers when other remedies had failed — and when 
properly taken and the bowels kept open by suitable medi- 
cines, it seldom, if ever, fails to effect a cure, in this di- 
sease. A poultice made by thickening wheat bran in a 
decoction of dog-fennel, is a valuable application in the 
treatment of inflammatory rheumatism. The bruized 
herb applied externally will draw a blister in a short 
time, equal in every respect to those drawn by Spanish 



(Evpatoriiwi Perfolialum..) 

This herb is found growing in marshes, swamps and 
wet meadow lands, throughout the United States. It has 
a crooked, fibrous, perennial root, running horizontal in 
the ground— several stems usually rise from the same root 
from two to four feet high, hairy, of a pale or grayish 
green color, branched towards the top. The leaves grow 
opposite and are so formed as to Ifkve the appearance of 
being penetrated by the stern through the centre where 
they are broadest, and gradually tapering to a point. — ■ 
The whole herb has a rough, wooly or hairy appearance. 
The flowers grow in dense corymbs or clusters on the top 
of the stems, and are of a dirty white color, and appear in 
the month of July. 

This plant is possessed of powerful medical virtues. It 
is tonic, sudorific, stimulant, emetic, cathartic; antiseptic 
and diuretic. The warm infusion, given in doses sufficient- 
ly large to create nausea, produces the most copious and 
pleasant sweats, without increasing the fever in the least. 
The common mode of using the article is about a handful 
of the leaves to a quart of boiling water, when the strength 
is extracted, take about a half gill or wine glass full every 


iiour or two. If the above dose be increased to4wice or 
three times the quantity, and taken a little above blood 
heat, it will act as an emetic, emptying the stomach not 
only of its ordinary contents, but of the bile also. In inter- 
mittent and remittent fevers, it is far more beneficial and 
safe than the peruvian bark, for if the peruvian bark be ad- 
ministered when there is fever, its effects ar& dangerous, 
but the boneset may be given when there: is considerable 
fever, with the most salutary effect, as its active sweating 
powers always tend; to-jdiminish the fever. The infusion 
given cold, a half gill taken every half hour, will produce 
purging and is an excellent article in obstinate constipation 
of the bowels. The warm tea is good in coughs, asthma 
and hysterical complaints. It is a valuable medicine in 
yellow fever. 

This medicine acts well on the biliary or bile system, 
and g.lso on the liver, giving them a healthy action, by 
which they are enabled to throw off all superfluous matter. 
It is the extract of this herb thai constitutes Dr. Foreman's 
antiseptic pill, which operates so powerfully, in assisting 
digestion. The leaves or flowers in powders, in doses of 
ten, fifteen or even twenty grains acts well as a purge. — 
This herb is also a valuable medicine in diseases of the 
skin. When boneset is taken as a sweat in cases of fever 
the stomach and bowels should be previously evacuated. — 
It sometimes increases the urine greatly, and has been us- 
ed to advantage in cases of dropsy. In fever and ague it 
is an almost infallible remedy when the stomach and bovv- 
<els are properly cleansed 'previous to its use. 


SPIKENARD. — (Aralia Racemosa — Nardus Indica.) 

Spikenard, usually called spignard, generally grows in 
rich, rocky grounds, both on mountains, in hollows, and in 
bottoms — it has a perennial root of a brownish yellow col- 
or, which divides from one caudex or head into several 
branches or distinct roots which are generally very long, 
and not quite, so thick as a common finger — they are very 
tough, and when cut, broken, or boiled they yield a gummy 
substance of an aromatic smell and taste. This is the 
best part of the plant for medical purposes. Sometimes 
but one stem, and sometimes more rises from the same root 


from two to three feet high; they are generally' thick and 
of a purplish color, branched towards the fop—leaves are 
biternate, (which means having three,) consisting of nine 
foliobs or small leaves. The flowers are of a yellowish 
white, growing in umbels, and produce small berries 
which bear some resemblance to the elder-berry. Both 
roots and berries may be used for medicine, and may be 
employed either in tea, syrup or tincture. 

To do justice to this root, Would occupy more space than 
the size of this book will allow for one root. It is tonic, 
diaphoretic, antiseptic, astringent and expectorant. This 
article is useful in coughs, asthma, and diseases of the 
lungs generally.'' By many physicians of high standing it 
is ranked amongst the master remedies for consumption. 
The manner of using it in this' disease is as follows: Boil 
tins roofs until the strength is extracted, then take them 
out and strain the decoction, put it on a slow fire, and re- 
duce it almost to thiri syrup, sweeten it with honey an let 
it stand until it ferments; of this beer fake a tea-cupful 
morning, noon and night. It is one of the best articles in 
the Indian Materia Medica for female weakness. For 
weakly females that are liable to fioodings or slight men- 
strual discharges during pregnency, it is the best article 
with which I am acquainted; for this purpose it may beta- 
ken in tea or bitters as the patient may prefer. For fe- 
males afflicted with a weak back it is also good; for pro- 
fuse menstruation, caused by a relaxed state of the system 
it is an excellent article. For females whose menstrual 
discharges are scant or irregular it is useful combined with 
rattle-root or wild-ginger. It is one of the most powerful 
strengthened of the womb with which I am acquainted.; — 
It is a fine application in fresh wounds, cuts, &c. The 
syrup in such cases should be made as thick as honey, and 
applied to the wound by means of dipping lint into the 
syrup and applying it to the ! wound. When prepared in 
this way it may be kept ready for use a great while, by 
adding rum or other good spirits, and is equal to the syrup 
made of white hickory-bark. 



(Aritolochia Serpertaria.) 

The black or Virginia snakes-root grows in great abun- 
dance in the different mountains! in the United States, it is 
also found growing in rich river bottoms and on rich hill 
sides, generally in shady - places., , 

This root has a small, bushy root, consisting of a num- 
ber of small fibers matted together, issuing from One com- 
mon head; it is of a brown color on the outside, -and yel- 
lowish wilhin, turning darker on drying. It has a slender, 
crooked stem, growing from six to ten inches high, bear- 
ing from three to seven leaves, which are long and hearts 
shaped at the base. 

The root has a strong disagreeable smell, somewhat ar- 
omatic, and a very pungent and lasting bitter taste. Ta- 
ken in strong.decoctjon, excellent stimulus or tonic, 
and is beneficial in typhus fevers, ague and fever, &c, after 
preparing the stomach for it. In decoction, it is best; a 
handful of the roots to a quart of boiling water, taken in 
half gill doses, every half hour, until sweating is produced. 
It is also diuretic, and antiseptic, and has been used with 
advantage as a gargle in putrid sorethroat. Taken inter- 
nally, will stop morti I cation, and prevent putrefaction in 
the bowels. It may be used alone in tincture or com- 
pounded with other articles for bitters, and is valuable for 
persons of weak phlegmatic habits.. 



This plant grows mostly on dry poor grounds, in the 
woods. It has a perennial root; several roots issue from 
the main head about the size of goose quills, or hardly so 
large; and are supposed to bear some resemblance to 
worms. Its stems rise from eight to ten inches high, round, 
jointed; its leaves are opposite, smooth, oblong, lew and ot 
a beautiful, dark, green color. The flowers grow on the 
top of the stem or branches, are tatular, or cylindrical, of 
a dirty white, reddish, brown, or pale blue color, and never 
appear to be fully opened or expanded. 


The root is the part used for medical purposes, and has 
a very pleasant taste. It is a very powerful and valuable 
bifter tonic, whether used alone, or combined with other 
tonic articles. It is an important article-in the Indian 
practice, in all preparations tor obstructed menstruation; 
it is an excellent artidle, in cases of cholic, indigestion, &c. 
ft is diaphoretic, or sweating, and may be advantageously 
combined with other articles for this purpose, but it should 
not be used by females, in a state of pregnancy, or such as 
are troubled with profuse menstruation, as it will have a 
tendency to produce unfavorable symptoms. It maybe 
used in decoction or bitters. 

WILD CUCUMBER.— (Cicumis Agrotis.) 

This tree is a native of the American forest, and is. fre- 
quently known by the name of magnolia. In fertile soils, 
it sometimes attains the height of eighty or ninety feet. — 
It leaves are very large and beautiful, oval or tongue sha- 
ped; it produces a large fruit which bears some resem- 
blance to the cucumber; it is from three to six inches long, 
about an inch or an inch and a quarter in diameter, and 
nearly all the way of a size. The fruit contains large 
.seeds. About the end of the summer or beginning of au- 
tumn, it ripens or bursts open, and the seeds appear, being 
when ripe, of a beautiful red color. 

The fruit, inside bark, and bark of the root all possess 
similar medical properties. It has a bitter aromatic taste, 
jind when tinctured in spirits, makes a valuable bitter to 
increase the tone of the stomach. A free use of the tinc- 
ture made pretty strong, is a good article for chronic rheu- 
matism, particularly for persons of phlegmatic or weakly 
habits. Combined with dog-wood bark, it forms an excel- 
lent tonic for chills and fevers, or ague and fever. The 
tincture or decoction is an excellent remedy for obstructed 
menses, particularly where the general health is impaired , 
by the obstruction; in this case it should be regularly taken", 
two or three times a day, until relief is obtained. In addi- 
tion to its tonic properties, it acts gently on the bowels, 
when taken in sufficient quantities. The bark or fruit may 
be used fresh, or when first taken from the tree, but when 
properly dried, it is equally good. The inside bark or bark 
of the root and fruit, if dried, should be dried in the shade, 


allowing them fresh air, but excluding all dampness, such 
as rain, dew, night air, &c. 

TANSY.— (Tanaceum Valgare.) 

Common tansy is a perennial plant, which is cultivated 
in most gardens in this country for medical purposes. It 
flowers in June and July. 

Tansy is a warm bitter accompanied with a strong fla- 
vor, which is not very disagreeable. It is a valuable ton- 
ic, increasing the general strength of the organic system. — 
It is valuable in preventing abortions and miscarriages in 
pregnent women, either taken in spirits, decoction or infu- 
sion. It should be bruised and worn around the waist, and 
in the shoes next the soles of the feet in females who are 
predisposed to miscarriages, particularly about the time t 
miscarriage generally takes place, or when symptoms of 
misfortune approach. The expressed juice alone or com- 
bined with rue, worm- wood, or either and sweetened with 
honey or sugar, and given to children of a morning is an 
excellent, worm medicine. I f is a good article in all cases 
in which a poultice of bitter herb is recommended in this 


Prickly ash is a perennial shrub or bush, growing most- 
ly in rich bottom lands, to the height often or fifteen feet. 
The stem and branches are defended by sharp prickly 
spines. The bark is of an ash color,, generally spotted or 

. The bark and berries have a warm, pungent taste. It 
is tonic, diaphoretic and carminative. The bark of the 
root is the most active part of the shrub for medical pur- 
poses, digested in spirits it forms one of the best bitters tor- 
chronic rheumatism, and old venerial diseases now known, 
it also good for .flatulent cholic. When given in inflama- 
tory rheumatism, it should be given in decoction, instead 
of tincture or bitters; boij, say an ounce of the bark in a 
quart of water, of this dirink a pint a day, divided into 
three equal portions, taken morning, noon, and night, it 
maybe djluted or weakened with water tq render it less 
pungent and more palatable. 


A tincture of the berries, or bark is good to prevent thfe 
aching of decayed teeth, and for persons of weakly phleg- 
matic or inacti ve habits it is much better than the decoc- 


Sourwocd is a native of the United States and is too 
well known to require a description. 

It is a valuable tonic in'dyspepsy or indigestion. The 
bark or leaves should be extracted, then strain the decoc- 
tion and boil it to the consistency of molasses, and swee- 
ten it with sugar or honey, the addition of a small quantity 
of soot will aid it in tranquilizing the stomach — it should 
be taken in teaspoon ful doses, morning and evening. The 
sourwood moiasses combined with, sugar and British or 
sweet oil, ; s also a valuable remedy for phthisic or asthma, 
and for diseases of the lungs generally. 



This tree is a native of the United States, and is to be 
found in great abundanee in almost every part, with which 
I am acquainted. The inner bark is a valuable tonic, par- 
ticularly in chronic complaints of the liver. It acts as a 
valuable tonic on the stomach, and also on the biliary sys- 
tem in general. A ley made of the ashes of the bark of 
this tree is a good remedy for influenza. The bark of this 
tree forms an ingredient in Foreman's anti-bi'ious pills. 


COLUMBO ROOT.— (Frasera Verticillala.) 

The American Columbo is a native of the United States 
and grows in great abundance in many parts of the South- 
ern and Western States. It is a stately elegant plant, and 
has various names, such as Columbia, Indian Lettuce, 
Meadow-pride, Marietta Columbo, and wild Columbo. Its 
root is triennial, which means lasting three years; it is 
rough, spindle shaped, yellow, running horizontal in the 
ground, sometimes to the length of two feet. It is one of 
the most grand and stately looking plants in the American 


forest — its stem is large and rises from five to ten feet high 
it is nearly square and furrowed at the sides, it sends off its 
leaves, which are of a deep green color, at in-ervalsof 
eight Or ten inches. Some of the leaves are radical, for- 
ming a star; spreading out on the ground, the remainder of 
. them grow in whorls around the stem from four to eight to 
a whorl, each whorl as it is nigher the top, contains small- 
er leaves, its branches are few, except near the top, where 
they form a handsome pyramid, crowned with numerous 
flowers of a yellowish, white or cream color. 

The root is the part used, and in its fresh state or when 
I it is first dug, is both cathartic and emetic, but when dry it 
■ is an excellent bitter tonic, acting as a powerful strengthen- 
[ er to the stomach in dyspepsy or indigestion, and in dysen- 
tery or looseness of the bowels, arrising from a superabun- 
dance of bile; the proper mode of usimrit is in powders. 
The powders taken in cold water, will generally check 
vomiting or puking, and always will be found beneficial 
incholics or cramps of the stomach, want of appetite, &c. 
The pulverized root steeped' in good whiskey, with the ad- 
dition of a little peppermint taken three or four times a 
day in table-spoonful doses, will, in most instances, mode- 
rate the puking which so often occurs with pregnant wo- 
men. It. is a valuable medicine in fevers and bilious chcl- 
, ics in the last stages. It is antiseptic, that is, it prevents 
and removes putrifaction; for this purpose, it'should be ta- 
P ken in a decoction internally and applied externally in 
I poultice. The tincture is a valuable and safe family med- 
[ icine, useful fo strengthen the digestive organs and increase 
* the appeti:e. 

DOG- WOOD.— ( Cornus Florida.) 

■ Dog- Wood is found in almost every part of the United 

• States, and is so well known as to render a description 

; unnecessary. Dog-wood is a tonic, stimulant, antiseptic 

I and astringent. It is valuable in all cases of intermittent 

i- fevers, by which is meant all fevers that go off and return a- 

I gain; and the only reason why it cannot be given in other 

fevers, is, that when given in actual fever, it increases (.he 

-pulse; hence you will see the necessity of never giving it 

^ except when the fever is entirely off. It is greatly superi- 

|; or to the peruvian bark obtained in the shops, in all cases 

1 where the peruvian bark would be applicable. When it 


pain or griping of the bowels, a few drops of laudanum gi- 
ven in the bark will obviate the difficulty. The bark of 
the root is the strongest, and the next in strength is the 
bark of the body and smaller branches. The bark should 
be taken from the root or tree and cleansed of all dirt and 
well dried before it is used, as it is less apt to affect the bow- 
els than when taken in a fresh state* The best mode of 
administering it is in powders, dose is from twenty-five to 
thirty-five grains. The flowers in tea or decoction, or in 
spirits is good for cholic. The ripe berries of the dog 
wood, digested in gpod spirits of any kind, make an excel- 
lent bitter for common purposes and are well adapted to 
persons of weak stomachs. An excellent family bitter 
may be made as follows: take equal quantities of dog- 
wood bark, yellow bark and sarsaparilla root, digest them 
in common spirits until the strength is extracted; this con- 
stitutes an excellent morning bitter for family use. The 
dog- Wood bark boiled to a strong decoction, forms an ex- 
cellent tonic both for persons of weakly habit, particular- 
ly infants, that have had their health impaired by long con- 
tinued bowel complaints. or chills and fevers, &c. The 
bark boiled to a strong decoction and thickened with wheat 
bran, rye or corn meal, forms. a valuable poultice to reduce 
swellings, allay inflammations, &c. The internal use of 
the dog-wood, always renders the pulse quicker, and in 
some instances fuller than it naturally is. 


STAR-ROOT.— (Aletrisjipba*) 

Star-Root, sometimes called Unicorn, or Blazing-Star,, 
grows in low lands or hill sides, and often on very poor 
land. It has a rough, wrinkled, perennial root; the cau- 
dex or. main root is about the thickness of the little finger, 
and the lower end often dead oe rotten, from the main root 
issues many small blackish fibres, the whole root is of a 
dirty dark color and full of, little holes. The leaves are 
radical, which means implanted in the ground or putting 
out from the root without any stem or stalk they are a 
pale evergreen, and in the winter lie flat on the ground,, 
they arc smooth and' spear-shaped. The scapa or flower 
sta ! k rises from eight, to eighteen inches high, upright,, na- 


ked and terminates in a most beautiful spike or tassel of 
small white flowers. 

Star-Root is a valuable tonic and general strengthener 
of the system, it is very bitter, though not unpleasant. It 
is excellent for woman in child-bed (puerperal) fever, af- 
ter the tsomach and bowels have been emptied with the 
proper medicines in this disease, it should be given in a de- 
coction lukewarm, two or three tea-cupsful a day. It is a 
great strengthener of the stomach and wouib, and assists 
in casting off the morbid matter from the wcmb. This 
root is one of (he best articles in ihe Indian Materia Medi- 
ca, to prevent abortion, and is earnestlv recommended ior 
the constant use of pregnant women that are subject to 
miscarry: the best mode of taking it in this case, is in spi- 
rits. It is a very useful commonplace bitter; it is an ex- 
cellent medicine when combined with other articles for 
suppressed menstruation, especially where the general 
health is impaired and a tonic or strengthener needed. 

Star- Root is good for coughs, consumptions and diseas- 
es of the lungs, as it not only strengthens the general sys- 
tem but also promotes expectoration and perspiration.— 
Dose, half a teaspoonful of the powdered root morning and 
night. It sometimes, and not unfrequently, produces sore- 
ness of the mouth; on the first appearance of this, its use 
should be discontinued for a time, and some other expec- 
;. torant employed in its stead; on thedisapprarance ofthose 
I symptoms, its use may be resumed. It is said by some to 
I be good in the treatment of rheumatism, stranguarv jaun- 
dice and flatulent cholic. 

(Sinapis Nigra ct Alba.) 

Those plants need no description, being cultivated in al- 
most every garden in the Union for culinary purposes.— 
The black Mustard is stronger than the white. The ground 
seeds are much used at table to increase the appetite; for 
this purpose it answers admirably in phlpgmatic or inact- 
ive stomachs. A .table-spoonful of the ground reeds taken 
on an empty stomach, will sometimes operate as an emet- 
ic, repeated doses of the unbruizecl se.eds, will operate as «, 
mild laxative, but its principal virtues reside in its "tonic 
and stimulating properties. Digest the bruised seeds i$ 


wine, and they constitute an excellent tonic in fever and 
ague, nervous fever, dropsy, palsy, &c. 

"They also form a principal ingredient in the beer for pal- 
sy. The bruised seeds taken every morning, has of itself 
cured phthisic or asthma. In sinopismsit is good applied 
to the soles of the feet, to raise the pulse, and produce a re- 
vulsion from the head. To prepare this sinopism, or plas- 
ter, take the ground or bruised seeds, wet them with vine- 
egar and spread them on cloths, moisten the skin also with 
vinegar and confine the plaster on the part: it may be ap- 
plied by making paste and spreading it on cloths, and 
sprinkling the ground mustard-seeds over the paste, and ap- 
ply it as above directed, after the skin has been moistened 
with vinegar or spirits, These plasters are excellent in 
all lecute diseases, where the circulation is languid, and 
the extremities become cold. • 

HORSE RADISH— (CockleariArmoracea.) 

Horse radish is a garden herb, and is common in every 
part of the country. It is a stimulant tonic, and diurretic. 
As a diurretic, it. is useful in gravel, and may be taken iu 
decoction or digested in spirits; the root sliced and steeped 
in vinegar, and used as a condiment with meat, is good to 
provoke the appetite, and is good to persons of sedentary 
habits, and weak digestive powers. The root steeped and 
applied externally, acts powerfully as a local stimulant,.! 
and is good applied to joints affected with rheumatisms.--" 
Applied to the bowels and feet in typhus fevers, and accute 
diseases, it is equal to the mustard seed. A syrup made 
of the root is useful in phthisic, (asthma.) and bad colds, 
gttter the inflammatory stage ceases. Taken in decoction 
or in spirits, it is good "for obstructed menses. It is a valu 
able article in palsy, particularly where the dsease is m 
the tongue aud mouth; fortius purpose, chew the roots. — 
{ should have said that the root is the only part used as 



BALM— (Melessa OfficialaUs.) 

This herb is too well known to require a description. — 
It is gently stimulant and tonic. It is excellent in old colds, 
taken night ard morning, sweetened with honey; the ad- 
dition of a little vinegar will render it much better, and 

lixijiAi* GUIDE TO HEALTH. 223 

somewhat more palatable. It is valuable, in typhus or 
nervous fevers; after the stomach and bowels are prepared 
for its use. It is also valuable in chills and fevers; for this 
purpose drink a large quantity of the tea as warm as it can 
be taken, on the approach of the chill. Balm is a very 
good family medicine, and is quite "harmless in its effects. 

YELLOW POPLAR— {Lirioderadran Tulipifera.) 

This noble and beautiful tree is a native of the Ameri- 
can forest, and is so generally found in all parts of the 
country,, as to render a description entirely unnecessary. — 
It is sometimes called white root, American Poplar, tulip 
tree; this last name was given it from a fancied resem- 
blance between its blossoms and those of the tulip. The 
bark of the root, trunk and branches of this tree has been 
esteemed by the Indians as a most valuable medicine; this 
opinion is now sustained by many of the most distinguished 
physicians among the whites, both in the United States, 
and in Europe; 

The bark of the root is the most active, and is conse- 
quently preferred to that of the ' trunk or branches. It is a 
valuable bitter tonic, gently laxative, combined with the 
dog wood bark, it is equal, if not superior to the American, 
bark, and how very strange it must appear to every reflect- 
ing person to see those affected with disease, paying high 
prices for foreign medicines, the strength of which must be 
diminished by age, and many times adulterated with oth- 
er substances, wholly inapplicable to the v diseases for which 
they are intended, while their own farms abound with an 
article equally good, if not superior to the foreign article, 
even if it could be obtained pure, and in a fresh state. The 
poplar bark is valuable in dyspepsia, in 'dysentery, i<,nd in 
chronic rheumatism, if given in acute rhe imatism, where 
is also some inflammatory fever, it will increase the fever, 
and I here repeat, and hope it Will be remembered by the 
reader, that stimulants should never be given in fever 
which continue-: without intermission; but they may al- 
ways be givpn with advantage, and safety where there 
are periodica} cessations of fever, by which is meant such 
fevers as cool off once in twenty- four or forty-oi rlit hours. 
Jt is anthelmintic or a good warm medicine; the best mode 
of administering it for worms is in, powder combined: with 


honey. Children that are subject to warm spasms may be 
entirely relieved by taking a tea-spoonful of the powder in 
honey every morning on a fasting stomach. It is good in 
cholera infantum, (pukiug and purging) among children 
after the stomach has been cleansed, or the puking check- 
ed by the use of the cholera morbus root. The pulverized 
bark digested in whiskey forms an excellent family bitter; 
giving a tone to the stomach and bowels, especially when 
the boWels are in a relaxed state, which require strength- 
ening medicines. 

Several physicians among the whites say that in their 
hands it has entirely relieved breast complaints attended 
with symptoms similar to those of pulmonary consumption, 
where the patient had hectic fever attended with night 
sweats, weak bowels, &c. They administer the powder 
combined with laudanum. For women afflicted with hys- 
terics and weakness it is an excellent medicine. It may 
be given in decoction, tincture or powder, but in most ca- 
ses the powder is the best, except where a family bitter is 
desired. The bark should be taken irorn the tree in the 
month of January or February, and dried; as soon as dry it 
should be pulverized and bottled for use. 


(Menisjpermufix Canadansis.) 

Yellow Sarsapparilla is a native of the United States, 
and grows mostly in rich moist lands, in river and creek 
bottoms. It. has a long, yellow, wocdy, perennial root, 
with but few fibres, the root runs very shallow, and is very 
easily pullet! from the earth. Its vine is woody, small, of 
■x dark green or brown color, running from six to twelve 
feet high, turning around whatever happens to be near it. 
Its leaves are few and scattering, deeply indented, and in 
shape bears a strong resemblance of the maple leaf. 

The root is the part used as medicine. It is valuable in 
all diseases of the skin; it is a good laxative bitter tonic, 
useful hi debility, giving tone to the stomach, and vigor to 
the nervosa system., Where the system 1 ,s been injured 
"by the use of mercury and is laboring under great debility, 
it certainly is a Valuable medicine. It has a gentle ter- 


dency to determine the fluids to the surface, or excite 
prespiration. It is good for weakly females, afflicted 
with weak stomachs and bowels ;, it is also good in the 
treatment ofvenerial — it maybe used in the decoction or 


WHITE SARSAPARILLA— (Smilax Sarsaparilla.) 

This vine is a native of the United: States, and also of 
the Spanish West Indies. It is a small running vine, of a 
dark color outside, and a pale white within, the main vine 
is about the size of a common goose quill, it bears a 
strong resemblance to the yellow Sarsaparilla, and possess- 
es similar and medical qualities, though in a more active 
degree; it is more bitter to the taste than the yellow, the 
leaves are not quite so .large, and of a darker green, the 
root when broken is much whiter than that of the yel- 
.ow — it does not make quite so pleasant a bitter for com- 
mon family use as the yellow does. The white sarsapa- 
■illa grows mostly in rich cultivated lands, and along the 
borders of meadows. X have used the white Sarsaparilla 
n bitters with great successful nervous debility. It is al- 
io useful in drops}-, gout, scrofulous sores, rheumatism, 
and diseases induced, by the .use of mercury. For that 
loathsome and disgraceful disease pox, it is an excel- 
lent remedy: in this disease it is used in decoction in com- 
bination with the yellow sarsaparilla and wild mercury; it 
is also a great tonic and strengthener of the digestive or- 
gans. It is valuable in dyspepsia, and chronic affection:-' 
of the liver. When it is taken in chronic diseases, or 
where tiiere is no fever and much debility, it should be ta- 
ken in spirits as bitters. But when used where there is 
fever, as in pox^&c, it should be taken in decoction, 
by cutting or splitting an ounce of the root fine, boil it in 
a half gallon of water, down to a quart, of this, drink from 
a half pintjto apint a day, or in larger quantities if desired; 
for, although it possesses great power; yet it is entirely in- 
nocent in its operation on the system. 

WILD HOARHOUND— ( Eupalorium Pilorum.) 

""The wildhoarhound is too Well known to need a des- 


cription. The leaves are remarkably bitter to the taste. 
The leaves art the part used, and are a valuable laxa- 
tive bitter tonic. Thev should be boiled to a verv strong - 
decoction and sweetened with honey to the consistency 
of syrup, taken in table-spoonful doses, three times a day. 
It is good in consumption and breast complaints generally: 
also in colds, phthisics, &c. It may be used in all cases 
where laxative tonics are required, particular in chronic 
diseases, in advanced stages where the stomach requires 
a bittei: tonic. It produces a disposition to sweat, and 
gently increase the secretion of urine, these added to its 
tonic and cathartic properties render in a valuable medi- 

SNAKE HEAD— (Chelcna Glabra), 

This plant has a perennial root, or one that is not killed 
by the frosts of winter, its stem is square sometimes erect 
but often bendnig. The flowers grow out at the end of 
the stem, andof different colors in the different varie- 
ties of this plant, as white-spotted, white red and purplish ; 
the flowers in shape resembles the head of a snake, with 
its mouth open; the leaves are opposite of a dark green 
color, and bear a slight resemblance to mint leaves, thev 
turn black on being drie$, and are very bitter to the taste. 
The leaves are'.ihe best part for the medicinal purposes, 
and may be used in decoction, in powder, or tinctured in 
wine or peach brandy. 

It is a powerful bitter tonic, and acts powerfully on the 
digestive organs, it increases the appetite equal to any 
I have ever administered. Such persons as are afflicted 
with biles, and sores or eruptions of the skin, will* derive 
great advantage from its use. It is also useful in fevers 
when atonic is required. The powders taken in large 
doses is, cathartic, and in some instances acts as well »s 
:i warm medicine: but should not be given when there is 
much excitement or fever. ]n worm complaints when 
there is but little fever it 'may be used to advantage. 

ANGELLICA — (Commonly called Angcllico.) 


Thi$ plant is well known and grows most plentifully 
on rich hill sides, and mountainous countries. The root 


is possessed o$ the strangest medicinal virtues, bat* the 
wholeV^lant partakes of the same, though in a less active 
degree. Combined with dog-wood bark and yellow pop- 
lar root bark, it is a good tonic after long spells of ague 
and fever, it may be taken in spirits- if preferred. The 
decoction sweetened with honey, taken at; bedtime, say a 
gill, is good for colds of long standing, obstructed men- 
.ses, &:C. It is an excellent stimulating and sweating med- 
icine, and is peculiarly adapted to weakly females, of 
nervous and phlegmatic habits. Either in decoction or 
tincture it is good for flatulent colics, and when tinctured 
is quite pleasant. A -strong decoction of the root makes a 
very good gargle for .soar throat, and mouth. 


SOLOMON'S S$\L—(Co?iV£tllaria Multifiora.) 

The leaves of this -plant are of a dark green color, rib- 
bed, clasping the stem, and of an oblong or oval shape. 
The flowers grow out along the side of the stalk, and forms 
a kind of angle with the leaves. 

The, root is the part used. It is a mild tonic, and is 
useful in general debility, and diseases of the breast or 
lungs. It is also good for weakly females afflicted with 
whites or profuse menstruation, it may be used either in 
tea or syrrup. In dysentery or old bowel complaints it is 
an excellent remedy, ana seldom fails to effect a cure if its 
use is persevered in for any length of time. . 

GOLDEN &&XL—(Hi/drastus Canadensis.) 

Golden. seal has a perennial root, or one that is not kill- 
ed by the frosts of winter, it is of a bright yellow color, 
he, main root is crooked, rough, and very knotty, with 
nany small roots or fibres. Its stem rises from ten to f f 
een inches high, round, straight, and commonly bear* 
•>n the top two leaves, they are rough, and bear some re- 
semblance to the maple leaf. It produces but one flower 
which is succeeded by a beautiful red, fleshy berry, which 
contains the seeds, It is a valuable bitter tonic, and may 
be used in all cases of general debility, as it willvjstrength- 
,en the digestive .organs, improve the appetite^, and in. 


crease the tone and strength of the organic system 
throughout, it- may be used with great advantage when 
recovering from fevers or other diseases which cause de- 
bility, it is useful in relieving the disagreeable sensatidn 
arising from indigestible food, which is so often 'experi- 
enced by those laboring under dyspepsy. The dose is 
about, a tea-spoonfull of the pulverized root, infused in 
hot water. It may be used alone or combined with oth- 
er tonics. The decoction of this root, used externally as 
a wash or bath, is good to allay local inflammations. 

(Aneihum Fcenicular. 

Sweet-fennel is a garden herb, and is too well known 
to require a description. The seeds of the fennel are a 
pleasant aromatic .tonic, pulverized and sweetened with 
honey or sugar, or in decoction sweetened; they are ad- 
mirably adapted to pains in the stomach and bowels, col- 
ics, &c. There are few better articles for young children 
afflicted with flatulent colic, than sweet fennel seeds. — 
Given to women in labor, when the pains are short, fol- 
lowed by sickness at the stomach, they will generally 
produce good effects by relieving the sickness, and 
strengteening the system, so as to enable nature to per- 
form her task. The fennel seeds may be used in bitters 
either alone or with other articles as they will greatly im- 
prove the taste of other tonics. The oil obtained from 
the fennel seeds is valuable for colds, colics, &c. 

WILLOW.— (Salte.) 

There are several varieties of the Willow, all possess- 
ing similar properties as medicine, the white is some the 

strongest or most active. 

The bark of the Willow is tonic, and may be employed 
as a substitute for dog-wood or Peruvian bark. It is 
generally taken in decoction, say half a gill three or four 
times a day. But the principal use made of it by us is in 
poultices, made by thickening wheat bran or rye meal 
in a strong decoction of the root or bark of the root. 



{The English name not known.) 

This is a* small white tender looking root, never grow- 
ing larger than a common pea and seklem so large, .when 
the stalk is taken up several small balls or roots are found 
under it very much resembling a hill of yam-potatoes, on- 
ly so very much smaller; the external appearance of the 
root bears a strong, resemblance to the artichoke, and 
when br,oken it looks clear like the artichoke, and pos- 
sesses a taste not very dissimilar to the taste of that root; 
these little balls or roots are generally round, but sometimes 
inclined to be long, never exceeding a half inch in length 
to the best of my knowledge; these little knots or roots 
are attached by a small fiber which extends from the 
main root and then from one to the other. The stem 
grows from six to twelve inches high, small, smooth and 
divides into three branches, sometimes only two, near the 
top; each branch has three smooth leaves, oval and scol- 
laped, or indented irregularly at the outer or extreme end 
of a light or pale green color, seldom if ever more than an 
inch in length raid narrowed at the end which is attached 
to the stem. The stem is of a whitish purple color and 
not thicker than a course sewing needle. The stalk and 
leaves of this plant, bear such a strong resemblance to 
that of the cholera morbus weed, that the one is often mis- 
taken for the other until the root is examined, which bears 
no likeness whatever. The root of this plant is a valua- 
ble tonic. Persons that have become lean and emacia- 
ted, have often recovered their flesh by the use of this ar- 
ticle alone. Infants when very young, appearing to dwin- 
dle and pine away, will derive great benefit from the use 
of this root. The manner of using it is to bruise it and 
put it in cold water and make it a constant drink. Wo- 
men that have been married for a number of years and 
had no children, on making a constant drink of this root, 
have been blessed with a healthy offspring. Where the 
general health appears to be good, I believe this root will 
in most instances prove a cure for barrenness. 

WILD CHERRY-TREE.— Prunus Cerasus. 
The bark of the wild cherry tree is tonic and astringent; 


as a tonic it ranks next to the dog-wood bark, a no* may Ik? 
combined Hvith that 'article, with great advantage. It 
may be given either powdered in substance as the otfaer 
barks are| or it may be given in decoction;; a handful of 
ibe inner bark, to a quart of Water, taken in teacupful 
doses three or four times a day. It is a good tonic in inter- 
mittent fevers, and in ^billious fevers in the advanced sta- 
ges, when tonics are requisite, the cherry bark, in wine or 
French brandy is a most excellent toitic, particularly 
where the stomach and bowels are debilitated. Like 
other tonics it should never be taken when the fever is on. 
The gum of the wild-cherry tree is equal to the gum ara- 
bic obtained in the shops, and toiay be used in all c-ises 

' which call for the arabic gum. The bark of the tamo 
cherry tree of this country, digested in spirits makes a 
wholesome, and tolerable pleasant family bitter. 

A strong decoction of the i$\& cherry tree bark is val- 
uable in the treatment of- jatmdice, as may be seen by 
turning to the treatment of jaundice, the inner bark may 
be bruised and taken in spirits if preferred. The bark of 

% the root in decoction forms a valuable wash for old sores, 

* and foul, ill conditioned ulcers. 


This shrub or bush grows in many parts of the United 
States; it bears a small fruit which is considered by some- 
very delicious; this bush is so -well known in the country 
where it grows as to render a description needless. 

The bark of the root of this bush is tonic and diaphoretic, 
combined with dog-wood, or wild cherry tree bark, it 
forms a good tonic in intermittent fever or ague and fever. 
The bark of the root in spirits, is a very good family bit- 
ter. When it is necessary for pregnant women to take a. 
sweat, this Haw-root bark is used combined with other 


The herb is*, mostly found in bottoms and on the banks 
ofdiesrreams'in shady places. Mias a Whitish,«fibrous 


root, rather small, smooth, growing from six inches to a 
foot high — leaves smooth, roundish with an indentation 
on each side, of a bright green color. The top of this 
bears a strong resemblance to the top of the Oo-ne-kee- 
oo-nah-ste-tse. It generally grows some taller than that 
herb, and the leaves are of a brighter green. When dug 
they are easily distinguished ; one having a fibrous roof, 
and the other small balls or lumps attached by fine thread 
like roots. The root is the part used; it is tonic, anticep- 
tic, antiemetic; and is a certain remedy for cholera-mor- 


Commonly called steel or iron dust, is made by heating 
a piece of iron or steel to a very great heat, and rubbing 
it with rolls of brimstone, and let the melted parts drop 
into a vessel of water; then reduce it to a fine powder; 
and sift it through a muslin cloth; it may be given in doses 
of from 8 to 20 grains to suit the diferent age and strength 
of the patient. This is a most valuable tonic, good in 
dropsies, liver complaints, weak stomach and bowels, and 
in most cases of debility. 


This herb grows mostly in dry, oak and hickory land. 
It has a long round, tapering, perennial root. Sometimes 
of a light and other times-of a darkish brown color. Stems 
•ire many, erect, round growing from two to three feet- 
high. Leaves are opposite, lower ones connate or joined 
together, so as to have the appearance of being but one, 
withthe stem passing through the centre. Flowers grow 
at the base of the leaves, of a reddish color, and are succee- 
ded by large, yellow berries, crowned with four or five 
leaflets, which are the calyx of the flower. Flowers are 
t'tom two to six in number. The root is the part used ; it 
has a pleasant bitter taste; it is tonic, stimulant and ca- 
i hartic ; it is one of the best laxative bitter tonics in the 
Indian materia medica. It is one of the most valu- 
able remedies for weak stomach &nd hysterical affec- 
tions; for this purpose, it may be tak^nin spirits or bitters. 
It may also be taken in infusion, hvdoses of a tea-cupful. 



three or four times a day. It is an. excellent medicine for 
dyspesy, either alone or combined with other articles — it 
prevents the food from souring and oppressing the stomach. 
In short it is one of the best common place medicines in my 


. CLASS No. V. 


Astringents are medicines that are used to render the 
solids more dense and firm, in order to correct debility 
and looseness. 'They exercise a very powerful and ex- 
tensive influence on the system and are of greater or less 
utility in the treatment of most diseases which the human 
family are subject. In the incipient or forming stages of 
diseases, this class of medicines, if properly administered, 
will often throw it off entirely. Their free use when re- 
covering from disease, has a tendency to prevent relap- 
ses. Medicines of this class must be used sparingly, or o- 
mitted altogether in some cases, such as obstinate costive- 
ness, high fever, attended with extreme dryness of the 
mouth, &c. Astringent tonics, are such as relieve flood- 
ings and hemorrhages of every kind and may be advanta- 
geously employed in all profuse evacuations and relaxed 
states of the system. 


This valuable and singular plant is found growing in 
the water, particulary in slow running spring branches, in 
the Southern parts of the United States. The stem always 
grows to the surface of the water let it be what depth it 
may, before its leaf comes out ; the leaf always lies on the 
surface of the water, it is from six to twelve inches long 


and two or three iiiehes wide; its color is a pale or light 
green ; its surface is remarkably smooth and glossy as if 
covered over with oil, so that the water will not wet it — 
from this circumstance it takes its name Never Wet. The 
whole leaf is very tender, thick and fleshy. They are ex- 
cellent, wilted or scalded and spread on burns of any kind. 
They may be bruised or beaten and applied in the form of 
a poultice ; they are also a good dressing for blisters and 
ulceus, or sores of almost every kind, giving much relief 
to. the pain so generally experienced in scalds burns, sores 
and other inflammations. 

BALM OF GILEAD.— {Amyris, Gildensis.) 

The tree known in this country by this name, is mostly 
cultivated as an ornament for yards. The genuine Balm 
of Gileadisa native of Asia, and grows near the city of 
Mecca, on the Asiatic side of the Red Sea. That growing 
inGilead, was anciently esteemed the best, and was thot" 
by the ancients to possess remedial virtues for almost eve- 
ry disease — hence this tree received the name of the Balm 
ofGilead. v ' — ■' ' 

The American Gilead is.a species of this. tree, and as I 
before told you, is mostly cultivated as a yard ornament in 
the Southern and middle States, it cannot bear the severi- 
ty, of Northern winters. Its leaves are large, smooth and 
beautiful, nearly of a heart shape. " The bark of the 
young tree is smooth,..both the bark and leaves resemble 
those of the lumbardy popl&iy.but it does, not grow so tall 
and erect. 

The tincture of the buds is. good for eholic, old bowel 
complaints, both among' children a|id grown persons; it is 
also good for chronic; rheumatism and may be rendered 
better for the rheumatism by adding the bark of prickly 
ash. For rheumatism, the 'tincture of the buds must be 
applied externally to the affected part, and a tincture of 
prickly ash bark'. and the Gil,e,ad buds drank as bitters, say 
three times a day;,'- This tincture is also good for old ven- 
ereal complaints"*, steeped, in water or taken in tincture, 
It is excellent forepersons of weakly, phlegmatic habits.— 
The bark agtU leaves possess medicinal virtues, but in a less 
active degree 'than the; Buds., The buds stewed in deer 
or sheep.suet, niakes a most excellent salve, when combined 


in proper proportions, but if too strong with the buds, it 
will irritate the wound and make it worse. The buds 
are valuable in salves or ointments, for tetter- worm, scald 
head, burns, &c. The tincture of the Buds, or some of 
the gum or rosin offof the buds put into the hollow of an 
aching tooth, will generally give relief. The buds are 
found on the tree nearly all the year, they are , large of a 
brownish color, and contain a considerable quantity of a 
kind of a gurn-rpsin" or .balsam. A sytuj) made .of the 
buds and sweetened with honey is Ch excellent wash 
for the sore mouth. 


%HE OAK.— (Quercus.) 

We have several species of thejOak, as the black, \fhite, 
red, &c, all possessing similar medical qualities. The bark 
is the part used, and is astringent, ionic, and antiseptic. 

After long fevers, intermittent?, indigestion, chronic, 
dysentery, or any debility of the system, it is a most valu- 
able astringent tonic — in decoction is the best mode of u- 
sing it. It. constitutes the best bathe in my knowledge for 
persons of weak, debilitated or relaxed habits. Repeated 
instances have occurred, in which persons, especially chil- 
dren, have been reduced to mere skeletons, by long con- 
tinued bowel complaints, their stomachs had become so 
irritable as to render it impossible to relieve them by med- 
icines taken internally, and Were restored .to health by 
bathing in a strong decocticn of the Oak bark twice a 
day. The decdeikm thickened and applied as a poultice. 
is good to reduce inflammation and prevent mortification. 
I believe the red oak to be the best for poultices. ..Chil- 
dren afflicted with chills and fevers, when too vpung to 
take tonics into the stomach; have often been relieved by 
ba1 hi ng them in a strong decoction of dog-wood and red- 
; oak bark at the tirhc when the fever was off, and applying 
the pulverized bark of the dog-wood to the waist, wrists 
and ankles, by the means of bandages — flannel is the best: 
the bath should be administered about six or seven hours 
before the ^hill is expected, and as soon as the patient is 
taken from the bath, the above application should be 
made, and it should remain until the approach of the chill. 



DEWBERRY.— (Robus Procumbent.) 

The root of the dewberry brier is astringent and tonic, 
and are valuable in the treatment of venereal. A decoc- 
tion of this root and the root of the blue*, flag, has often 
cured this dirty complaint in a few days. The roof boiled 
in new milk or water, is good for persons afflicted with 
chronic, or 4 old bowel complainsts, particularly in aged 
persons, and such as have weak or debilitated constitu- 
tions. The tincture is good for persons of weakly phleg- 
matic habits, perhaps better than the decoction. The de- 
coction sweetened with horiey, makes a healing wash for 
sore throatand mouth, and will sometimes'eure the thrash. 

The Blackberry possesses the same medicinal proper- 
ties that the Dewberry does, but in a less active degree. 

T." I, 

■- [Tse-'lah-lee.] 


The Sweet-Gum is too we'll known to need a descrip- 
tion: it grows in great abundance in many places in the 
U. States, generally in rich bottoms or low lands, The 
ifiner bark, leaves and rosin, or gum, are the parts used 
for medicine : the rosin or inner bark is excellent for 
diarrhoea, dysentery or' flux. When the bark is ased, it 
'should be boiled to a strong decoction in new mMk or wa- 
ter, and the decoction taken in teaicupful closes every hour 
until relief is obtained.. It^nay perhaps be necessary ts> 
-cleanse the stomach and bowels with a cooling cathartic 
previous to taking the Sweet Gum tea : the rosin is valu- 
able in bowel complaints, but must be used with caution,, 
lest it should prove toobinding, and thereby produce too 
L much excitement in the system. The leaves bruised and 
steeped in cold water, is a good wash tor scald head : the 
gum or rosin, forms an excellent ingredient in salve for 
wounds, sores, ulcers, &c. It is also good mixed with 
sheep or cow's tallow for itch : it seldom fails to cure the 
itch if applied persever'ingly. 


1 The^Persimnfon grows in nlost parts^of the Union and 
isSvelf known to almost every? person. 


The bark of the tree and root and unripe. fruit are highly 
astringent. The bark of the root forms an ingredient, in 
thg depoction or beer for venereal, as may be seen in the 
treatment of that disease. A strong deception of. the in- 
ner bark sweetened with honey is a valuable remedy ,foi? 
sore throat and mouth. Made into syrup, it is good for 
thrush, and may be made better by mixing with it a liitle 
finely pulverized Borax. The decoction is. a good astrin- 
gent wash in all cases where astringents are required, 
used as a wash or bath to the fundament it is an excellent 
remedy in case of piles; it may be applied by wetting lint 
Hi the decoction and applying it to the fundament ? . 

[Oo-ster-oo-ste-lur-e-stee] : 
COMFRE Y.— (Consolida.) 

Of this plant there are two kinds,, the wild and garden 
Comfrey. Of the two species the garden comfrey is some 
the best, owing to its containing more mucilage or jelly, 
and not being quite so hard and tough as the wild. 

A handful of the roots boiled in new milk and drank 
ireely, is good for flooding after. child-birth. A gill of the 
milk in which comfrey root has been boiled„given every 
half hour, is amongst the best remedies. tor flux or dysen- 
tery. The root sliced and steeped in water and used, as a 
common drink is good in clap (gonorrhea,) also for stric- 
tures, or heat, in making water it is excellet. The root 
infused in cold water and made a constant drink, is valua- 
ble for pregnant women who are troubled, with heart-burn, 
costiveness. &c. It is also excellent, for such females as 
from sexual weakness are troubled., with menstrual j dis- 
charges and other symptoms of abortion during pregnan- 
cy. A poultice made by brusjng and boiling the.:,, root is 
valuable to reduce inflammation and prevent mortifica- 
tion. The writer can, bear testimony of the, efficacy of 
this poultice, it having removed the inflammation from a 
wound for him, after it had thrown him into high fevers, 
without the.aid of other remedies. The poultice is made 
by pounding or bruising the root fine, boiling it in new 
milk or water and with wheat bran or corn 
meal. The bruised root , wet with vinegar is excellent ap- 
plied to sprains, bruises and bealings; it will often drive 
back the worst of healings when other applications fail.. 



(Agrimonia Eupatoria.) 

Agrimony has a dark; fiberous, perennial root; its stem 
is round and hairy, growing from one to two feet high; 
leaves are alternate, rough, hairy, ragged and unequal, 
the lower ones the largest. The blossoms grow on a long 
terminal spike, which is merely a continuation of the 
main stem — they are of a yellow color; and produce a 
small bristly brier, which in'the fall of the year sticks to 
clothes that comes in contact with it. 

The root reduced to powders and combined with other 
articles, is much used in the treatment of pox, as may be 
seen by referring to that head. It forms an ingredient in 
the nerve powders. A decoction of the root is valauble iii 
habitual diarrhea or looseness, and in all cases of extreme 

(Amaranthus Sanguineous.) 

The Prince's Feather is much cultivated in the gardens 
of this country for its beautiful appearance. It grow?; 
from two to four feet high, the whole plant, more or less, 
exhibits a red appearance, but the bloom is of a beautiful 
bright red. 

The leaves are the part mostly used, and rank among 
the most active astringents, often relieving fioodings and 
profusehnenstruation whim other remedies have failed. — 
The decoction is the best, mode of using it. The quantity 
taken must be regulated by the effects produced. 

CRANE'S BILL. — (Geranium Maculatum.) 

This plant is found growing mostly in meadows and 
low, wet grounds; its root is generally crooked and knotty, 
blackish on the outside, and reddish within; it has a rough 
taste, leaving an aromatic flavor behind; its stalks are 
slender, from six inches to a foot high; bearing seven long, 
narrow leaves at a joint. 

The root is the part mostly used, pounded fine and made 
into a poultice with cold water, it is the best thing to stop 
bleeding that I have ever tried. The Cherokees, as weK 


as several other tribes of the Natives, place unbounded 
confidence in this root as a styptic. It is said by some of 
the whites to be valuable in profuse menstruation, whites, 
gleet and obstinate diarrhce; also, bleeding arid hemorrha- 
ges of all kinds. I have never tried it any other way than 
to stop bleeding from a wound, but its promptness and ac- 
tivity, in checking the flow of blood from an artery, indu- 
ces us to believe, thai when properly tried, i| will proy;e a 
valuable medicine in the class of astringents. 

WATER PLANTAIN.— QLUsrna Plantago.) , 

This Plantain is found growing mostly in wet soil, or in 
the margin of stagnant waters. The, root remains through 
the winter — (perennial.) Its leaves are qf a light green 
color, and very much resemble tjb.e common, plantain. 

A decoction of the root is "valuable in all bowel,,, com- 
plaints, after a gentle purge has-been taken; to cleanse the 
stomach and bowels. But the most important use made 
of this root is, as an external ^application to old sores, 
wounds, bruises, swellings, &c. The roots should be 
washed clean and then , boiled until soft, mashed up and 
applied in the form of a poultice; the affected part should 
be bathed in a decoction, of the root, before the poultice is 
applied. This treatment will seldom fail in reduqing in- 
flammation, and preventing mortification. It is a most ex- 
cellent application to old, foul, and ill conditioned ulcers, 
cleansing them and disposing them to heal. 

YARROW*— (AcMlla Millefolium.) 

Yarrow, both, grows wild and is cultivated in gardens; it 
i-5 so well known as to render a description needless. The 
leaves are the part used; they, are astringent, and will bo 
found good taken in decoction, in gill doses, four or five 
times a day for hemorrhages, such as spitting blood, bloody 
piles, bloody urine, immoderate. flow of the menses. Also 
good for bowel complaints, and a weak relaxed state of 
ihe svstem. 

CINQUEFOIL.— {Commonly called sinkficld.) 

This vine grows„ ; in old fields and fence corners, and is 
something similar to the strawberry. Each stalk bears _ 


five leaves, hence it is sometimes called five finger; its blos- 
soms are yellow. The root is astringent, and may be 
boiled in water or new milk, about a handful to a quart; 
this decoction is good in fevers and acute diseases when 
there is great debility; also in dysentery and bowel com- 
plaints generally, it sometimes proves beneficial, W pro- 
fuse menstruation. 

{Erigeron Philadelphicam. ... 

Frost-weed is found in great abundance in the United 
States; it generally grows in fields, which it sometimes en- 
tirely overruns— it is seldom found in the' woods. The 
root is yellowish, composed of many branching fibres; the 
stem rises from one to three feet high, branched near the 
top; the leaves are oblong, largest hearthe ground, becom- 
ing smaller as they ascend' the stalk or stenj : the flowers 
are numerous, of a yellowish:, white, sometimes of a pur- 
plish blue, and of a downy appearance. This plant con- 
tinues in bloom until the autumnal frosts, from which cir- 
cumstance it has derived one of its names, Frost- weed. 

The principal use made by us of this plant, is for gravel, 
and diseases of the urinary organs, but for the further in- 
formation of the reader, f give the following, which is ta- 
ken from the writings of different physicians among the 

"This plant is astringent, diurretic, and sudorific in a 
high degree: there .are several species of this : valuable 
plant possessing the same medical properties, and indis- 
criminately used; though distinguished bv their botanical 
or technical names, but not by their common. The med- 
ical powers of these plants are very active, and require 
cautious use. They may be employed fresh or dry, in de- 
coction, infusion, tincture, extract, or oil:— the oil" is con- 
sidered one of the best styptics in medicine. The diseases 
said to be relieved by this article, are dropsy, suppression 
of the urine, inflammation of the kidneys', gravel, gout, 
suppressed menstruation, coughs, hemorrhages, dimness 
of sight," &c. 

1 cannot say from personal experience that this article 
is an infallible remedy for all the above complaint; but 
1 do believe %m personal experience, that its active prop. 



erties as a medicine, render it. worthy the further at- 
tention of those engaged in the healing art. 


This hush or tree, is found growing on water courses, 
such as rivers and large creeks; it grows to about the size 
of a common peach tree; the bark is ofan ash color, varie- 
gated with dark spots : it bears a white bloom, which is 
succeeded by a three, and sometimes a four square pod. — 
The bark has a very bitter taste, and an offensive smell. 
It is called by some cotton- wood, by others whitewood; it 
is easily known by the pod: — the bark is the part used. 

It is tonic, astringent, antiseptic and expectorant. Ta- 
ken in bitters, it is good for breast complaints, spitting 
blood, &c. Boiled to a strong decoction and made into a 
poultice with rye meal or wheat bran, it forms the best ap- 
plication in my knowledge for white swelling in the first 
or forming stage. 


There are several species of the raspberry, all good for 
medical purposes. We have been in the habit of using the 
common black raspberry, but white practitioners prefer 
the red raspberry: — the leaves are the part nsed, and are 
highly astringent. A decoction of them is good for bowel 
complaint; it is an excellent wash for old and foul sores or 
ulcers. A strong tea .of the red raspberry leaves is said by 
the whites, to be a most valuable article in regulating the 
pains of women at or near the period of child-birth. 

[e-tsog-c.-ui-nt coh-ler.] 

This brier grows in most parts of America: it has a small 
long vine, full of very sharp spines, the vine and leaves are 
an ever green, it bears small dark berries, which in the 
latter part of the fall bear a strong resemblance to the 
winter grape. 


The bark of the root of this brier is astringent and slight- 
ly tonic. It is valuable in the treatment of pox, when 
combined with other articles, as is fully shown in the treat- 
ment of this disease. A decoction of the leaves is an ex- 
cellent wash for scalds, burns, and other foul sores: a salve 
made by stewing the leaves, or bark of the root in hog's 
lard with a little beeswak is good for burns, scalds and 
other sores. 

R E D-R O O T. 

This valuable herb grows in great abundance in every 
part of the Union with which I am acquainted. It grows 
most abundant in uplands which are tolerably thin, and 
inclined to be shady, and in such lands as produce pine 
and hickory, in the Middle and Southern States; but it grow* 
in great plenty north of the Ohio river where there is no 
pine. Its roots are long and large, covered with a hard 
rough, red bark, the whole root, is of a hard woody nature' 
1 he top or stem grows from one to two feet hio-h much 
branched and crowned with numerous leaves; itsVlossoms 
are white, and appear in June and July. 

The root is the part used, and is a valuable astringent 
A strong decoction of the red-root is my choice wash for 
cancer; it also forms an ingredient in the decoction for 
venereal, as is fully shown in the treatment of that com- 
plaint. It is excellent in decoction for old bowel com- 
plaints spitting blood,; flooding, bloody piles, &c. It is al- 
so good for sore mouth and sore throat, in decoction swee- 



The Iron-wood is a very common growth in most parts 
of the Union, and is so well known, that any particular 
description would be needless; it grows to about the size 
of the dog-wood. 

The inner bark is astringent, and forms an ingredient in 
the decoction for flux. 



ALUM- ROOT--- (Heuchera Americana.) 

This little and useful plant is found growing in most 
parts of the United States, generally in the woods or for- 
' est, seldom in cultivated lands. The stem grows from three 
to six inches high, of a greyish color. The root is short, 
and bears some resemblance to puccoon root, not so 
long, and more of a brownish cast, rough and wrinkl)'. 

The root is the part used, it is very astringent, taken 
in decoction, or in spirits as bitters; it is very good for old 
bowel complaints ; in: decoction, it is good for immode- 
rate flows of the menses; piles, and hermorrhages in gen- 
eral; the pulverized root applied as powders is a most ex- 
cellent application to malignant ulcers; the decoction 
made into syrup with honey is good for thrush and o- 
thersore mouths. It acts powerfully, as an astringent 
tonic, and taken in spirits of a morning on a fasting stom- 
ach, adding a dram before dinner and supper, it has done 
wonders in curing dysenteries, after the remedies pres- 
cribed by skilful physicians had failed. 


The inner bark of this tree is a good astringent and de- 
tergent, boiled until the strength is extracted, and the de- 
coction reduced over a slow fire, to the consistence of mo- 
lasses, is one of the best dressings for a cut, (which is not 
too much inflamed) in the world. When they are ruptur- 
ed or cut blood vessels, it will, in most instances, stop the 
bleeding, cleanse and heal the wound. It should be kept 
in readiness by every family; this may easily be done, by 
adding to the syrup, a little brandy or proof spirits ; it 
should be applied by dipping lint in the syrup, and bind- 
ing it to the wound. 


Knot root has a\ large, woody root, with small roots or 
fibres issuing from the caudex or head. The stalk and 
cane bear some resemblance to the rattle weed. It puts 
uo an erect stem, which bears on the top a beautiful tassel 
of white flowers. 

The root is the part used, and is very astringent, reduced 


to a very fine powder, it is an excellent article to remove 
proud and fungous flesh. 



This bush grows on the banks of streams. The root is 
yellow; stem rises from three to six feet high, smooth, slim, 
of a beautiful green color ; it is evergreen and in the spring 
pnts forth many greenish blossoms — leaves painted, and 
slightly indented. It is an astringent and tonic; a tea or 
decoction of the root is good for the piles. The ashes 
burnt from the green switch is an excellent application to 

€I>A§§ I¥oi--YI. 


Diaphoretics and Sudorifica are medicines that promote 
prespiration, strengthen the living. power, and give fine- 
ness to the musculai fibres. 

Sudorifics are such as produce copious sweating. 

Diaphoretics are such as produce only gentle perspira- 
tion or moisture of the skin, but they will both be placed 
in one class.. 


SENEKA SNAKE ROOT— {Polygola Senega.) 

The stalk of this plant .grows about 'a foot high, upright 
and branched; its leaves are somewhat oval and pointed; 
flowers white; the root is variously bent and twisted, rough 
and of a jointy appearance, thought to bear some resem- 
blance to the tail of a rattle snake; hence it is sometimes 
called rattlesnake root ;.seyeraJ opinions have been given. 


as to how it first received the name, seheka snake root. — - 
Some say, it was called, for the tribe of Indians who first 
used it, as medicine; others that it obtained its name from 
its efficacy, in the cure of the bite of -the snake. 

The difleremVtribes of Indians have long ascribed to this 
root medical proprieties of the most active and important 
kind ; it is thought by them equal, if it does not surpass any 
root in the American forest, for its various and useful ef- 
fects on the human system, as a medicine. This opin- 
ion has been sustained by many respectable physicians a- 
mongthe whites at Percival, Miilman, Chapman, Tenant, 
Archer and others. It is sudorific; diuretic, emmenagogue 
and cathartic. 

It is certainly one of the most valuable remedies in the 
world for obstructed menses. It may be taken in decoc- 
tion or combined with other articles, and used as bitters — 
if when taken in decoction, it should produce sickness or 
vomiting which is sometimes the case, when the stomach 
is weak and irritable — add to the decoction, a little an- 
gellica, calimus or ginger. 

It is good in colds, pleurisy, acute rheumatism, and in- 
fiamatcry complaints. In all dropsical swellings, it is an 
excellent article, as it increases the tone and strength of 
the urinary organs, while at the ame time, its laxative 
properties keep the bowels in a proper state. 

For colds, croup, and menstrual obstructions, it should 
be taken in moderate doses, often repeated, until the de- 
sired effect is produced. It may be given with safety and 
advantage in all cases, where a sweat is required, after 
the stomach and bowels are prepared for it, except to 
females in a state of pregnancy, in this case, it should nev- 
er be used, on such as are subject to immoderate flow of 
the menses. 

This root forms an ingredient in Dr. Wright's famous 
beer for consumption. We use it in the Chalybeate pill. 

The root should be pounded or pulverized, as it is very 
slow to yield its strength. 

Much has been written with regard to its virtue in the 
cure of the bite of the snake; we have never used it for 
this purpose, believing that the remedies prescribed for the 
treatment of animal poisons are superior to this root, but 
should a case occur where this root was at hand, and the 
remedies prescribed under that head could not be obtained, 


we would give-, it a fair trial; the mode of using it is inter- 
nally in ; tea or decoction, and externally, to the wound 



This plant has a large, long, crooked perennial root, 
and forms a joint where the old stalk grew, which leaves 
a, hole in the root where it decays, aad from ; each of these 
joints issue fibers. The stalk is square, with the sides con- 
cave, which makes the corners very sharp, and grows from 
six to eight feet high — leaves are very large, grow oppo- 
site and are indented on the edges with large deep teeth, 
they are united at the stalk or base with the edges so 
raised as to form a cup, which would contain a spoonful 
or two of water, and found growing mostly in rich bottom 

The root is the part used, and requires long steeping to 
extract the strength. It is one of the most valuable arti- 
cles in the Indian Materia Medica to promote perspiration 
and give vigor to the living power; it is tonic, and is an ex- 
cellent remedy for weakness, inward bruises, &c. For 
ague and fever and bilious fevers in the last stages where 
tonics are needed there is nothing better. It is the most 
efficient medicine in our knowledge to dissolve and carrv 
off ague-cakes. v*. 



PENN YRO YA L. — (Hedeoma Pulegiorides.) 

This plant growfl in great abundance in every part of 
the country, and is so well known that/I need not describe 
it. A decoction of this plant is a warm stimulant and di- 
aphoretic. It is expectorant, the expressed juice sweeten- 
ed with Honey or sugar is useful in colds, coughs, particu- 
larly whooping cougb. The tea drank freely just before 
going to bed is a valuable article for obstructed menses, 
its uSe should be continued until relief is obtained. Pen- 
nyroyal tea is often used to advantage as a drink, in pro- 
moting the operation of emetics. A free use ot the de- 
coction at the commencement of fever, will often throw it 
off and give entire relief. The essence of Pennyroyal is 
valuable in all cases in which I have recommended the 
dego$tion or tea. 


The herb should be gathered just before, of about the 

time it blooms, tied up in small bunches or bundles arid 

hung up where it will keep dry; it makes one of the most 

> pleasant and useful teas in common light family sickness 

with which I am acquainted. 


SPICEWOOD.— (Lauras Benzoin.} 

The Spicewood is found in most parts of America, and 
is so generally and so well known, as not to need a des- 
cription. It is generally found in rich, uncultivated., 
■ marshy places, about the edges of branches and ponds. ' 

A decoction of the 'twigs, bark or root is a good diapho- 
retic, and may be used to advantage in colds, .-coughs,, 
phthisics, croup, &c, taken in gill or half pint doses, eve- 
Wy hour or two, it is good in? female obstructions; in this* 
case it should be taken occasionally as much as the stom- 
ach will bear, and the feet bathed ongoing to bed. A 
strong decoction of the bark or root sweetened to syrup 
and given to a children the first symptoms of croup will 
generally give speedy relief. The berries boiled in bark 
is good for dysentery and bowel complaints and it some 
limes expels worms. But all has not been told yet about 
this useful shrub; it is a most valuable article in the treat- 
ment of white-swelling, although the whites think them- 
selves perfectly acquainted with the medical properties of 
this bush, yet they appear entirely ignorant of this impor- 
tant medical virtue; for the manner of using it in white- 
swelling, refer to the treatment of that disease. 


RATTLE- WEED.— (Botrophis Serpentarjf..) 

This berb is called by different names, such as squaw- 
root, squaw-weed, &c; it is found in every part of the Un- 
ion, growing mostly on the sides of '• rich hills, and moun- 
tains, also in rich bottom wood-lands. The most common 
name in the western country is squaw-root, I believe, and 
is said to derive it from the extensive use the Americans 
saw the Indian women make of it in the settling of Amer- 
ica. The stalks grow from two to six feet high, nearly 
round, smooth, and branched at top; it bears a kind of tas- 

Indian guide to heatth. 247 

sel or bunch of berries* which when ripe on being shock, 
makes a dry shattering noise, and from this fact it is called 
rattle-weed. ■;*?, 

The root is the part used, it is sudorific, tqnic, diuretic, 
anodyne, emmenagogue, and slightly astringent. It may 
be given either in powders, decoction or tincture. In de- 
coction it is. valuable for colds, and female obstruction?, 
when the obstruction is of. long standing, and the general 
health impaired by it, this root should be used in tincture 
or bitters, and may be advantageously combined with oth- 
er articles. It is valuable in coughs and consumptions. 
Obstinate bowel complaints have been speedily relieved 
by drinking a decoction of this root. It may be used iti 
bitters, combined with spikenard, in the latter stages of 
pregnancy to great advantage, but its use should not be 
commenced before the end of the seventh month. It is an 
excellent article in the treatment of rheumatism, in acute 
or inflammatory rheumatism it should be taken in decoc- 
tion; for chronic rheumatism in tincture or bitters it is 
much the best. 

[LE-SaUAW-CLA.] - 


The top, root and blossoms of this well known plant all 
possess medical virtues. A tea of the leaves, roots or 
blossoms, taken a pint morning, noon and night, is useful 
to relieve hysterical or nervous debility, and strengthen 
women of sexual wea'kness. This tea is excellent for girls 
whose periodical evacuations are not regularly establish- 
ed, and for women whose courses are about to leave them 
from their age, according to the laws of nature. 

The strong tea taken in large quantities and as often as 
the stomach will bear is good in typhus fever, and chronic 
cases of ague and fever, it should be commenced just be- 
fore the chill is expected, and continued until perspiration 
or sweating is produced. Its diaphoretic property renders 
it valuable in colds, coughs, and in fact all cases -where 
diaphoretics are needed. A valuable salve is made by 
bruising the root and stewing' it in mutton or deer suet. 
The whole herb has a. bitter, aromatic taste, not very dis- 
agreeable, and quite a pleasant smell. 



_ The Shell-bark Hickory is found in most parts of the^ 
United States, growing in strong, good soil. 

The ross or outside bark of this tree makes one of the 
best diaphoretic teas or sweating medicines that we have. 
A decoction of the outside bark, not only acts as a sweat- 
ing medicine, but is also good to correct the bile, and in- 
vigorate the stomach. Taken in very large doses it will 
operate as an emetic. 

It is excellent to remove cold and female obstructions, 
and may be advantageously employed in any cases where 
a sweating medicine is needed. "" Vi> 

PEPPERMINT.— (Munthea Piperita..) 

Peppermint is a perennial plant, and is cultivated in most 
gardens; it is also found in many places in low, wet lands,. 
and is the strongest of all mints. It is said that the roots of 
the peppermint should be transplanted every three years, 
or it will degenerate into the flavor of spearmint. 

Peppermint is a w r arm stimulant to the stomach, and 
through that medium to the rest of the bodjr. A tea of it 
drank copiously promotes perspiration, and is useful to 
check vomiting, relieve hysterics, and remove sickness at 
the stomach. The essence of peppermint ranks among 
the best medicines in the world for expelling wind from 
the stomach; it is beneficialin allaying spasmodic affec- 
tions of the stomach and bowels, dispelling flatulence or 
wind, and in removing all colicy pains. It will often re- 
lieve cramp, which sometimes takes place during the ope- 
ration of an emetic. A few drops taken in spirits or water 
is very good to remove feeble feelings of a morning. Smell- 
ing it and wetting the temples with it will often relieve 
nervous head-ache. The green leaves infused in spirits or 
water, and applied to the pit of the stomach, and over the 
belly, will aid in checking vomiting, and in relieving spas- 
modic affections of the stomach and bowel's. 


Spearmint grows in great abundance in most parts of 
America, on the banks of streams and in wet lands. It has 
a strong aromatic smell, and a warm, rough ; hitter taste= 


It possesses properties similar to those of the peppermint, 
but in a smaller degree. It may be used in decoction, oi'l 
or essence. The roots of the spearmint or peppermint, 
boiled to a strong tea and sweetened with loaf sugar is an 
excellent remedy for puking and purging in infants — (call- 
ed cholera infantum.) 

The spearmint is said by some to be an efficacious reme- 
dy for suppression of urine, gravelly affections, &c; it is 
prepared by bruising the green herb and adding enough 
of the fourth proof Holland gin to make a saturated tinc- 
ture — dose, a wine glassful taken as often as the patient 
can bear it. It is also said thaticotton wet with this tinc- 
ture and applied to the fundament, will give immediate 
relief in case of the piles. I have never tried it myself, 
but have mentioned it here, in order that those who wish 
to try the remedy can do so. 



This useful herb is found in most parts of the United 
States, growing amongst rocks on hills and mountains. It 
has a yellow, fibrous, perennial root, and a smooth slender, 
brittle stem, growing from six to twelve inches high, much 
branched at top, branches nearly opposite. Lsaves are 
small, smooth and opposite, the upper surface of a deep 
green, and the under surface of a bluish green. Its flow- 
ers are numerous, small, of a pink white or a bluish pur- 
ple, growing in terminal clusters. 

The whole plant* has a warm fragrant, aromatic, pun- 
gent smell and taste; and may be used in a warm infusion 
or tea advantageously in colds, head-aches, fevers, and in 
all cases in which perspiration is to be excited. Moun- 
tain Dittany is sudorific, tonic, stimulant and nervous, and 
may be used 1o advantage in all cases that require the 
use of such articles. It is very good, for snake bite; in 
this case the tea should be drank freely, and the bruised 
leaves applied externally to the wound. A strong tea of 
this herb is valuable in increasing labor pains, and;.facili- 
tating child-birth. 




This is a small evergreen vine, lying close to the ground. 
It is mostly found in shady woods, often growing in beds 
or mats. Its leaves are small an$ round and grow out in 
pairs, the flowers grow out in pairs also, they are white 
and downy within, succeeded by light scarlet red berries. 
By the whites it is sometimes called Squaw vine.from their 
having seen the indian women make much use of it. 

The most common mode of taking it is in decoction, 
made by boiling it in new milk It is diaphoretic, or pro- 
duces sweating; as a diuretic it increases the discharge 
of urine; it is also slightly astringent and may be used to 
advantage in dysentery, piles, &c. The decoction taken 
freely is ah excellent article to facilitate^ child-birth, 
it should be used daily for two or three weeks beiore that 


This herb is found mostly on dry stony ridges and hills, 
stem round, being much branched and growing from one 
to two and a half feet high, leaves are opposite, hairy and 
indented with unequal teeth so as to give it a very ragged 
appearance, the branches come out first above the leaves. 
It flowers in the latter part of summer and beginning of 
autumn, the flowers are tubular yellow on the outside, 
with a bright red spot Within, (he whole plant has a rough, 
downy appearance, and when pressed by the hand it ap- 
pears to be covered with a kind of rosin or sticky suj> 
stance, it has but little smell or .taste. 

The leaves and branches are the parts used in decoc- 
tion, it is a; valuable diaphoretic, and may be used to ad- 
vantage in all cases. "whiaji require sweating medicines. 
It is one of the best articles in the world for child-bed fe- 
vers, when trie stomach and bowels are prepared for dia- 
phoretics or sweating jmedicines. It is good in colds, 
coughs, and most fight family sickness. It increases the 
urine gently, also tlie menstrual discharges in females. 



This root is perennial, large, branched — sending off fi- 
bers. The root has pits or scars remaining on it where the 
old stem grew; stem round, smooth and shining, growing 
from two to three feet high — several' from one root — 
generally found growing in rich uplands or bottoms. 

The root is the part used; in a strong tea or decoction, 
it produces sweating — good in colds and obstructions. It 
is an excellent anodyne, and may be used to advantage in 
pleurisy and sharp darting pains; but in spirits it makes 
an excellent tonic bitter, useful in all cases where a bitter 
tonic is required. The tea sweetened is given to infants 
to relieve pain and produce sleep. 


This is a beautiful and well known tree, growing in 
inost parts of the Union, particularly in the Middle South- 
ern and Western States, and is too well known to require 
a description. It is a diaphoretic. A tmi made of the 
leaves and twigs taken internally, at the same time sto- 
ving over the tops, is good for cold, 'female obstructious 
and measles. The berries boiled in sweet-milk will ottt't; 
expel worms. A very good ointment for itch and other 
cutaneous diseases, may be made by stewing the leaves 
and berries in sheep or djeer's tallow, or hogs lard. But 
the most valuable mexlical property of this ornament ot 
our forest has not yerbeen told. The oil of the. tree is 
far the most useful part for medical purposes, and as an 
external application ranks amongst the best remedies for 
White Swelling, Rheumatism, and pains generally. It, is 
also good to drive back healings, and for diseases of the 
skin, such as ring-worm, tetter-worm, itch, scald-head, 
&c. For the manner of applying it in White Swelling 
and Rheumatism, look at the treatment of these diseases. 
The oil is obtained by filling' a large pot with dry cedar 
finely split, and placing its rrfouth downwards on a rock; 
next exclude the air by means of mortar around the month 
of the pot, leaving a place at the lower side for the oil to 
run out at, then build a large^fire on the pot. The oil may 
be used when fresh andaftef 1 it v has become old with equal 


success, if it is kept well corked. It should be kept in 
glass bottles, or in well glazed earthen jugs, as it will 
readily penetrate wood. This oil put into the hollow of 
an aching tooth, will generally give relief in a short time. 

[ Ah-tah-ne-see-ne-to-ha. ] 

This is a well known vine; it has a roundish leaf, inclin- 
ed to be rough or hairy. It is diaphoretic. Good in colds 
and coughs: it is also good for children that are troubled 
with colic arising from cold. Either the green or dried 
leaves made into a tea is the form of using it. 


Golden Rod is found in most parts of the U. S. with which 
I am acquainted, and is too well known to require a par- 
ticular description. It grows from one and a half to two 
and a half feet high; they a,re long, narrow, of a deep green 
color, flowers numerous, small and yellow. The whole 
plant has a pleasant aromatic smell and taste. Taken in 
tea or infusion, .it ia^rood for colds, coughs, &c, owing to 
its diaphoretic? or sweating property: it is also tonic, stim- 
ulant and nervine, valuable in measles, fevers, and female 



jThis plant is generally found in creeks, though sometimes 
in spring branches. The root is large, from two to four 
feet in length, with small or fibrous roots issuing f rom the 
main root : Generally two leaves grow up from one root; 
they always grow to the surface of the water, where they 
lie flat; they are large, roundish, fleshy, and of a dark 
green color. The root is the part used for medical pur- 
poses; it is diaphoretic, diuretic and antiseptic. A tea or 
decoction of this root, is a certain remedy for that dreadful 
disease Small Pox. 


CLASS ft T ©. VII. 


Diuretics are a class of medicines which are employed 
to produce an increased discharge of urine. They are 
valuable in all disorders of the urinary organs which pre- 
vent the secretion of the proper quantity of urine. 


This plant is found growing almost everywhere, and is 
well known by almost every body.: — there are several 
kinds, all possessing the same medical properties. 

The leaves and top are the parts used. A decoction of 
the Horse-Mint, midling strong, is excellent for weak bow- 
els and stomach; it is diuretic, producing a free and easy 
discharge of urine in a short time after drinking it. As a 
diaphoretic, it is good to promote perspiration, which 
means sweating, giving relief in colds and female obstruc- 
tions. It is also carminative, giving relief in cholic, flat- 
ulency and hysterics. 

STRAW-BERRY.— (Frigaria.) 

This is a small well known plant or vine, which bears 
a most delicious fruit of a cooling laxative nature. The 
fruit is the most useful part for medicine, but when it can- 
not be had, the vine may be used. It is valuable in disea- 
ses of the kidneys and bladder, and a good aperient in 
suppression of urine and viscernal obstructions; also in 
jaundice, scurvy, <fec The fruit, if held in the mouth for 
some time, is said to dissolve the tartareous concretions 
on the teeth. 

TOBACCO.— {Nicotian Tobacum.) 

This plant has been in use among the Indians or natives 
""jf the American continent time immemmorial, both as a 
uxury and medicine. It possesses at least eight grand 
■ aedicinal properties. It is diuretic, emetic, cathartic, an- 
tispasmodic, sudorific, expectorant, anthelmintic, and err- 


hine. All these properties it possesses in a most powerful 
degree, yet its narcoctic effects on the system, render it a 
dangerous medicine to tamper with- I fraye followed the 
example of some of my predecessors in classing this plant 
among diuretics, as it is generally given to act upon jthe 
urinary organs, notwithstanding it possesses some other of 
the above named properties in an equally active degree. 

As a diuretic, it is not surpassed by any article in the 
compass of medicine. The urine discharged after the use 
of this plant, is entirely over the quantity of fluid taken 
into the stomach. This circumstance alone, is a conclu- 
sive proof that it acts powerfully on the urinary organs, 
and dislodges the dropsical fluid from the system: all the 
objection that can be urged against the use of this plant 
in the treatment of dropsy generally, is that of its being 
so active and powerful, as to require great caution and 
skill in administering it. I will give one remarkable cure 
of dropsy, which is recorded by different writers among 
the whites. It was performed by Dr. Cutbush, physician 
of the American Marine Hospital at Syracuse. The sub- 
ject of this cure was a young woman, who had previously 
consulted thirty-three physicians of Italy, all of whom had 
given her over as incurable. The solemn entreaties of 
her parents determined her to make a trial, and as a last 
resort, he directed/the leaves of Tobacco recently gather- 
ed, to be steeped in vinegar and applied over the abdomen. 
The first application produced sickness at the stomach, 
vomiting, swimming in the- head, copious sweating, great 
depression of muscular strength, and a loose state of the 

As soon as the above symptoms appeared, he removed 
the tobacco. This application he continued for several 
days twice a day, removing the tobacco, as soon as the a- 
bove symptoms occurred, and in twenty days his patient 
was completely cured. 

Where poisons have been taken into the stomach, which 
prevent the operation of emetics taken internally, .tobac- 
co leaves pounded and steeped in vinegar, or warm water, 
and applied over the pit of the stomach, will greatly as- 
sist the operation of the emetic taken internally. 

Antispasmodic. — In cramps, locked-jaw, spasms or colic, 
it seldom fails to give speedy relief, producing great re- 
laxations of muscular powers, and unusual prostration of 


strength. Where colic is followed by obstinate constipa- 
tion of the bowels, likely to terminate in inflammation, and 
consequent mortification, tobacco clysters may be used 
with the happiest effects, after the most powerful purges 
have been taken into the stomach, and have proved inef- 
fectual — they should be given, one or two table-spoonfuls, 
in half a pint of new milk or thin gruel, repeating the clys- 
ters every half hour until relief is obtained, or sickness at 
the stomach produced. 

As an Anthelmintic, tobacco leaves applied over the 
stomach, have often removed worms when other remedies 
failed: it has even expelled the tape worm, but it is the 
most sickening application in the world, and should only 
be used as a last resort. This article may be used as an 
emetic by applying the leaves over the stomach in cases 
where laudanum has f been : ~ swallowed for the purpose of 
destroying life. In such cases, the laudanum prevents the 
operation of emetics taken internally. As cathartic, it is 
used in clysters,, as above directed. 

Sudorific and Expectorant. — It is never employed for 
these purposes, though it always produces these effects 
when exemplified for other purposes. The leaves cured in 
the common manner, is equally good as those recently ta- 
ken from the stalk I believe. The tobacco steeped in vin- 
egar, is the best application I have ever tried to the bee, 
wasp, and other poisonous insects, giving immediate ease 
to the, pain. 

,; [Caii-no-tah.] 

The Hush is an evergreen, growing in most parts of A- 
merjca. It grows in shady places along the banks of creeks 
and in the swamps of the South, and also in the cold and 
dreary prairies of the North west. The stalks are hollow, 
commonly about the size of a goose quill, and gradually 
taper from the root to the top, terminating almost in a 
sharp point. They have something like joints, and appear 
utterly destitute of leaves: it is said by some to be desti- 
tute of flowers and seeds also; as to the seeds I am not pre- 
pared to say, but I have seen it in bloom in the month of 
April. The branch or footstalk, which support&.the bloom, 
puts forth from the joint towards the top of the .stalk. 


A decoction of the rush is a valuable diuretic, producing 
a copious and easy flow of urine, generally giving imme- 
diate relief in gravel. In the use of this article, the only 
directions for a dose is, be sure to drink enough, there be- 
ing no danger whatever in its use. It is good for dropsy, 
taken daily in large quantities. 

As a diaphoretic, it produces mild perspiration, or sweat. 
It may be gathered at any season of the year, and lay 
them where they will receive the fresh air, and they will 
keep sweet, a great while: they are better for use when 
-dry than when green. 



Of this weed there are two kinds, the great white and 
Tittle red. The big white smart weed is perfectly inoffen- 
sive in smell and taste, accompanied with no strong sensa- 
tion; but both its stem and leaves are full of a slippery, 
mucilaginous substance. A decoction of this kind is di- 
uretic, and is very useful in gravel and suppression of the 
urine, and very especially in strangury, or painful dis- 
charge of water. The decoction thickened with wheat 
bran or corn meal, forms an excellent poultice for swelled 
and inflamed parts, allaying the fever, and giving almost 
immediate relief. 

The red or small kind, is very pungently acrid, and bi- 
ting to the taste, and in appearance is about like the other, 
only a size smaller. Many persons place great confidence 
in this kind, as being a valuable remedy for discharges of 
bloody urine, but I have never tried it; it is useful in de- 
coction or teas. The only use we make of it is a wash, 
and ointment for scald-head, as is fully shown under that 


This plant is foimd growing in the woods, and on the 
borders of meadows. The stalk generally grows from 3 
to four leethigb, and is bare for some distance up; it then 
divides into several branches clothed with leaves: the 


flowers are numerous, of a whitish color, similar to buck- 
wheat, which .ire followed by the seeds, somewhat resem- 
bling a cucumber. 

The root is the part used, and is a valuable, article in 
the treatment of pox, when combined wifb. other articles: 
for further information on this subject, refer to that head. 
An infusion of the root taken in gill doses, every three or 
four hours, operates as a diuretic, by increasing the dis- 
charge of urine, and is good in dropsy ^nd uterine obstruc- 
tions. It is also diaphoretic, or sweating, and will be found 
beneficial in rheumatism, asthma and coughs, especially 
whooping cough. If the dose be sufficiently increased, it 
will produce both puking and purging. As an emetic and 
cathartic, it is very severe, but in the latter way, it produ- 
ces the happiest effects in pox when combined With other 


This valuable article is cultivated ^extensively in many 
parts of the United States, for domestic purposes; the seeds 
are the parts used. Flax-seed is diuretic and expectorant. 
As a diuretic, it is good in gravel or burning in making 
water. As an expectorant, it is a valuable drink for per- 
sons attTicted with violent colds, coughs, and diseases of 
the lungs generally. 

A syrup made by adding a pint of honey to a quart of 
strong flax seed tea, and simmering it slowly over a gen- 
tle fire, for an hour, taking off the scum as it rises, is a val- 
uable medicine for diseases of the breast and lungs, taken 
in doses of a table spoonful every hour, if the cough be 

'{Quhh-lo-guh, Taii-lo-iiee.] 

SUMACH, BLACK AND WHITE.— Improperly called 

Shumahe. — (Rhus Glambum.) 

This is a shrub weJi Ifnown in the United States. Some 
practitioners prefer the; white, others the black, — with, us 
the white, ( is generally used, though when it cannot be 
had the black lp, considered ^ alrnost equal. The root of 
sumach forms a part of ^almost every preparation used by 


us for clap, aod maybe relied on as a valublf medicine 
in this dreadful complaint. The hfanner fdf preparing 
and using it in disease, is fully shown. As a diuretic, it 
acts well on urinary organs, and is Valuable in strangury 
or painful discharges of the urine, and is also cathartic, an- 
tiseptic, tonic, and diaphoretic. 

The white shrub may be used as medicine: the leaves 
are good to smoke incase of asthrna and phthisic. A de- 
coction or infusion of the berries is a valuahle tonic in a- 
gue and fever. The bark Of the root acts on the bowels, 
as a purge, more actively than any part of the shrub. In 
cases of gleet or ulcerated bladder! A decoction of the 
root taken three times a day, a half pint at a time, is very 

The decoction forms an excellent wash for foul ulcers, 
a poultice made by thickening flour or meal in a strong 
decoction of the bark or roots, is a Valuable application to 
risings; it either suppresses them or draws them to a 
head immediately, giving great ease to the pain. An oint- 
ment made by ste Wing the inside bark of the root of black 
sumachj in fresh butter, until the .strength is extracted, is 
a most excellent application, for swelled or inflamed 


SILK WEED.— {Asctepias Syriasa.) ■, 

The Silk-Weed, sometimes called Milk- Weed; is found 
in all parts of the country, growing mostly in rich grounds, 
the stem rises from two to four feet high, and bears a 
Large pod, containing, when ripe, a silk like substance. 

The root of the Silk- Weed acts powerfully on the uri- 
nary organs when taken in decoction, and is valuable in 
venereal or clap. It acts well as a sweat, when combined 
with other articles, as is fully shown 7 in the treatment of 
the different diseases. The root taken in large doses is e- 
metic and cathartic; it is also tonic and is not surpassed 
by any root in my knowledge for a laxative bitter tonic. 
Persons afflicted with gravel or dropsy, will derive great 
benefit from its use ; it has of itself without the aid of oth 
her remedies cured many cases of both dropsy and gravel. 
When gathered it should be kept carefully or it will Idpse 
its virtues. 



WtflTOELDER, SWEET-ELDER.— (Sambicus Nigezf) 

The common Elder grows so plentifully and is so well 
known in this country, .. that any description whatever 
would be useless. The bark, flowers and berries all pos- 
sesses medicinal yirtues$ they are diuretic or increases 
the discharge of urine, cathartic or purgative, emetic or 
puking. A tea or decoction of the inner bark has reliev- 
ed obstinate cases of dropsy after other remedies. had fail- 
ed. The whites use this bark in tincture, made by diges- 
ting two handsfufeof the inner bark of the common Elder 
in a half gallon <Qf *wine twenty four hours. Dose^ one gill 
.twice a day, and increase the quantity if the stomach will 
bear it> until relief is obtained. We have never tried 
this tincture, but can bear ample testimony of the effica- 
cy of the Elder bark in decoction. Digested in wine, it 
will be more palatable and grateful to the taste, and 1 
presume equally as good as <a diuretic or increaser of the 
urine. , 

A decoction of the flowers, is a mild, sweating, purga- 
tive anodyne, very useful for light sickness among chil- 
dren. Anointment or salve, made by stewing the inside 
bark in lard or fresh butter, is a valuable application to 
burns and most eruptions of the skin— it may be render- 
ed better for burns by adding to it while stewing an equal 
portion of the the root of bears-foct. ; 

PUMPKIN.— {Cucurbit* Pepo.) 

A decoction of the common Pnmpkin-seeds is diuretic, 
or increases the quantity of urine, and is very good in grav- 
el, drops\ T and diseases which- require medicines of this 
class. The oil of the Pumpkin-seeds is said to be much 
better than the decoction. I a$n not prepared to say from 
personal knowledge which is the best, but I copy the fol- 
lowing from Dr. Smith, who professes to be well acquain- 
ted with its virtues as a medicine, "it is perhaps without 
exception, the most certain and most efficient diuretic we 
possess," giving immedite relief for the scalding of the u- 
rine and spasms of the urinary passage.^ Dose of the oil 
is from six to twelve drops, repeated as often as the vio- 
lence of the symptoms requireiit. 


QUEEN OF THE MEADOW.— (Spered Llmaria.) 

This plant is found growing mostly in wettish ground, 
though sometimes on high, dry land. It has a long fi- 
brous root, which remains in the ground all winter, it is 
of a white or brownish color. In the spring several stems 
grow out from the same root from three to six feet high, 
they are round, smooth, jointed — of a purple color around 
each joint, bearing many pale reddish blossoms on the top 
in clusters. Its leaves grow out around the stalk at the 
joints in whorls, from three to five hi a whorl, they are 
large and indented or jagged. 

The root of this plant is the part -used, and is a most 
powerful diuretic, useful in all dieases of the urinary or- 
gans, dropsy, gout, rheumatism and female obstructions. 
It is used in a strong decoction, and "when taken freely is 
an almost certain remedy for gravelly complaints, as it 
seldom fails to carry off the calculus or stone with the u- 
rirte in a dissolved state. 

PARSELY.— (Ajrium Peitosdimn.) / 

This well known plant is cultivated in most of our gar- 
dens for culinary purposes, and therefore needs no descrip- 
tion. The top and root are both used in form of a decoc- 
tion: it is diuretic.; the root is seme the best. It is good in 
ir.fiamaticn of the kidneys and bladder, in all ordinary ca- 
ses of sup/pressed urine. A constant drink of this decoc- 
tion has cured obstinate cases of dropsy at an advanced 
stage. It is one of the best teas in the world for infants 
;■ filleted with suppression orpainitil discharges of vrinc. 
It is also very good tor female obstructions, and for lying 
in women, whose discharges are too scant. 


C A T-T O N G U E. 

This plant has a clear smooth root, with but few fibres 
running horrizontal in the ground; about the size of a goose- 
quill, it is white, or of a clear watery transparent appear- 
ance, the root is not killed by the frosts of winter. Gener- 
ally but one stem rises from each root, it is small, round, 
erect, covered With hair or down, and grows from one to 
two feet high. The leaves grow out opposite, alternate, 


spear shaped, and like the. stalk are covered witE a down 
or hair — blossoms are white. The root is the part Tased, 
the best mode of* taking it is in strong decoction. . It is diu- 
retic, or valuable in. producing an easy and copious 
discharge of urine. In diseases of the kidneys ^nd blad- 
der, suppressed urine and gravelly complaints generally; 
it seldom fails in giving speedy relief, . It is also good in 


TWIN LEAF.— (Jefcrsonia Odorata.) 

Twin-Leaf has a small root, full of fibers, the root is pe- 
rennial, that is, it is not killed by the frosts of winter. It 
has many leaves, whleh grow out on long foot-stalks, divi- 
ded into two equal parts, which circumstance has given 
it the name of Twin-Leaf The flower stalk produces a 
single flower, which is white. . The most common mode 
of using this plant is in tew, or decoction, but it may be em- 
ployed in tincture or. syrup if preferred. It is good for 
dropsy, suppression of urine, and gravelly complaints gen- 
erally. It is an excellent external application, to sores, 
ulcers and inflamed parts. 

WILD POTATOE.— {Convolvulus Panduratus.) 

The Wild Potatoe has a large root, sometimes more 
than three inches in. diameter and two or three feet long, 
branched at the bottom* of a rough appearance, having 
grooves running lengthwise. The root is of a yellow col- 
or, coniaining a milk like juice; it is perennial, that is the 
root remains in the ground all winter, and is not killed by 
the, frost. Its stem is a climbing vine, running from three 
to twelve feet long, of a purplish color. Its leaves gro\r 
out alternate, and are somewhat fidddle-shaped, of a deep 
green on the upper and pale on the under sid 3. The flow- 
ers resemble the morning-glory and are of a white or pur- 
plish color. This vine is mostly found in poor, loose, san- 
dy soils, in open grounds. 

The root, is the part used, and may be taken in decoc- 
tion or powder, : . As a diuretic, it is usefui in dropsy, grav- 
el .and suppression of urine. It is a mild cathartic or lax- 


ative, and expectorant, and is valuable in coughs, asthfos. 
or phthisic and consumption. 



The root of this plant is small, dark, and fibrous, and 
has an uncommon pungent, biting taste, and on being 
chewed produces a great flow of spittle. The stem grows 
from one to three feet high, leaves small, rough, pointed, 
rather oval. Its flower is about the size of a thumb, of a 
purple color and bears some resemblance to the sunflower, 
only it is more bulbous or round on the face than the sun- 

The root is the part used,"^and taken in decoction, tinc- 
ture, or even the root chewed persevteringly, is a specific 
lor veneral or clap in its worst forms. 


This plant is generally found growing in low grounds,. 
it grows from 4 to six feet high, and often climbs on bush- 
es near it. The upper part is white, armed with sharp 
spines or prickles. The flowers are small, succeeded by 
a fruit rather large, composed of two berries, slightly ad- 
hering together and covered with 'prickles. 

The leaves are the part used, in decoction it is a most 
valuable remedy for suppressions of the urine and for ait 
gravelly complaints. It is astringent and may be trSeel 
for spitting of blood with the happiest effect, it is also 
good for epilepsy or fits. Dosle, a half pint every hdur 
until relief is obtained. 



This plant is found in great abundance in all parts of 
the United States with which I am acquainted. I do not 
know that it has any name by which the whites would 
know it. The Indians, when asked by the whites for a 
name, call it Highland Big-Leaf, but say they never saw 
it used by the whites for medicine. It has a large rough t 
woody root, which when broken, appears of a dirtv pur- 


plish or Wack color, it is very hard to dig; the root is pe- 
rennial. The leaves are from tfiree to five in number and 
$>ut out from the rooty supported on long foot-stalks, the 
stem or foot-stalk is generally of a purplish color. The 
leaf is biroad at the base terminating hi a point^-the edg- 
es are indented with unequal scallops, the foot?-stalks and 
leaves, particularly the under.side of the leavef \are cover- 
ed with a kind of hair or down. During the; summer it 
sends up^a round naked flower-stalk, from two to four feet 
high, which is crowned with numerous flowers, of a yel- 
low color, succeeded by seed vessels not very disssmilar to 
those of the common tobacco stalk. It is mostly found on. 
poor rockylands and dry hill sides. .; 

The root is the part used: it forms an ingredient in the 
antibillious pills, and is diuretic and cathartic. It is a 
valuable remedy for|venereal or clap, as may be seen under 
that head. A decoction of it is good for gravel and dis- 
eases of the urinary organs generally. 


This is a large, lengthy vine, turning itself to whatever 
is in its reach. It is a garden plant, and is too well known 
to require a further description. A strong infusion or tea 
of the hop is one of 'the most valuable remedies we have 
for gravel, and inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, it 
is narcotic or anodyne, thai is it alleviates pain and pro- 
duces sleep. It is good in rheumatism, and breast com- 
plaints, it gives tone*' and strength to the stomach, and in- 
vigorates the system generally. It is also valuable in fe- 
male complaints, especially where the womb is debilita- 
ted, and for such females as are afflicted with the falling 
of the womb. -It may be used in decoction or in spirits as 
the patient may prefer. 


This plant grows in all parts of the United States with 
which I am acquainted. w It grows on uplands and bottoms 
where the soil is good, mostly in fence corners. The root 
is hard to dig, lias many, roots issuing from one head, they 
are smooth, aaji inclined to be spindle shaped, with butfevv 
small fibres; %n being exposed to the sun they turn of a 


red color, and when dry, are wrinkled and dark. The 
bark of the root contains a kind of rosin or sticky sub- 
stance, which in taste is something like pine rosin. The 
stem is erect growing from four to eight feet high, much 
branched towards the top, bearing numerous yellow blos- 
soms. The stalk is round but has four and sometimes five 
welts, or feather like edges dividing it into so many equal 
parts, which gives it the appearance of a four or five square. 
I have never heard any name for it among the whites 
though it is growing in great abundance on many of their 
farms; they have never used it as a medicine, so far as I 
have been able to learn, unless it is the same weed that 
Turk recommends so highly for gravel, in a pamphlet pub- 
lished by him in 1S43> he describes it as "having the ap- 
pearance of a four square." The circumstanc of its having 
sometimes five welts or feather edges might havebeenover 
looked by him, as every other particular mentioned by him 
is applicable to the Oo-na-stah-luh cah-tsee-le-skee. 

The root is the part used, and is one of the most power- 
ful diuretics with which I am acquainted, it is an excel- 
lent remedy in gravel, and in all diseases of the kidney 
and bladder. It is also valuable for female weakness, such 
as flooding after or before child birth, in this case give it 
in tea or decoction until relief is obtained. This root 
should be kept at hand by every midwife, and by every 
physician who attends £s a midwife, it is the most efficient 
remedy known to the Cberokees for floodings, and in their 
Hands has never failed to give relief. For gravel or dis- 
eases of the urinary organs where there is not too much 
excitement, it may be taken in spirits as bitters, in this 
way it makes quite a pleasant drink. The quantity taken 
for gravel is not limited, only be sure to take enough. In 
female diseases, the quantity must be regulated by the ef- 
fects produced. 


This is a well known shrub or bushin the southern states, 
it grows from twelve to fifteen feet high, its branches are 
numerous, upright and stiff, covered with a smooth whitish 
bark. Its leaves are evergreen, small and saw edged, 
flowers small, white, growing out irregular among the 
leaves, and are succeeded by small red bierries, which, b#- 


Come red in the fall and remain so all the winter. The 
leaves of the Yaupon makes a pleasant tea, and when 
freely used, produces a copious and easy flow of urine and 
is a most valuable article in the cure of dropsy and gravel- 
ly complaints. The leaves toasted and made into decoc- 
tion is a most valuable and pleasant drink. The Yaupon 
tea -is as grateful to the taste as the Bohea tea, if not more 
so, and may be cured and preserved for use a great while, 
and is quite a convenient article of transportation. 

BURDOCK.— (Arctium Lappa.) 

This plant grows around rich yards, horselots, barns, 
and in other rich places, and is well known. The roots 
or seeds may be used. In decoction, it is a mild cathartic 
or purge; produces sweat, and a copious flow of urine; It 
is valuable to cleans the blood, and is admirably adapted 
to old venereal diseases, mercurial complaints, rheumatism, 
gravel, scurvy. &c. The root infused in spirits forms a 
valuable bitter for weakly females. 



This is a common, plant throughout the Union, but is 
most abundant in the eastern and middle states, growing 
in sandy plains, and where pine timber abounds. Its root 
is woody, creeping, sending up stems at different distan- 
ces. Its leaves are long narrow, wedged shaped, of a dark 
green color, variegated with light or whitish stripes, sur- 
face smooth and shining, with notched or indented edges. 
The flowers, are white or of a light purple color, growing: 
on the top of the stem, and are succeeded by brown seeds 
resembling allspice, it is an evergreen, The top and root 
are bor.a used medicinally.. In decoction or bitters it is di- 
uretic, and will be found an excellent remedy for dropsy, 
and diseases of the urinary organs. A decoction of this 
plant is good for rheiar atism scrofula, cancers, ulcers, &c. 
«^--it should be taken internally; in doses of half a gill, seve- 
i^altimesaday, and externally for bathing or washing the 
affected parts. Stewed in.hog's larct it is said to cure tet-. 
ter and ring- worm. ""'•*' ' ' 



This is a low, evergreen shrub, which grows and" spreads 
itself near the surface of the ground;, its branches are pen- 
sile or hanging; bark is of a reddish, or pink color, and is 
thickly set with oblong, oval, and entire fleshy leaves. . The 
flower is oval shaped, broader near the base than the 
mouth, the edge of the flower is scolloped into five divisions, 
small, blunt and curled points. It produces fruit every 
two years; it is a roundish, red colored berry, similar in 
appearance to the small wild cherry, it contains five seeds 
and no more, they are hard, and with plain sides. "This 
plant bears a strong resemblance to the bilberry or red- 
myrtle, and good botanists often mistake the red-myrtle for 
the uva ursi. The only difference which can be depended 
upon, is this: the uva ursi has ten stamina or uprights, and 
the berries contain only five seeds. each, while the bilberry 
-or red myrtle has but eight stamina in the flower, and 
sometimes twenty seeds in the berry. Uva ursi is to be 
met with in the coldest countries and on the highest moun- 
tains, and elsewhere. The leaves and bark have a bitter 
astringent taste, and by those who have tried them are con- 
sidered one of the best remedies now known for all disea- 
ses of the urinary organs, whether of the kidnies, ureters 
or bladder; many wonderful cures are on record, that have 
been performed by this wonderful plant. It is also good 
fcr dropsy— dose, a tea-spoonful of the powdered leaves in 
hot water, three or four times a day,, or a decoction of the 
fresh leaves may be taken in teacupful doses several times 
a day. This article can always be had genuine in the 
shops, in this and most other countries where it is not to be 
found in the"' woods. 


This valuable herb grows in rich! mountains at the head 
of small streams — it'growsfrbm three to five feet high, the 
blades or leaves resemble the blades of corn; the roots ma- 
ny, small, of a dark, brown color. 

The root is fhe part used' for medical purposes. It is 
diuretic, and is an infallible remedy for dropsy. It also 
possesses the extraordinary property of reducing very 


fleshy persons down to their ordinary size, without impair- 
ing the health or effecting it in any way. The mode of 
using it, is the bruised root in cold water; it should be used 
daily, until the desired effect is produced: As it has no dis- 
agreeable sensation whatever, it will generally reduce the 
flesh sufficiently in the course of six months. The quan- 
tity taken each day is not at all material, but it should not. 
fall short of a pint a day. The herb growsin great abun- 
dance on the Coahutta Mountain. 



-This plant has a whitish fibrous root, stem «rect, grow- 
ing from five to eight inches high, and very much resem- 
bles young' flax, and bears a purplish or whitish blossom 
on the top, found growing in pine and hickory soil. The 
whole plant may be usedforrnedicine. 

It? is diuretic and diaphoretic, the decoction taken inter- 
nally and the bruised herb applied externally, will cure 
the bite of the copper-head or lattle-snake; it is also good 
for venereal, conbined wilh highland big-leaf it seldom fails 
to cure that disgraceful disease. It may be taken in pow- 
ders or decoction. 



Rattle-Snakes master is found growing in considerable 
abundance in many parts of the United Stales. It has a 
perennial root nearly bulbous, about an inch in length. 
the lower end decayed giving off many fibres. Its leaves 
or blades put forth from the root, they are smooth fleshy,, 
generally from five to eight inches in length, of a beautiful 
green color. The whole plant contains a kind of mucil- 
lage. The mucillage in the leaves w r ill rope a considera- 
ble distance when the leaf is broken crossways. This 
herb is a most powerful stimulant a diaphoretic, it is* alio 
antiseptic. It is one of the most powerful and certain 
rem&diesKfor snake bite now Known. 



This herb is found mostly in cultivated lands, but some-, 
times in the woods. The main root is roundish, from 1 inch 
to an inch and a quarter in diameter, many small or fibrous 
roots issue from the main caudex or head, the whole root 
is of a brownish color — stem rises from two to four feet 
high, hairy and erect. Its leaves are large and pointed; 
flowers are yellow, with a. round black middle — when the 
leaves of the flower fall- off they leave a black burr. 

the root is the part used for medicine. It is diuretic, 
antisceptic and diaphoretic. Useful in dropsy, gravel and 
the like. This root seems peculiarlyadapted to that dis- 
graceful disease the pox, as may be seen in .the treatment 
of that disease. 



Expectorants area class of medicines, used to promote 
the discharge of mucus or any other irritating matter from 
the lungs, and are useful in consumption, asthma, coughs, 
and in all cases where the excretions are not sufficiently 
active to throw off their contents. 

ELECAMPANE.— {Inula Helcnium.) 

This plant is found mostly along road sides, and about 
houses, it is also culvitated in some gardens;.lts leaves- are 
large, flowers large anclyellow, appearing in J uly and Au- 

The root is the part employed medicinally, and when 
dry has an aromatic smell, and a bitterish aromatic taste, 
and not very unpleasant. It is a valuable stimulating 
expectorant, and is an excel lent remedy in disorders of 
the lungs, as, coughs, asthmas and, consumptions. It pro- 
motes an increased flow of urine, acts gently on the bow- 
els as an aperient. It is a strengthening restorative medi- 
cine, and a gentle diaphoretic. The root finely pulverized 
swid mixed with honey is the best mode of using it— dose., 


a tea-spoonful morning c and night; or it may be taken 
in syrup as follows: Boil a half ponnd of the root in a 
gallon of water, dowfi to half that quantity, strain or fil- 
ter that decoction, add a pint of honey or molasses — dose 
a table-spoonful taken' morning, noon and night. It is al- 
so valuable for female obstructions, where the general 
health is impaired, and for pregnant women of weak hab- 
its, such as are afflicted with weak bowels and womb. It 
forms an ingredient in the chalybeate pill. 

. . [Red-lah-no-ta-iiah.] 

RED PUCCOON.-— (Sang'iiinaria Canadensis.) 

Sometimes called Indian plant, blood root, &c. This 
plant is a native of North America, from Canada to the 
Gulf of Mexico, aud perhaps of no other portion of the 
globe. The root is perennial; it has a fleshy root, of a red- 
dish brown outside, but on being broken, or cut, it emits a 
bright red juice, resembling blood, hence the name blood 
root; it is about the size of the little ringer, very tender, and 
the lower end of the root has the appearance of being cut 
off or broken; in taking it from the ground. The leaves 
grow out from the root, and are supported on long foot 
stalks, heart-shaped, oi a pale liglifc green, streaked witli 
veins of an orange color; it produces a single white flow- 
er, succeeded by numerous seeds, which are round and 
pointed. The leaves and seeds of the Puccoon plant, are 
poisonous, and must never be used. The root appears to 
contain all its medieval qualities, and in many respects is 
closely allied in its effects on the human system, to the sen- 
eka snake root. A decoction of the root taken in small 
doses, acts as an expectorant, and is valuable in coughs 
and inflammation of the lungs: this decoction given in ta- 
ble spoonful doses every fifteen minutes, until it produces 
puking, is a most excellent remedy in croup, or the pow- 
dered root, may be administered in broken doses, until the 
desired effect is produced. This in powder from twenty 
to thirty grains, is an active emetic for grown persons. 
It is diaphoretic, that is, a valuable sweating medicine, 
when given in broken doses. The dried root in spirits, 
mafcs a good strengthening, or tonic bitter, and is much 
usetl in our practice; in this way when combined with 
othfer articles, such aS rattle root, star root, &c; in all ca- 


ses of obstructed menses; where the general health is-im- ... 
paired, and tonics or strengthening medicines are required. 
It is good in colds, pleurisies, rheumatism, liver com- 
plaints and other inflammatory disorders. ,, The decoction 
is a good wash fpr indolent ulcers, and the dried powder- 
ed root sprinkled .on ill conditioned sores, seldom fails to 
produce a healthy discharge, and a disposition to heal. — 
The root sliced and steeped in vinegar, eight or ten days, 
is a certain cure, for tetter worm. It is said that the pul- 
verized root, snuffed up the nose, will remove polypus, a 
ileshy or gristly substance, which grows in the nostril, 
gradually increasing in size until breathing becomes dif- 
ricult, and. Soinetim^g unless removed, jends in suffocation. 
The best time for gathering the root for medicine, is when 
the seeds are ripe, which is inVMay or June. 

LIQUORICE.— {Giycyrrhiza GfabraJ. 

This plant is a native of both Europe and America, and 
is said to grow spontaneously in the northwestern part .of 
the United ^tates. The root is the part for medicinal use; 
they are long and large, of a tough or "woody nature, and 
have a little the appearance of spikenard roots; they are^of 
a brownish yellow color, and when chewed, they yield,, a 
s<ort of waxy substance, of a pleasant sweetish, and .at 
last, a slight bitter taste. Both the root and extract is use- 
ful in coughs, asthma and hoarseness, as, it loosens the 
phlegm, and. promotes expectoration. 

The extract is made by steeping the root in water, or 
by boiling it it until the strength is extracted, then strain 
the decoction and reduce it to the proper .consistence by 
boiling or simmering it over a slow fire. 



This plant is found growing in rich bottom^ and along- 
the borders of meadows. It has a fibrous, perennial root, 
of a pale or whitish color, stem rises from four to six inch- 
es high, is decumbent, or bending, the leaves grow out on 
the sides of the stem, and when the stem is straightened 
or made stand erect, the leaves stand edgeways in the same 
manner as the tansy leaf; they are smooth, of a deep 


green eolor, : somewhat pointed; at the extremity of the 
stem there are three leaves, the next two grow out oppo- 
site, anil the remainder alternate. The whole plant and 
root is used, and in decoction is an infallible remedy for 

O N.I ON S. 

The Onion is extensively cultivate^ in the gardens of 
this country, as an esculent root. The: onion is , expecto- 
rant and diuretic^ is valuable both as an internal and ex- 
ternal remedy. The onion juice prepared by.'putting a 
small quantity of brimstone in the middle, or heart of the 
onion, then wrap, in leaves or wet cloths and roast it per- 
fectly, then press out the juice; this is excellent for hives 
and croup among children. The onion bruised and mix- 
ed with or stewed in lard, is one of the best external ap- 
plications in the world for croup, colds, sore throat, phth- 
isic, &c. The throat should be a-nnointed and well rubbed 
with it "in the. above cases ? When taken in any reasona- 
ble time, the juice taken internally, and the bruised onions 
mixed with or stewed in lard, applied externally^ rarely 
tails in giving relief even in very obstinate cases, and this 
mode' of treatment has proved successful where other rem- 
edies prescribed by physicians of his:h standing, appeared 
to have but little effect. Persons afflicted with liver com- 
plaint, will derive much benefit from the' daily use of this 
root as food. It is said that a gill pf the red onion juice 
taken morning and evening, a hal^hour after taking each 
dose drink a pint of b.orsemint tea, .will entirely cure grav- 
el and dropsy. The onion poultice applied to the feet in 
nervous fever, and acute diseases, is an excellent applica- 
tion to produce a revulsion from, the head; it is also- a 
good application to the throat and breast,, in colds, where 
the throat arid breast is much affected. 


This is a thin skin or shell, which grows on.the bark of 
the white-oak tree, and is thought to bear some resem- 
blance to the. .lungs, frorri which it has talien the name of 

A strong decoction of this article made into a syrrnp 
with honjey, taken in gill doses, several times a dav, is? 


good for whooping-cough. It is' also valuable in consump- 
tion and other diseases attended with a cough., 


This is a well known plant, the leaves are remarkably 
bitter and unpleasant to the taste. A syrrup made by ad- 
ding to "a quart of the decoction, a pint of honey, and sim- 
mering it over a slow fire'ohe hour, is good for hoarseness, 
colds, coughs, and breast -complaints. 

HYSSOP.— {Hyssopus.) 

This is a well known garden herb, and a tea of it is 
good in fevers and in most inflammatory cases for sweat- 
ing; it is also good to bring on a regular flow of the men- 
ses. A syrup made of the strong decoction of expressed 
juice, mixed with honey, is "a most pleasant and valuable 
expectorant, useful in all cases where expectorants are 
needed, as in colds, coughs, asthma, and other diseases of 
the breast and lungs, accompanied with inflammatory 
symptoms. In tea or decoction, it is a mild and pleasant 


The common Tar which is obtained from the rich pine 
roots or knots of the common pine tree of this country, is 
one of the most valuable expectorants in the world. The 
water of tar, is a valuable drink for persons afflicted with 
consumption or breast complaints. Tar is a principle in- 
gredient for consumption, as may be seen in the treat- 
ment of that disease. The tar plaster is a valuable ex- 
ternal application to scald-head, tetter- worm, stone-bruise 
and full or ill-conditioned sores or ulcers, also for inflamed 


This weed grows mostly on stony, shady bluffs, to the 
height of from six to ten inches, stem slender, smooth, e- 
rect, of a dark black or purple color; the leaves grow in 
the same manner of those of the highland Fern, they are 
fine, soft, and of a pale green or yellowish color. 


An infusion of this plant, made by pouring a quart of 
boiling water on the dry herb, sweeteried with honey, is 
valuable for coughs and diseases of the breast generally; 
also for acrid humors, and irregularities of the menses.— 
Persons afflicted with the liver complaint will derive great 
benefit from its daily use. It may be prepared as above 
directed, and taken in tea- cupful, doses several times a 
day, or combined with other articles. 


This little plant is so well known as "to render a des- 
cription unnecessary. It is expectorant and diaphoretic, 
it also acts on the liver. Persons laboring under a diseas- 
ed liver will derive a great advantage from its use. The 
proper mode of using it is a tea of the leaves. 



This herb is found mostly in stubble lands. The root is 

about the thickness of a goose-quill or some thicker. 

There are two kinds, white and black, they cannot be dis- 
tinguished by the top, but by the root alone, they both pos- 
sess the same medical proprieties. Its stem rises from 
two to four feti high, leaves small, of a beautiful green 
color, flowers white. 

The root is the part used. In tea, decoction, or powders 
it is a good expectorant, it is also cathartic when taken in 
large doses; but it cannot be recommended for a purge 
being too severe and drastic. It forms an ingredient in 
the aiiti-billious pills". 

CIi&§§ No. IX. 

Antispasmodics are a class of medicines employed to 


prevent or relive spasms of every kind. Nervines acton 
the same principle, though in a less powerful degree. 

FIT-ROOT, ICE-PLANT.— {Monhiropa Uiufiora) 

This plant grows in the woods of the western country, 
generally to the height of six or seven inches. It is a most 
singular plant in^ts appearance, several stalks spring up 
from the same root and turn white in September; the 
stalk is like frozen jelly, and when held in the hand dissol- 
ves like ice. 

The root is the part used; pulverized and given to chil- 
dren it has proved beneficial in curing fits. Either used 
alone or combined with antispasmodics it is useful in epi- 
lepsy and convulsions. Dose, half a tea-spoonful of the 
pulverized root every half hour until relief is obtained. — 
The expressed juice mingled with water, is a good wash 
for sores eyes. 


GINSENG. — {Panax Quinquefolium.) 

The root is called by the people general!}-, San or Gin- 
sang, though improperly. It is found in great plenty a- 
inong the hills and mountains of Tennessee, mostly on the 
r.crthside of rich shady hills and ridges. A few years 
since the root of this plant was exported to China, where it 
was sold for four times its weight in pure silver, and in 
: "734, the price at Pekin, is said to have been eight or 
nine times its weight in pure silver. The chinese attrib- 
uted great virtues to this root — thev considered it as a 
sovereign remedy in all diseases incidental to their cli- 
mate and country, and had no confidence in any medicine 
that was not combined with it; thousands of lives were 
lost among the poor (as they superstitiously believed) for 
the want of it. The stalk is smooth, growing from twelve 
to eighteen inches high, divided at the top into three bran- 
! lies, each branch bearing five leaves. Its leaves are ob- 
long, broadest towards the outer end and indented on the 
edge; its flowers are small and white, succeeded by a large 
red berry, root spindled-shaped, of a yellowish color. It 
is also good for weakly females and for weakness of t&e- 
womb, and nervous affections, convulsions, patsy, vesti- 



go and dysentery. In these last named cases it may be 
taken in spirits if preferred. 


MOCCASIN ¥hOWm.~{Cyiripediam Luteum ) 
The whites have a great many names for this plant' 
such as Valerian, Lady-Slipper, Urobil,&c. It is said to 
grow in every State in the Union, and in all kinds of soil. 
Several varieties of this plant are found, some smooth and 
some rough or hairy. From one to four or five stems put 
up from the same root, and grow from one to two and a 
half feet high, bearing each from, three to seven leaves 
which grow out alternate, sheathing the stem. The leaves 
have many nerves or fibres running through them, giV 
ing them a rough uneven appearance. The flower* in 
shape resembles a moccasia. The root is of a pale yel- 
low or brownish color,.having a large cluster of l'on°- round" 
crooked fibres growing in a mat. 

The roots are the only part oftMs plant used as med- 
icine, and should be gathered in the fall, when the top be- 
gins to die, or iin the spring,, when it first puts, up. It is a 
most excellent nervine and antispasmodic, useful in all 
cases of nervous irritation, spasms, fits hysterical affec- 
tions, &c. It acts admirably well as an anodyne in reliev- 
ing pains, quieting the nerves, &c. Its effects on the hu- 
man system, in quieting the nerves, and relieving spasms 
are superior to those produced by opium while it does not ' 
produce any of the narcoctic or stupiffing effects of that 
drug. Dose a table-spoonful of the pulverized root, repeated 
as often as the case requires it— it may be combined 
with other medicines, and all act equally well in allaying 
and keeping down nervous irritation, or when used alone • 
this is one great advantage, for its treating disease, it is 
often necessary to givesuch medicines as produce nervous 
irritation, which difficulty may easily be overcome by 
combining with such medicines a portion of the Moc'asin 
tiower root. When gathered, it should be well washed 
and dried, then pulverized, and kept in well corked bot- 
tles, or it will loose part of its virtues. 

CHAMOMILE— (ibtf&emw Nobiles.) 
The Chamomile is cultivedin tke gardens of this eoun- 


trv for family medi foe, and is too well known to require 
r- description. Its fi, wers have a strong, aromatic smell, 
'though not unpleasant; they have a veft fitter nauseous 

^strono- decoction or tea made of tbe Sower or herb is 
o-ood in female obstructions, hysterical affections colics, 
vomiting bowel complaints attended with much pain, 
and nervous irritation; it is also a good stomachic or tome 
bitter. It is excellent in poultices tor obstinate and foul 
ulcers, hard swellings, &c. 


BLUE-BERRY— (Caulophytlvm Thalictroides.) 

This plant has many names among the whites, such as 
blue-cohash, pappoose roots, &c. Its stem is upright 
Straight smooth and divided at the top in two or three 
branches; each bears three leaves, in the centre of which 
erow out its flowers, (their color not remembered,) they 
are succeded by dark blue-berries, which enclose a hard 
Mfbne or «eed. The root is yellow inside, brown outside, 
hard and irregular, having many small fibres 

The root is the part used, and is perfectly safe, and harm- 
less in its effects on the system, it may be employed in de- 
coction, tincture or syrup, and is valuable in every ^ spe- 
cies of fits hysterics, collies and nervous irritaratum gen- 
erally It'is'a most excellent medicine for females in 
promoting child-birth, and allaying inflamation, and in 
preventing mortification of the womb. Pregnant women 
should use ? this root for two or three weeks previous tc 
the expected time of child-birth, by this means that pamfu. 
event will be rendered comparatively easy and sale. 

CATNIP— {Nepeta Caiaria.) 
Catnip is a well known herb, and needs no description 
A tea or decoction of this plant is good for fema e obstrue 
tions, hysterics, Worms, spasms, colics and the like, it* 
a valuable external application in poultice to swel hngM- 
The bruised leaves steeped in vinegar, applied ext email, 
is -ood to ally inflammation, reduce painful swellings, &c. 
A syrup made by adding a pint of honey to a strong de- 
coction of catnip is good for coughs and colds which affec 
the lungs. 



The article commonly known in this country by the 
name of asafaetida is the resinous gum obtained from the 
roots of a plant, that is a native of, and grows spontane- 
ously in the mountains, of Persia, and is technically, called 
Ferula Asafcetida. Il has a strong, unpleasant smell, and 
a bitter, acrid, biting taste. That is reckoned the best 
which is of a clear or pale reddish color, variegated with 
a number of white pustules, like tears. Its action on the 
system is both quick and powerful, generally affecting 
speedy relief in spasms, cramps, flatulence- aud Hysterical 
affections. In all spasmodic affections whichi are pro- 
duced by a torpid or inactive state of the bowels it is a, 
most excellent remedy. It sometimes relieves whooping- 
cough and asthma, its action, on the system is similar to 
that of garlic, though much more active and powerful. It 
is stimulant and expectorant., and in some instances an- 
swers well as. a worm medicine. Such as are troubled 
with frequent attacks of colic, may rid themselves of the 
return of this painful complaint by making daily use of 
this article in spirits,.taken one or two drams a day, as bit- 
ters. Sucking infants whose mothers make a free use of 
this bitter, are agt to grow much faster and enjoy much 
better health, than the children whose mothers use no such 
bitters; such children are seldom troubled with colic or 
pains in the stomach, they have little or no use for lauda- 
num, Bateman*s drops, paregoric, and such like prepara- 
tions, it may be given to children by dissolving it in water. 

It may be administered to grown persons in tincture, in 
pills, or dissolved in water; if taken in. pills, one pill of the 
common size should be taken at a time, and repeated as of- 
ten as circumstances require it;. if the tincture is to be used, 
from a half to a whole tea-spoonful is the proper quantity, 
to be repeated at intervals of a half hour until relief is ob- 

A sufficient quantity of this article put in whiskey to 
s»ake it a proper strength for bitters is one of the best 
family bitters it the world.. 




Antiseptics are a class of medicines that are used to pre- 
sent mortification from taking place, or remove it after it 
has taken place. The articles ot this class, furnished by 
the vegetable kingdom, are both numerous and valuable, 
and are far more active and efficient, than. any thing yet 
known in the mineral kingdom. It would be a very strange 
sight indeed, to see the red man of the forest, maimed with 
the loss of a limb to prevent mortification. Their knowl- 
edge of the active antiseptic properties of the herbs, roots, 
and plants of the forest, render such painful operations un- 
necessary. They have but to resort to the woods, gather, 
apply and be healed. 

SLIPPERY ELM.— {L'lmus Albus.) 

The white or slippery-elm is a well known tree of the 
American forest, and America produces no tree superior 
to it for medical purposes. 

The inside bark is the part used. As a poultice nothing 
is superior, particularly to old sores, burns, and wounds. 
either fresh wounds or such as have become inflamed. — 
The application of the elm poultice to fresh wounds or 
burns will, in almost all cases, be followed by a discharge 
of matter. When there is any appearance of mortifica- 
tion, the bark should be pounded, and boiled in water and 
made into a poultice, and applied cool. Taken internally 
it is cooling, and soothing to the stomach and bowels. It 
is an aperient or mild laxative, and may be used to great 
advantage by pregnant women that are troubled with 
heart-burn; in dysentery and chronic bowel complaints,, 
there is nothing better than the slippery-elm jelly, made - 
by pouring hot water on the inside bark. Wher 3 there are 
symptoms of inflammation in the stomach or bowels, this 
jelly should be used freely as injections and by the mouth, 
this mucilage or jelly is very nutritive, and will answer 
admirably as nourishment for those who have been borught 
very low by acute disorders. It is good for dyspepsy or in- 


digestion, quinsies, colds, catarrhs, coughs, consumptions. 
It is a certain and astonishing remedy in all bowel and 
breast complaints, and may be freely administered to 
(children with the happiest effects. 


The Lynn is a native of America, and is found in almost 
every part, growing mostly in rich bottoms. Its wood i» 
very soft, white and juicy. The inside bark and twiggs are 
the parts used: they afford <a rich, well-tasted jelly, but 
little, if any, inferior to the slippery-elm bark. It is a moit 
excellent article for pregnant women that are troubled 
with heart-burn, weak stomach and bowels. The jelly 
made by boiling the inside bark or twiggs, is good for 
coughs, consumptions, and in fact all cases where the elm 
is recommended, both for external and internal use. When 
the stomach has been over heated by the too free use of 
spirituous liquors, it is a most excellent remedy. 


(Rumex Acetosella.) 

This is a well known plant, growing in the woods and 
shady places, in every part of the country; its leaves and 
blossoms have a very pleasant, though extremely sour or 
acid taste. 

The leaves and blossoms bruised and applied to old foul 
sores, have affected some wonderful cures, after many oth- 
er applications had been tried to little or no purpose; it is 
very active and powerful in allaying inflammation, and 
producing a healthy discharge from the sore or wound, it is 
an excellent antiseptic and may be advantageously em- 
ployed in all cases where articles of this class are needed. 


GREEN PLANTAIN.— {Plantago Major.) 

This plant grows in great abundance in most parts of 
this country, about yards, barns, and in fence corners. 

The leaves bruised and applied to sores, inflamed 
wounds, bruises and tfee like, is good to reduce the inflam- 


mation ami-produce a disposition to heal. The tea, taken 
internally, and the bruised leaves or expressed juice ap- 
plied externally, is an excellent remedy for poisonous 
bites and stings — if applied immediately after being bit by 
a snake, and the tea drank freely, it will in most cases give 
entire relief without the aid of further remedies. The tea 
or decoction is good for boweLcomplaints, and bloody urine, 
it should be drank freely, there being no danger whatever 
in it. The expressed juice is good for sore eyes. 



This plant is found in most parts of theJJnited States. 
but is most abundant in the middle, southern and western 
states. The root is blackish without, and whitish within, 
resembling in size and shape, a small sweet potatoe; they 
grow several small roots from one main root or head, in a 
manner similar to the sweet potatoe, from which head, 
spring up several stems, or stalks, close together, growing 
from five to six feet high; leaves are about the size of a 
man's hand,, but in shape they resemble a bear's foot, 
whence it has received the name of Bear's Foot. 

A poultice made of the root of this plant, is very good 
to scatter healings, and allay inflammations. The bruis- 
ed root applied to burns, will extract the fire and give re- 
lief. It forms an ingredient in a very valuable salve, made 
as follows : Take of sheep's tallow, fresh butter, and a 
small quantity of beeswax, melt them together, to which 
add the bruised root of bear's foot, a small quantity of 
sweet gum rosin, and pine rosin, also the bruised root of 
heart leaves, stew them welltogether and strain for use. 
This salve will be found good for cuts, burns, &c. An 
oil made by stewing the bruised root of tliis plant in fresh 
butter or sweet oil, is good for ear-ache, it will give relief 
in some cases of pained joints, the ointment should be ap- 
plied to the pained part, and bathed in with a warm iron. 
The root infused in spirits forms a valuable bitter for 
rheumatism. This root is said by some authors to possess 
the property of curing the white swelling. We have nev- 
er tried it in white swelling, but we have cured cases of 
white swelling, where it had been perseveringly applied, 
and had utterly failed to do any good whatever. We 


*3eem it a very good poultice for inflammations of the skin 
and flesh, but wholly useless in diseases of the bone, or the 
membrane which covers it. The bruised root stewed in 
hog's lard, gives relief in some cases of itch. 



{Rumex Crispus.) 

Dock is a well known plant growing about barn-yard&v 
an fence corners, and about houses. There are two kinds, 
•commonly distinguished as the wide and narrow Dock. — g 
They possess similar medicinal virtues, the narrow is gen- 
erally thought to be the best. The root taken internally,, 
in tea or bitters, is aperient, and an excellent corrector of 
the fluids. The bruised root made into a poultice, is a most 
excellent application to old sores or ulcers, hard tumors 
and inflamed parts. The root bruised and stewed in hog's 
lard, is useful in curing eruptions of the skin, itch, &c. — 
Drinking a tea of the bruised root while applying the a- 
bove ointment, will greatly facilitate the cure. The roots 
and seeds made into decoction, are good for dysentery, and 
bowel complaints generally. The expressed juice of the 
root applied twice a day for a length of time, will seldom 
fail to cure ring or tetter- worm. 

f« [CUJS-STAH-TSE.^-; 

SASSAFRAS — (Laurus Sassafras.) 

This is a well known tree, in most parts of the Union, 
The root in a strong decoction, or infused in. spirits,.taken 
moderately, is excellent to purify the blood, where, acri- 
mony of the blood exists — it is also good in diseases of the 
skin. It has often be,en sucessfully used in rheumatisir; 
for this purpose, drink freely of the tea, and bathe the af- 
fected parts in tea of the same, until a high, state of perspi- 
ration is produced, then wrap up warm in a blanket and 
cool off by degrees. The tea is a good drink in venereal. 
The root, bark and flowers,, make a very pleasant and 
wholesome tea when taken in moderate quantities, but 
when drank to excess, it produces weakness and debility., 
A valuable ague pill is made by boiling the sassafras and 
niullen leaves to a strong decoction, then straining it,,and . 


reducing it by slow boiling to the consistence of wax* of 
a proper thickness to make into pills. Dose: three or four 
pills morning and night. 

A strong decoction of this root thickened with wheat 
bran or meal, and applied to inflamed wounds, or sores of 
any kind, will act powerfully in allaying the inflamma- 
tion, and preventing mortification. The bark, or pith, ta- 
ken from the ste m or trunk, and steeped in cold water, is 
a. cooling and a very pleasant wash, for sore eyes. 


MULLEN— < Verbascwn.) 

The mullen is a very common and well known plant, 
and therefore needs no description. 

The leaves boiled in sweet milk area valuable remedy 
for bowel complaints, particularly among children. The 
leaves dried and pulverized, and applied to proud or fun- 
gous flesh, will destroy it. The leaves stewed in fresh 
butter, make a valuable ointment for the rectum, or gut, 
in case of the piles. The doction of the leaves is good to 
allay inflammation, and reduce swellings; for this purpose, 
bathe the affected part with the decoction, then make a 
poultice with the same and apply; this treatment should be 
followed until relief is obtained. 

INXJIAN BALM— {Trillium Latifolium.) 

This plant has a short, thick, perennial root, resembling 
the Indian turnip; it is wrinkled, of a brown color, giving 
out many small fibres;" the stem is smooth, erect, and grows 
from four to eight inches high. The leaves are oval, three 
in a wliori, growing at the top of the stem; it bears one 
flower on the stem above the leaves. The flower is bell- 
shaped, varying in color, according to the species, as red. 
white, purple; all possessing the same medical qualities: 
the flower is sweetened by a small berry that contains the 
seed. A decoction of the loot of this plant is very good 
for profuse menstruation or flooding among females; it is 
useful in all kinds of hemorrhages, coughs, asthma, and 
bowel complaints. The pulverized root maj be given in 
hot water, if prepared. 

A poultice made' of this root is good to prevent mortifi- 
cation, and it will be a valuable application to putrid ul- 
cers, tumors, and inflamed parts. 


B U C K T R E E. 

The beach i& a native of North America, and grows in 
great abundance in most parts of the United States. It is 
so generally and so well kaown, that the inhabitants of 
this continent would laugh to see a description of it. It 
is one of the greatest ornaments of the American forest, 
as well as one of the most powerful antiseptics known. — 
The principal use made of it, is in the form of poultices, 
made by thickening a strong decoction of the bark or 
leaves with wheat bran, rye or corn meal; it is good in 
all inflamed wounds, healings, ulcers, &c, the part should 
be well bathed ever}' twelve hours in the decoction, and 
the poultice made and applied as above directed. It is a- 
mong the best applications that can be made to an in- 
flamed or bealed breast. 


POKE-WEED.— (Phytolucca Kecandria.) 

The poke-weed is found in great abundance throughout 
the United States, growing in any kind of rich land. Its 
root is perennial; it is large, generally branching, covered 
with a very thin, brownish bark. Several stemsspringup 
from the same root, growing very large, at first green, af- 
terwards turning purple. It is one of the most grand, bold 
and beautiful looking herbs in America, when filled with 
ripe berries. The roots and berries have been employed 
with the best effects In old or chronic rheumatism. Tru- 
sound ripe berries put into spirits with a little sulphur ad- 
ded, is a most valuable bitter for the rheumatism; it should 
be taken in drams three times a day. A poultice made of 
the roasted root is an excellent application to the feet in 
the last stages of nervous fever and acute disorders: -it is 
also good, applied to ulcers, swellings, and rheumatic 
joints. A poultice made by thickening a strong decoction, 
of the poke and buck-eye roets, with rye meal or wheat 
bran, is the best poultice for white swelling with which I 
am acquainted, as is fully shown under that head. The 
poke root is the principal ingredient in Turk's rheumatic 
oi ntment. The expressed j uice dried in the sun to the con- 
sistence of a salve, forms a good plaster for cancers, and 
^ulcerous ulcers. 



This is a well known tree in all parts of the U. States 
where I have been and thought to notice for it. The bark 
of the root boiled to a strong decoction and thickened to a ; 
poultice, is a very excellent application to inflamed parts, 
such as white swellings, sprains, tumors, &c. The only 
use we make of it is in poultices; taken internally it is poi- 
sonous, but as a poultice it is. a most excellent article to. 
extract the fever and prevent mortification. 


The black Sarsaparilla differs very much, both in ap- 
pearance and medical properties from the white or yellow 
Sarsaparilla : the. root is somewhat larger and of a dark- 
er color than the white. .or yellow Sarsaparilla. The vine 
is of an ash color, climbing hushes or saplings that ma} r be 
tin its way. Its leaves resemble the leaves of the apple 
tree : the root is the part for use, and should not be taken 
internally, as it might produce some unpleasant symp- 
toms: the onlj^use.we make of it is in decoction, used as a 
bathe for the feet and legs, of persons addicted to swelling 
in those parts. It will allay the inflammation, and as- 
suage the swelling in a short time, if properly attended to, f 


This species of pine has somewhat the appearance of 
the common Pine of the forest, and also of the cedar. The 
leaves grow in broad, flat fans or bats. Its seeds or ber- 
ries are nearly like cedar berries to look at; they have a 
pungent, acid, bitterish, aromatic taste. A strong decoc- 
tion made of the bark or leaves, and made into a syrup, is 
good for pregnant women that are troubled with a cough; 
it is also a good drink for catarrh or ulcer of the lungs. A 
strong decoction of the inner bark drank warm, is a very 
good sweating medicine in chronic rheumatism. The 
berries infused inspirits, is good for ciuronic rheumatism, 
and in venereal diseases. A fomentation of the Spruce 
Pine, is a good application to the swelled testacies, caus- 
ed by the mumps, and also the swelled breasts of females,, 
produced by the same ; cause. 'It is astringent, and stijnu- . 


iant or tonic. The oil, or -essence is useful in colds, and 
externally in bathing preparations for pained joints. 


The Swamp Lilly is a well known plant, growing in 
swamps and marshy places — sometimes about springs. — 
The root is the part used; bruised and boiled in water, and 
thickened in mealor wheat bran, is an excellent poultice 
for inflamed wounds, sores, bealings, &c. 



(Improperly called Highland Ferrin.) 

This plant grows in great abundance in many parts of 
the Union, and is generally well known. It has a dark 
perennial root, running horizontally in the ground, and 
when broken it is very mucillaginous. Its stem is smooth, 
green, growing from one to two feet high, dividing at the 
top*into several branches, leaves green, growing out a- 
long the sides of the branches, similar to the tanzy leaves. 
The whole plant has a beautiful green and shiny appear- 
ance. It grows mostly on hill sides and on uplands: when 
the top is tender in the spring, it contains a mucilage sim- 
ilar to that of the root. 

It is a valuable application to inflamed swellings, 
v: ounds, &c. There are several modes of applying it: — 
the roots may be washed clean, bruised, and mixed with 
wheat bran and cold water, to the consistence of a poul- 
tice and applied, the face of the poultice being first smear- 
ed with sour cream: or it may be bruised, boiled and thick- 
ened with wheat bran and applied as above directed; or, 
the root may be well bruised-, smeared with cream and ap- 
plied. It makes a very cooling and pleasant poultice in 
all cases where there is inflammation. I use it a great 
deal in the treatment of white swelling, after it has com- 
menced running, and still continues inflamed. 

AMERICA.— (Pinus Balsamea.) 
This tree is very common in the northern climates; it is 


also found in great plenty about the west end of Nortli 
Carolina, and east end of Tennessee, particularly on what 
are called the Smoky Mountains. It has somewhat the 
appearance of the white pine, and yields a most valuable 
balsam, which exudes from the tree like other turpentine^ 
and is collected for medical use. When fresh it is almost 
transpatent or clear, but after standing, it assumes a beau- 
tiful yellow appearance, and looks very much like sweet 
oil. It is known by the name of Canada Balsam, or Bal- 
sam of Fir. 

It is a valuable remedy for complaints ©fthe breast and 
lungs, particularly where it is accompanied with pain^. 
soreness or cough. Dose: half a tea-spoonful at a time*, 
twice a day. It is good for females afflicted with flours 
albus, or whites, falling of the womb, weak backs, &c. — 
Also for venereal, and diseases of the urinary organs. It 
is apenent^or loosens the bowels,, and cleanses and heals 
internal ulcers. 

It is a very excellent external application to fresh 
wounds, I know of no article that will heal a fresh wound 
quicker than this balsam applied when first tied up. It is 
also a good application to ulcers, old sores, and the like; 
it forms an excellent ingredient in healing salves. 


The wild indigo is a large weed, resembling the common 
Indigo. A decoction of the leaves given in large doses is 
a good puke, in smaller doses it is a good purge. In poul- 
tices or fomentation, it is to allay inflammation and stop 
mortification. The root may be used in the same way. 

CHARCOAL, OF WOOD.--( Carlo Lingi.) 

Charcoal is a vegetable production, and is one of the 
most valuable and innocent medicines we possess. Pre- 
pared Charcoal is one of the most powerful antiseptics 
known in the compass of medicine. The best mode of pre- 
paring Charcoal is as follows: Take the common Charcoal 
well burnt of good sound green wood, (that used by smiths 
will answer as well as any,) reduce it to powder, put this 
into a vessel that can be tightly covered, raise the heat un- 
der the vessel until the coal becomes red hot, then take off 
the vessel and let it cool with the lid on. When the Coal 


Is cool enough, put it into bottles for use, the- bottles must 
be kept tightly stopped or it will loose part of its virtues. 
It is a valuable article taken internally for dropsy and for 
costive habits. It is good in bowel complaints of a putrid 
nature. For internal use, great care should be taken to 
pulverize it fine, or it will irritate the tender surface of the 
bowels. It is an excellent antiseptic application to foul and 
ill-conditioned ulcers and mortifying wounds or spres. 


Vinegar is possessed of very strong antiseptic powers; 
as an external application, it is used to moisten antiseptic 
poultices, It is successfully employed to correct the putrid 
tendency of the fluids in putrid fevers, &c-, 



Anthelmintics are a class of medicines used to destroy 
or expel worms. 

| _ 

THE CHINA TREE,— (Melia Azendarach.) 

The China tree is a native of Chma,.ancl was brought 
from that country to America, and is now the common 
yard tree of South Carolina, Georgia, and many parts of 
Alabama and Tennessee. 

The bark, and especially that of the root, is one- of the 
best worm medicines in the world. It should be boited to 
a strong tea and sweetened to a syrup, and given in table- 
spoonful doses every hour untill the desired effect is pro- 
duced. The fruit mashed and put into spirits and given to 
ehildren every morning before eating is good to expel 
worms, the bark or bark of the root may be used the same 
way. The syrup acts well in removing worm feveis. 

The pulp of the fruit stewed in lard is said to be good 
for scald-head, ring and tetter-worm, and the like. 



JERUSALEM OAK — (Chenopodium Anthelmintic) 

This plant is said to grow in every State in the Union, 
and is too well known to require a description. 

Every part of this plant is used as a worm medicine, the 
roots, leaves and seeds are the best. The best mode of 
preparing it is by boiling the roots, leaves or seeds, in 
sweet milk, sweeten it with honey or sugar, a table-spoon- 
ful of this to be given before eating, morning, noon, night, 
and at bedtime give a large dose of castor oil or American 
senna to work it off, antibilious pills will answer quite 
well. The oil of this plant has been Ions: considered a 
valuable medicine to expelworms, but the decoction in 
sweet milk is in my "opinion equally good if not better. 

CAROLINA PINK— {Spigelia Marilancici.) 

This plant is so well known to the people of Tennessee, 
and the Carolinians, as to render a description of it al- 
most unnecessary. Its root is branched and very librous, 
its stem is smooth, erect, rising from one to two feet high, 
bearing long, smooth and oval leaves, outer points acute. 
The whole plant may be used, it is an acute vermifuge 
or worm medicine. 

The most common mode of using it, and as good a plan 
as any, is in decoction, about two ounces of the plant and 
root together When green, or about a half an ounce of the 
dried root, put into a quart of water, and boiled until tol- 
erable strong, sweeten it well and to a child from six to 
eight years old, give from one to two table-spoosnful for a 
dose, repeated three times a day until relief is obtained. — 
Writers on this subject, appear to entertain various and 
contradictory opinions; some esteem it as a gbb'd medicine, 
while others pronounce it very dangerous indeed. The 
Cherokees have no idea how long this plant has been em- 
ployed by them as a worm medicine, and that with the 
happiest effects. It possesses strong narcotic or stupify- 
ing properties, and when the system retains it too long, pro- 
duces very alarming effects by stupifying the child, swell- 
ing the eyes arm enlarging the pupilsor sights of the eyes; 
for the above reason, it is better t'o administer it in 


large than in small doses, it acts .well on the bowels as a 
purge, and is not retained so long in the system as when 
given in small portions. It appears reasonable, that it must 
produce this sickening, narcotie effect on the worms; yet 
it does not expel or cause them to be discharged, and by 
retaining both the medicine and dead cr sick worms in 
the bowels, even if the medicine should have no bad effects 
medicinally, all retained, together would certainly excite 
fever, and produce evil consequences. But if given in 
large quantities it first acts on the worms, and secondly 
expels them by its cathartic powers. And even should, 
you employ a large portion, and it should not purge, but 
act on the eyes of the patient in the above manner, you 
have only to discontinue the use of the pink-root, and give 
castor oil, to aid it in passing off. If the fever should be- 
come high and the symptoms alarming, aid the operation 
of the oil by injections, and feel assured that the evacua- 
tions of the contents of the bowels will remove every unfa- 
vorable symptom, in a very short time. 


This plant is well known in this country, being gener- 
ally cultivated in gardens for its medical virtues. The 
juice of the plant, sweetened with sugar, or honey, admin- 
istered in table- spoonful doses, frequently repeated, and a 
poultice of the bruised plant externally on the stomach 
of the patient, is an excellent remedy for worms, especial- 
ly where the bowels are much pained. It is also good 
for cramp colic. The decoction is good for grown per- 
sons troubled with hysterics and cramp coIIg, and for fe- 
males afflicted with painful menstruation. A poultice 
made by bruising the herb or by boiling and thickening 
the docoction with wheat bran or corn meal, is good to 
prevent mortification, and heal up wounds, old sores, and 
the like. 

COMMON GARDEN RUE— (Rata Graveolens.) 

This is a Well known garden herb. The top or leaves 
boiled to a syrup with honey or sugar and given to chil- 
dren troubled with worms, is a most excellent remedy, jt 
should be given every morning, in doses of from a tea to a 


table-spoonful, according to the age and constitution- of 
the child, when worms produce violent pains in the stom- 
ach and about the naval; a poultice of the bruised leaves 
applied externally over the pained part will greatly aid 
in giving relief. It quickens the circulation removes ob- 
structions, promotes secretions. Persons troubled with 
hysterics will derive great benefit from the use of it in 
whiskey, as a bitter; it is also good in palsy where this 
disease is produced by debility or some obstruction. 

Applied in poultices to the ieet, in the last stages of ac- 
cute disorders it is excellent to produce a revulsion from 
the head, it will sometimes draw a blister. A poultice 
made by bruising the herb, or thickening the strong de- 
coction with meal or wheat bran, and applied to inflamed 
or gangrenous parts, is excellent to prevent mortification. 




Annual roots. — That is, such as grow from the seed ev- 
ery year, should be gathered just before the flowers put 
out, as they are then in the highest state of perfection. 

Biennial roots. — That is, such as grow from the seed 
the first year, live through the winter, and bear seed and 
die the second should be gathered either in the fall of the 
first year or spring of the second. 

Triennial Roots. — Should be gathered in the fall after 
the leaves begin to die or in the spring before they put 

Roots intended for medical purposes are to be washed 
clean, and not kept long in the water as this will diminish 
their virtue; after being washed clean, spread them in the 
sun a short time to dry the water oiF, then spread them 
out in a dry place. When perfectly dry, pack them a- 
way to exclude the atmosphere. 

Herbs and s leaves intended lor medicine should be gath- 


ered about the time of flowering, as they are then at 
their greatest perfection. Flowers should be collected 
when in perfection. Herbs, leaves and flowers, must be 
cured in the shade.. 

Barks, designed for medicine, should be gathered eith- 
er, in the fall or spring, from young thrifty trees, shave 
off the rough or outside bark, dry it in the shade, and 
preserve it from, rain and dew. 


It is 5 highly necessary that the head of every family 
should understand how to open a vein with a lancet: they 
should also be. acquainted with the cautions necessary for 
avoiding danger. Many cases occur where medical aid 
cannot be obtained in time, and where life is lost for want 
of bleeding. To draw blood from the arm you are to ap- 
ply a bandage or ligature* an inch or two above the el- 
bow joint, and draw it so tight as to compress the veins 
immediately under the bandage, which will cause them to 
fill and swell immediately below it. As soon as the vein 
from which to draw blood rises, plaice the thumb of the 
left hand about an inch below the* place you intend to o- 
pen with the lancet; then with your right hand holding the 
lancet firmly between the thumb- and forefinger, make 
the incision obliquely or slanting. This should be strictly 
observed, for by holding the handle of the lancet too high, 
the point will cut the under side of the vein and perhaps 
dangerously wound an artery. When the desired quantity 
of blood has been drawn, untie the bandage and place your 
thumb on the orifice and press it with a moderate force 
so as to bring the edges together. This will stop the blood 
from flowing. You are next to apply a compress about 
two inches square, made b} 7 2 or 3 times folding a piece 
of linnen; over this you are to place a thick folding of lin- 
nen about four inches square, so as to fill up the bend or 
hollow of the arm. The folds of linnen is next to be con- 
fined by a tape or other bandage, which as to cross over 
them crosswise, extending above and below the elbow 
joint in of a figure eight, and to finish with ma- 


king a knot on the linnen immediately over the incision or 
orifice. If the bleeding should continue, pour cold water 
on the arm above the elbow; if this should fail to stop it 
take off the bandage, wash the orifice with strong vinegar 
and apply the cranes bill or some other* styptic. 

To draw blood from the foot, place the bandage above 
the ankle joint and open the vein as directed for bleeding 
in the arm. The blood will flow more rapidly when the 
foot is emersed in warm water. 

Bleding, althho' indespensably necessary in many in- 
stances, may nevertheless be improperly resorted to. Re- 
gard must be always had to the strength, constitution and 
condition of the patient; stout, robust persons, of full habit, 
will require the loss of more blood than the more delicate 
and weakly. In a # ll inflamatory diseases, bleeding will 
be found highly beneficial. But on the contrary where 
the disease arises from debility or weakness, bleeding will 
do serious injury. 


Having finished that part of Materia Medica, which 
rmbraces the simple articles of Medicine that have been 
introduced in this work in the treatment of the different 
diseases, and having pointed out their most obvious medi- 
cal properties, together with the mode of preparing and 
administering them, I will now proceed to such compounds 
as the reader is referred to in the treatment of the differ- 
ent diseases. 

This part of the work will be arranged in the form of a 
Dispensatory for the greater convenience oi the reader. — 

There is also given a short table of Mineral Medicines. 


Take one table-spoonful of copperas; one table-spoonful 
of pine rosin: the yolk of two hen-eggs: mix these article* 
well and add starch or flour enough to make it the prop- 
er consistence to roll into pills. Three is a common dose 


dispensatory: 29 

fpr an adult. These pills are valuable for dropsy and oth- 
diseases that require the use of diuretics*. 

Another Valuable Preparation. 

Take of egg-shells half an ounce; coperasone ounce; el- 
der-bark, of the root, one ounce: white sumac, bark of root, 
one and a half ounces; pine rosin one ounce. Brown the 
egg-shells and pulverize all the ingredients, and add wat- 
er sufficient to the proper consistency to roll into pills. — 
Three or four is the common dose for grown persons. Used 
for the same purposes as the foregoing. 


Take of the common elder, bark of the root, six ounces: 
burdoc root six ounces; egg shells browned, four ounces: 
queen of the meadow, six ounces; agrimony, six ounces; 
horse radish four ounces. Reduce ail these articles to fine 
powder, and sift them through a fine sieve; then bottle up 
lor use; dose, a teaspoonfal three or four times a day, in 
a tea of water- melon or pumpkin seeds. These powders 
are useful to relieve suppressions of urine, and also to car- 
ry of the dropsical fluid from the body. 

When all the above articles cannot be had, use such as 
can be obtained; by turning to the malaria medica, in the 
class of diuretics, you will find a number of simple articles 
described, any of which may be used in forming a com- 
pound, for gravel or dropsical affections; they should be 
pulverized and used as directed for the above preparation. 

Diuretic Tincture. — Take of elder leaves, one ounce; 
horse radish one ounce and a half; welt weed, the roof, 
one ounce. Digest the whole four or five days in good 
spirits, in sun heat, shaking it well every day; of this tinc- 
ture, take three or four drams a day; excellent for gravel, 
and urinary obstructions. 

Diaphoretics. — Medicines of this class are employed to 
promote prespiration 

Diaphoretic Powders. — Take of butterfly roof, one lb.; 
^ilk weed root, one pound; rag weed root, one lb.; seneka 
snake root, five ozs.; ginger one lb.; cloves four ozs.; red 
pepper two ozs.; reduce all these articles to fine powder 
and sift through a fine sieve, then mix them thoroughly. 
Dose for an adult is one. tea-spoonful in hot water. This 
compound is useful in colds, obstructions and in the first 


stage of disease generally. They give tone and strength 
to the system, promote prespiration and thereby discharge 
the morbid matter, and remove obstructions. Where the 
the above articles cannot be conveniently obtained, the 
reader has but to turn to the class of diaphoretics in Ma- 
teria Medica, where he will find a variety of articles of 
this class-described at length, any of which may be pre- 
pared and used as the above in all cases where the above 
would be of service. In preparing compounds as above di- 
rected, the ginger, cloves and cayenne should never be o- 
mitted: these are articles which can generally be had 
anywhere almost. 


Take of blue-flag root, green, one ounce; cayenne one 
ounce; peach kernels one ounce; common ginger, one and 
a halt pounds; gum-myrrh one pound; alcohol six quarts. 
Pulverize all the solid ingredients, and add them to the al- 
cohol; digest ei ; a;ht or ten days in sun heat, shaking several 
times a day. Dose from one to four tea-spoonfuls, repeat- 
I ed at discretion; it should be taken in some kind of sweat- 
ing tea. It will be found valuable for pains in the stom- 
ach, d}"sentary, colic, colds, head-ache, internal incarna- 
tion, &LC. 


For the simple articles of this class, see ""Cathartics,*" 
Materia Medica, where you will find them described. 

Aniibillious Pills. — Take of gulver root 1 1-4 pounds: 
Indian physic 1 1-2 pounds; milk-weed root 1 l-4j>ounds: 
highland big leaf 3-4 of a pound; black ash bark 3-4 of a 
pound; black walnut bark 1-2 pound; white walnut bark 
15 pounds. Boil all these ingredients until the strength is 
extracted, then strain the decoction, and continue boiling 
until it is reduced to the consistence of very thick molas- 
ses; when it is cooled it will be ■stiff, add starch enough to 
roll it into pills. Eight pills of common size is a dose, if 
they fail to operate in a reasonable time, give half a dose. 

Gulver Pill. — Take any desirable quantity of gulver 
root, reduced to fine powder, add enough of a strong de- 
coction of the same to make it the proper consistence to 
make into pills — iromJive to eight for a dose, repeated 


in four hours, if they should fail to operate In that length 
of time. These pills are peculiarly adapted to nervous 

Gulver Syrup.-. — Boil any desirable quantity of this roo + . 
to a strong decoction, strain and continue boiling until 
it is very strong, then sweeten it with molasses, and ad- 
minister in table-spoonful doses, repeated every three 
hours until the desired effect is produced. 

Butternut Syrup. — Take any desirable quantity of white 
walnut bark, to every fifteen pounds of fhis bark add 
1-2 pound of gulver root and a half pound of Indian phys- 
ic, boil all the ingredients until the strength is extracted, 
strain and continue boiling to the consistence oi molasses, 
then cool and bottle for use. Dose from one to two table- 

Hepatic Fill. — Take any desirable quantity ofhoneset 
leaves, boil them until the strength is extracted, then 
strain the decoction and continue boiling until it becomes 
thick, taking care not to scorch it, then add starch enoug.a 
to enable you to roll it into pills. Three of these pills, is a 
common dose. Useful for eomplaints of the liver. 

Antidyspeptic or Hepatic Syrup. — Take any desirable 
quantity of bone set leaves, boil to a very strong decoc- 
tion, strain and boil to the consistence of molasses, add to 
each pint of this extract, a half gill of sourwood molasses. 
Dose: from a tea to a table-spoonful, morning, noon and 
night. Useful in complaints of the liver, indigestion, &c. 


Emetics are a class of medicines used to produce vomit- 
ing; their operation ma}' be rendered more easy and effi- 
cacious by the use of warm water after the first motion to 

Emetic Decoction. — Take of Indian physic or American 
ipecacuanha one pound, gulver root a half pound, put into 
one gallon of water, and boil down to a pint, strain and 
bottle for use; of this, give a half gill every twenty min- 
ute? until vomiting is produced. This class is among the 
mildest, safest and most certain emetics. These articles 
may be reduced to powders, combined in the same pro- 
portions. Dose of the powders, two tea-spoonsful to a gill 
of boiling water, repeated every fifteen Funutes until vom- 
king is produced. 


Tincture of Lobelia. — Take of Lobelia, it dgy four: oun- 
ces, if green, eight ounces; alcohol one quart, pulverize the 
herb, and add the alcohol, digest eight or ten days in sun 
heat, shaking it several times a day. Dose from a tea to 
a table-spoonful, repeated every fifteen minutes, untiL 
vomiting is produced. The tincture made in the same 
manner of the pulverized seeds, is the strongest prepara- 
tion of this herb. The tincture of lobelia is the safest and . 
best emetic known for snake-bites and other poisons. Lo- 
belia may be administered in powders. Dose a tea-spoon- 
ful every ten or fifteen minutes until vomiting is produced;, 
they should be taken in some sweating tea, not over blood 
heat, as anything over this temperature will destroy the 
virtue of the lobelia. 


Articles of this class are generally employed to assist 
the organs in recovering a healthy, vigorous action. The 
proper time to administer medicines of this class is after 
1 he force of disease is overcome by other remedies. The 
simple articles of this class are very numerous. I will 
here mention some of the best and most common: — Bitter- 
root, hoar-hound, black and sampson snake-root, spikenard, 
columbo-root, goldenseal, hearberry, poplar bark, gum- 
myrrh. These articles may be found under their proper 
heads in" Materia Medica, where they are spoken of at 
greater length, their virtues may generally be increased 
by combining with them a portion of some astringent ton- 
ic. The following are some of the simple articles of this 
class: Dewberry and blackberry root, dog- wood, sumac, 
witch hazel, wild cherry tree bark, black birch, hayberry, 
cinnamon^ When the use of astringent tonics produce 
dryness of the mouth, they should be discontinued. 

Tonic Powders, — Take of columbo root six ounces, pop- 
lar bark, of the root six ounces, dogwood bark, of the root 
six ounces, wild cherry tree bark six ounces, boneset leaves 
four ounces, cayenne pepper one ounce, pulverize and 
sift, through a fine seive, and mix all the ingredients well 
together. Dpse, a tea-spoonful in either warm or cold 
water, repeated several times a day. Useful in debility, 
and in all cases where bitter tonics are required, as in in- 
termittent fever or ague and fever. Where the above in- 
gredients are aot at hand, by turning to "Tcnie" in Mate* 


ria Medica, you will doubtless find the description of such 
as are at hand, and such perhaps as will answer equally 
well. Where there is no fever the simple articles may be 
digested in spirits and taken as bitters. 

Laxative Bitter Tonics. — Compounds of this kind should, 
be formed of such tonics as possess aperient properties, by 
examing^ Materia Medica you will see several valuable, 
articles of this class described, among which are poplar 
bark, boneset, sarsaparilla, black root, &c. They should 
be prepared and used as directed for tonic powders. 

Chalybeate Pill.~~ Take of pleurisy root a half ounce, 
spikenark root, a hajf ounce, star root a half ounce, ele- 
campane a half ounce, Jerusalem oak seeds a quarter of 
an ounce, seneka ^nake root a half ounce, flour of sulpher 
three-fourths of an ounce, steel dust one ounce, pulverize 
all the ingredients, and sift through a fine sieve or thin 
cloth, then add a sufficiency of honey to cement it, and 
roll it into pills. Valuable in all cases where tonics are 

Ague Pill. — Take equal quantities of mullen leaves and 
red sassafras bark, of the root, boil in water to a strong de- 
coction, then strain and continue boiling the decoction ta 
the consistency of very thick molasses, add a sufficient 
quantity of sassafras bark fine!} 7 pi^.verizcd to make it the 
proper consistence to roll it into pills. Dose three or mor© 
morning and night. Useful in ague and fever, 

N E • R V I N E. S 

Are medicines employed to allay nervous irritation, and 
should be employed in all compounds which are to be used 
in cases of this kind. One of the best nervines in Botani- 
cal Materia Medica is the root of the moccasin flower in 
(loses of a tea-spoonful in warm water, repeated at dis- 

Nervine Powders. — Take of yellow moccasin flower root 
six ounces, ginseng one ounce, agrimony one ounce, nut- 
meg 1 ounce? -pulverize all these ingredients, and mix them 
well together. Dose, a tea-spoonful in warm wafer, re- 
peated as often as necessary. For a full description of 
several articles of this class, turn to "Antispasmodics" in 
Materia Medica, any of the articles in this class may be 
prepared and used as the one above, or they may be tinc- 
tured if desired, this is done by pulverizing as aibove di- 


rected, and then digesting in alcohol several days, shaking 
it every day. 

Nervine Tincture. — Take of moccasin flower root six 
ounces, ginseng root two ounces, mountain dittany two 
ounces, sassafras, bark of the root four ounces, nutmeg one 
ounce, gum camphor a fourth of an ounce, alcohol three 
pints; pulverize all the solid articles, add the alcohol, and 
digest six or eight days in sun heat, shaking it ever} 7 day. 
Dose, from one to three tea-spoonsful, repeated every fif- 
teen minutes until relief is obtained. Useful in colics, 
pains in - the stomach, and very valuable for children. 

Antispasmodic Tincture. — Take of moccasin flower root 
two ounces, cayenne pepper two ounces, blueberry root 
two ounces, asafcetida a half ounce, lobelia seeds a half 
ounce; pulverize all these articles, then add them to 1 quart 
of good spirits of any kind, let them digest eight or ten 
days in sun heat, shaking it well every day. Dose from a 
half to a teaspoonful, repeated as often as circumstances 
require. .Useful in fits, spasms and the like; also in snake- 
bites and where poisons have been taken into the stomach. 
Any of the articles in Materia: Medica in the class of anti- 
spasmodics may be tinctured and used as .above directed, 
but may be rendered better b} T adding a liberal portion of 
red pepper, and a small portion of lobelia seeds. Any of 
tile articles may be used alone if others cannot be had, or 
the articles may be tinctured separately and the tinctures 
:iii xcd> 


Anti emetics are'mediemes employed to allay irritation 
of the stomach and check vomiting. When spontaneous 
vomiting proceeds from a foul stomach, means should not 
be used to check it, until the stomach has been cleansed 
with an emetic. The best articles of this class are cholera 
morbus root, seven bark, pepper mint and spear mint: 
there are also other articles which possess the property of 
anti-emetics in a less active degree; by examining materia 
,mediea, you will find a full description of the above arti- 
cles, together with several others. They may be taken in 
tea or infusion, or tinctured in French brandy. The oil 
or essence of pepper mint may be used in tea for the pur- 
pose of checking vomiiing. Medicines employed for this 
purpose, should be &3ministered in small doses, repeated 


at short intervals, until the desired effect is produced. — 
Where vomiting is attended with spasms in the stomach, 
some anti-spasmodic should be combined with the anti- 
emetic. The anti-spasmodic tincture will probably answer 
best for this purpose. 



Make of highland big leaf root three pounds, pineyroot 
three ounces; put both articles into four gallons of water; 
boil down to one gallon, strain and bottle for use. Dose, 
one gill, three times a day. 

Another preparation. — Take of the white sumac root, one 
pound, dew-berry brier root, one pound; pine, inside bark 
root, one half pound; boil all these articles in 4 gallons of 
water down to two gallons; of this, the patient should drink 
a pint each day. Take white sumach root, two pounds: 
may apple root, one pound; devil shoe string, one half 
pound; persimmon, bark of the root, one fourth pound. — 
Boil in four gallons of water down to two; strain, and bot- 
tle for use. Dose, a half gill three times a any. 

Dr. Wright's beer for consumption. — Take of Spikenard 
root, if green, two pound?, if dry, bn:* pound; seneka snake 
root, two ounces; wild cherry tree bark, one half pound: 
iron weed root, one half pound; wild potatoe, one half 
pound: burdock root, one half pound; boil all these articles 
into ten gallons of water, and boil down to three: while 
boiling, pour the decoction into a keg or jug, and add one 
cuart of honey; let it remain until it ferments, and it is 
lit for use. Dosp, a half pint two or three times a day. 
It is valuable in liver complaints, consumption, 6cc. 


Take of Cedar oil, one half pint, British oil one half pint: 
mix well and anoint the affected part twice a day bathing 
it wuh a warm iron. 

Relaxing ointment. — -Take of Turkey buzzard's oil, one 
gill; fox oil, one gill: cedar oil, one gill; mix all well togeth- 
er. This is a valuable ointment for stiff joints; it should 
be applied to the affected part two or three times a day, 
bathing it with warm iron. 

Essence of Pejrpcr.— T&ke of African cayenne one- 


fourth ounce* alcohol one quart, add together and burn one 
third of the alcohol away, then strain and bottle for use. 
This is a valuable external application to pained parts; it 
seldom fails to give speedy relief. 

Black Poultice. — Take of common soap, one fourth 
pound, hog's lard one fourth pound, table salt, three ounces, 
extract of sour wood, one "gill; cedar's oil, one fourth gill; 
mix all these ingredients together, and apply in the form 
of a poultice. This poultice forms a good application to 
swellings, boils, stone bruises, and the like, drawing them 
to a head, and causing them to break, and run, much soon- 
er than they would otherwise do. Fhe sourvvood extract, 
and cedar oil have a tendency to mitigate the pain. 

Ointment for sores. — Take of bear's foot, the root, half 
pound, heart leaf the root half pound, elder bark, fourth of 
a pound; boil all together, until the strength is extracted, 
then strain and continue boiling to a very strong oose; 
then add to it of fresh butter, hog's lard, or mutton or deer's 
suet, two pounds; pine rosin, two ounces; sweet gum rosin, 
two ounces: stew all together, until the water is evapora- 
ted; then cool, and it will be ready for use. Valuable for 
outs, wounds, sores, &c. 

Another for the same. — Take of tag elder bark, one hall 
pound; common elder bark, one half poand, bamboo brier 
root one half pound; heart leaf root, one half pound; boil 
until the strength is extracted; then strain, and acid to the 
decoction, of bees-wax, one fourth of a pound; hog's lard, 
one pound; pine rosin, two ounces; sweet gum rosin, two 
ounces; stew the whole together, until the water is evapo- 
rated. To make a very drawing salve, add to either of the 
above, a portion of blue flag root, or balm of gilead buds. 

Rpaling Salve. — Take ot bear's root, a half pound; 
heart leaf root, a hajf pound; bruise and boil until the 
strength-is extracted, then, strain and add a halt pound of 
fresh butter; slew it until the water is evaporated. Useful 
for eruptions oi'theskin, and in all eases where a cooling, 
healing salve is required, when both the articles cannot bo 
had, either will answer. 

Turner's Cerate. — This ointment", which is so celebrated 
in burns is prepared as follows: Take of calamine in fine 
powder, one hall' pound; beeswax one half pound; hog's 
lard, one pound; melt the wax with the lard and put it out 


in the air, when it begins to thicken, or become cool, mix 
with it, the calomel, and stir it well until cold. 

When you inquire for this article at an apothecary or 
Doctor's shop, ask for calamine in powder; it is a mineral 
imported from different countries. 


Take the root of wild wet-fire, bruise and wet it with 
water, and apply where the blister is desired; the skixi 
should be moistened with vinegar also. 

Another for the same. — Take the bruised herb of wild 
camomile and apply it to the skin, as above directed. 

Another f ot the same. — Take mustard seed, pound or 
grind them fine and make them into a plaster by wetting 
them with vinegar or spirits. Moisten the skin with vin- 
egar or spirits before, applying the plaster. Apply to the 
feet and wrists in the low stages of disease, to raise the 
pulse, and produce a revulsion from the head. 

Strengthening Plaster. — Take of pine rosin, obtained by 
boiling a rich pine root, i-2 pound; African cayenne, 1-4 
ounce; moccasin flower roof, 1-2 ounce. Pulverize the 
cayenne and moccasin root, and add them to the rosin 
while warm, and mix them well,ithen spread it on a piece 
of thin leather or stiff cloth and apply it while sufficiently 
warm to adhere to the skin. When a sufficient quantity 
cannot be obtained by boiling the roots, that which exudes 
from the tree may be added, if soft. Useful for weak 
backs, also good to remove pains in the side, breast and 
back. It should be applied immediately over the pained 
part, and let it remain until it comes off. 


Styptics are articles applied to wounds, cuts, &.c., to 
stop the flow of blood. 

Cranes Bill is a most powerful Styptic. — A full descrip- 
tion of this herb, tegether with the mode of preparing and 
applying, may be seen under that head. It is said by some 
to answer equally well when pulverized and applied to 
the bleeding surface. 

White Hickory. — The inner bark boiled until the strength 
is extracted, then strain and continue boiling to the 


consistence of molasses — forms an excellent application 
to stop bleeding; it should be applied by wetting lint in the 
extract, and applying it to the bleeding surface. It may 
be preserved any length of time, by adding to it a portion 
ofgood rum, and excluding the atmosphere by stopping it 
up in glass bottles. It forms a very good dressing for 
wounds, where there is not too much inflammation. 

Burnt Stone, finely pulverized and applied to a fresh 
cut, will in most instances stop bleeding. 

Persimmon inner bark, boiled to a very strong ooze, is 
very good to stop bleeding. 

The extract of Oak, either kind, applied to fresh wounds, 
or bleeding surface, is good to stop the flow of blood. 

Sooi. applied to a fresh wound, is very valuable to stop 

Sassafras Leaves bruised or pounded fine,,is good to stop., 

In the clas<5 of "astringents" in Materia Medica, the rea- 
der will find several valuable articles for this purpose. 

G LOSS dLjR 1%, 


Abdomen, lower part of the bell} 7- . Abortion, expulsion 
of the fetus before the 7th month. Abcess, a tumor con- 
taining matter. Absorbents, 1st. medicines that correct 
acidit}% and dry up superfluous moisture: 2d. small deli- 
cate vessels that absorb fluid substances, and convey them 
to the blood. Absorption, the act of sucking up substan- 
ces. Accoucher, one who assists at child-birth, a mid- wife. 
Acid, that which imparts a sharp or sour sensation. Ac- 
rid, burning, pungent, corrosive. Acute, a term applied to 
a disease denoting violent symptoms, hastening to a crisis. 
Adult, a person full grown. After-birth, .the fleshy sub- 
stance that connects the foetus to the womb. Affusion, 
pouring one thing on another. Ague-cake, enlargement 
of the spleen. Alimentary canal, the stomach and intes- 
tines. Alcohol, rectified spirits of wine. Alkali, any sub- 
stance uniting with an acid neutralizes or destroys its a- 
cidity. Alternate, changed by turns; in botany, leaves 
and branches are said to be alternate, when they grow out 
singly on opposite sides : of the stem, rising above each oth- 
er in regular order. Amputation the act of cutting off a 
limb. Anatomy, the dissection of organized bodies. An- 
imal, yearly, every year.. Anodyne, medicines which ease 
pain. Anti-acid, that which destroys acidity. Anthel- 
mintics, medicines which remove or correct the bile. An- 
tidote, a medicine that destroys poisons. Anti-emetic, a 
remedy for vomiting. Anti-scorbuctic, preventing or cur- 
ing scurvy. Antiseptic^that which prevents or removes 
putrefaction. Antispasmodic, remedies for spasms. A- 
mus, the fundament. Aperient, opening. Aarta, the great 
artery of the body. Artery, the canal conveying the blood 
from the heart to all parts of the body. Aromatic, ' fra- 
grant, spicy, pungent. Astringent, medicines to correct 
looseness and debility, by rendering the solids denser and 
firmer. Axillary, in botany it means the ang]e[formed by a 
branch with the stem, or by aleaf with the stem or branch, 
liennial, a botanical term applied to those plants which 
produce. their,roots and leaves the first year, and 
produce fcheir fruit thp secondhand then die. Bile, the bit= 



ter, yellowish fluid secreted by the liver. Bitternate, hav- 
.ing three. Botany, that .part of natural history which re- 
lates to the vegetable kingdom. Bulbous, a botanical 
term, denoting a round, oblate shape like that of an onion 

Calculi, small stones or gravel. Caloric, the chemical 
term for the matter of heat. Calyx, a cup, the ex- 
ternal covering of an unexpanding flower. Cancer, small 
corroding ulcers. Capsule, the part of the plant contain- 
ing the seed. Carminative, that which expels wind from 
the stomach. Cataplasm, a poultice, soft plaster. Car- 
tilage, a white elastic substance connecting the bones. — 
Catarrh, a discharge from the glands about the head and 
neck. Cathartic, a purgative medicine. Catheter, a 
small tube for drawing off the urine, being introduced in- 
to the bladder. Caudex, a botanical term denoting the 
main head or body of a root. Caustics, burning applica- 
tions. Cellular, consisting of cells. Chancre, a venereal 
ulcer. Chronic, a term denoting a disease of long stand- 
ing. Clyster, a liquid substance injected into the bowels. 
Connate, growing from one base, united together. Coag- 
ula, clots of blood. Conoption, the impregnation of the 
womb. Constipation, great costiveness. Constriction, a 
drawing together, contraction. Contagious, caught hy 
infection. Cordate, having the shape of a heart. Corro- 
sive, consuming, eating away. Convalescence, the state 
of returning health after sickness. Convulsion, a violent 
spasmodic affection, a fit. Corymb, a cluster of flowers 
at the top of a plant forming an even expanded surface 
Cutaneous, belonging to the skin. Cyme or cyma, an ag- 
gregate, like the sunflower. 

Jecoction, a preparation by boiling. Decumbent, re- 
clined, bending down. Delirium, craziness, aliena- 
tion of mind. Detergent, cleansing. Diaphoretic, pro- 
moting sweating. Digestion, the process of dissolving al- 
iment in the stomach. Digest, to dissolve by the action of 
a solvent, to infuse any medical substance in spirits. Dis- 
cutient, an application to disperse a tumor. Diuretic, a 
medicine that icreases the secretion of urine. Drastic, 
strong, active, violent. 

Efflorescence, redness of the skin around an eruption. 
Emetic, a medicine which excites vomiting. Em- 
menagogue, that which promotes the flow of the menses. 
Emolient, that which softens and relaxes the solids. Ep* 



idemic, a contagious disease, attacking many people the 
same season. . Errhines, articles that excite sneezing. E- 
ruption, breaking out on the skin. Excoriate, to strip off 
the skin. Excrement, the alvine, fceces, or stools. 

Feeces, excrements or stools. Febrile, indicating fe- 
ver, pertaining to fever. Febrifuge, that which re- 
moves fever. Fibrous, consisting of small threads. Flat- 
ulency, windiness in the stomach and intestines. Fomen- 
tation, the application of flannel dipped in hot water.' — 
Flooding, an excessive flow of (he menses. Friction, the 
act of rubbing. Fracture, a broken hone. Fundcment, 
the aperture from which the excrements are ejected, the 
seat. Fungus, proud flesh, or any other excrescence. Fur, 
the coat of morbid matter upon the tGngue. 

gangrene, the incipient or forming singe of mcrtifica- 
" tion. Gargle, a wash for the mouth and threat. 

Hectic, a slow fever., a discharge of 
blocd. Hemorroids, the files. Hepatic, pertain- 
ing to the liver, Jiydragcgue, that which prcmotes the 
discharge of humors from the fccdy. Bivpcccndriacal, low 
spirited. Hymen, the virgin a 1 membrane, partly closing 
the passage of the vagina. Hysterics, a disc ase peculiar 
to wemen, characterized by rrflf medic and nerycug nilcc- 
t.ions, and often attended with hypcccndriccal symptoms. 

Tdiophatic, a term applied to diseases that exist rade- 
■* pendent of all other complaints. Idiosyncrasy, the 
peculiar temperament or constitution of the bed}'. Inden- 
ted, notched. Indigenous, native. Infectious, communi- 
cating disease by contagion. Inluse, to steep in a liquid 
without boiling. Intestines, the tubes in the abdomen, 
vulgarly called guts. Intel mitt ent, ceasing for intervals 
of time.' 

agged, uneven, having jaggs or teeth. 

¥ anceolate, oblong, shaped like a lancet. Laxatives, 
•*" a gentle cathartic. Ligature, a bandage.. Liga- 
ment, a strong membrane connecting the joints.. Lithot- 
omy, the operation of cutting the stone out of the bladder. 

ISI'ateria Medica, description of medicine. Meconium, 
->■"■»• the first stools of an infant. Membrane, a thin del- 
icate skin. Menses, monthly courses of females. Men- 


struation, the act of discharging the 'menses. Menstrua), 
pertaining to the menses. Miasm, putrid exhalations. 
Menstruum, any fluid used as a solvent. Morbid, diseased, 
unhealthy. Mucilage, a glutinous, slimy substance. Mu- 
cous, the slimy fluid secreted by the mucous membrane. 
Muscles, the organs of motion. 

y^arcoctic, that which produces sleep by stupefaction. 
Nausea, inclination to vomit. Nervine, that which 
relieves disorders of the nerves. 

®blong, longer than broad. Obtuse, a dull, heavy pain 
opposite to acute. Organ, any part capable of pre- 
paring some distinct operation. Orifice, an opening. 

Faral}" tic, relating to palsy. Paroxysm, a periodical 
attack or fit of a disease. Peduuclo, the stem that 
supports the flower. Perennial, in botany, a plant that 
lives more than two years. Perspiration, evacuation of 
fluid matter through the pores of the skin. Petioles, the 
foot stalks of a leaf. Pinnate, a compound leaf, composed 
of one stem and several small leaves on each side of it. 
Plethory, a fulness of habit, fulness of the vessels. Pul- 
monale, pertaining to the lungs. 

fuartan, recurring every fourth day. Quotidian, re- 
curring every day. 
1| acemes, growing in clusters. Radiating, spreading 
<* or shooting in the form of rays. Radical, pertain- 
ing to the root. Rectum, that part of the intestines that 
reaches to the anus. Respiration, the act of breathing. — 
Retching, straining to vomit. Rigidity, stiffness. Rigor, 
a sense of chillness, with contraction of the skin. Rube- 
facient, an application that reddens the skin without blis- 

^aliva, the spittle. Secretion, the act of separating sub- 
*$ stances from the blood. Serrate, notched like a 
saw. Sinapism, a poultice of mustard, vinegar and flour. 
Solvent, that which has the power of dissolving. Stimu- 
lants, medicines that excite action and energy in the sys- 
tem. Stranguary, difficulty in voiding urine. Styptics, 
medicines that check the flow of blood. Sudorifics, medi- 
cines that produce sensible perspiration. Syphilis, the 
venereal disease. 

Tent, a roll of lint placed in the opening of an ulcer. 
Terminal, terminating, growing at the end of astern, 

GLOSSARY! • 308 

Tertian, -a disease whose paroxysms return ■? every other 
d&Jt Tonics, medicines that increase the tone and 
strength of the system. Tumor, a swelling. Typhoid, re- 
sembling typhus, weak, low. Triennial, lasting three 
ye % ars. 

fTmbel, a flower resembling an umbrella. Umbelifer- 
" ous, bearing umbels. Umbilical, pertaining to the 
naval. Ulcer, an ill conditioned, running sore. Urethra, 
the canal conveying the urine.- Uterus, the womb. 

^Tagina, the canal leading to the womb. Ventilation. 

" a free admission of air. Vermifuge, medicines that 
expel worms. Vertigo, giddiness of the head. Viscera, 
the entrails. 

liorls, flowers or leaves growing round the stem in a 

N03:e. — We have corrected innumerable errors that 
were in the copy from which this work is printed, and al- 
tered the grammatical construction of many sentences, and 
yet there are very many left, but we hope none that will 
mislead the common reader, and none but what may be 
easily understood and corrected by, those who are more 
particular in such things. Our absence at various times 
during the execution of the! work, prevented us from doing 
that justice that the work otherwise would have received. 

April; 12, 1850. 

1 JP ID M X 



7 Balm, 




Black Haw, 







Bamboo Brier, 


Ague and Fever, 


Black Dittany, 









After Pains, 

162 Blue-Berry, 


American Senna, 










Balsam of Fir or Silver 



Fir tree, 








Black Sarsaparilla, 






All urn Root, 


CHOLERA Infantum, 










Anti-Emetics, class of 


Camphor Tree, 




Col umbo Root, 




Choleramorbus Root, 


Blocdy Urine, 




Bilious Cholic, 


Cholic in Infants, 


Bealed Jaw, 


Child- Bed Fever, 




Constant desire to mak 


Buck Thorn, 




Benne Plant, 




Blue Flag, 



Black Pepper, 


Chronic Rheumatism, 


Button Snake-Root, 


Crane's Bill, 


Butterfly Weed, 






Cat- Paw, 


Bone Set, 




Black-Snake root, 




Black- Ash tree, 




Burns and Scalds, 














Felon, or whitlow, 


Common Garden Rue, 


Falling of the palate, 


Carolina Pink, 


Fractures, * 


Charcoal of wood, 




Cathartics, class of 

ISOiFalse pains, 



2a Falling of the womb, 



27|Flux weed, 


Catarrh or Cold, 






Gravel and Stone, 




Green Sickness, 








Gulver root 






Cinnamon Tree, 


Ginger, Race, 




Golden seal, 








Green switch, 




Golden rod, 


Diseases of the skin, 




Diseases of Pregnancy, 


Green Plantain, 






Dwarf Bay, 




Dog Fennel, 


Hemorrhoides or Pile:?, 


















Diruretic Pills, 


Horn bean, 


Diuretic Powders, 


Heart leaves,. 


Diaphoretics, class of 


Horse mint, 


Diseases of Children, 


Highland big leaf, 




Hop- vine, 


Envy, « 






Highland Fern, 






Emetics, class of 


Inflamation of the Brain 

, 76 



" of the Stomach, 




" of the .Intestines 

, 79 



" of the,K.i$nevs, 




" of the gladder, 



" of thej Spleen, 


Food, and Drink, 


" .of the* Liver, 



Inflamatory Rheumatism, 


Imperforation of the 

Injections or Clysten, 

American, '. 
Indian Physic, 
Indian Fever Root, 
Indian Turnip, 
Iron Filings, 
Iron Weed, 
Indian Cup-plant, 
Indian Hemp, 
Indian Balm, 
Jerusalem Oak, 
Locked Jaw, 

Lochial Discharges, 
Long Root, 
Lynn Tree, 
Liver Wort, 
Milk Sick,. 
Mountain Dittany, 
Maiden Fern, 
Milk Weed, 
Moccasin Flower, 
Menses, retention of 
" Suppressed, or ob- 
Menstruation, painful - . 

, 90 

" profuse^ 



Menses,, cessation of 


Miliv- Fever, . 



Meconium, retention of 



May Apple, 



Moor Wort, 









Mustard white & black, 


198 Mullen, 






Nervine, class of 



Nervous Fever, 



Nervous Colic, 






Oak, white, red, black,,- 



Go-na-stah lah-cah-tsee 


, le-skee, 



PAIN in the Head, 















" of the skin, 









Burns and Scalds, 



Pregnancy, signs of • 



Peach Tree, 






Prickly Ash, 
























Poor Robin's Plantain, 






Puocoon, red 


Poke weed r . 



Plaster for blisters, 






Queen of the Meadow, 261 


Rupture, or Hernia, 88 

Ring-worm, 125 

Red Gum, 169 

Rheubarb, 187 

Red Pepper, 200 

Rosin-weed, 206 

Raspberry, 240 

Red-root, 241 

Rattle-weed, 246 

Rheumatic Ointment, 300 

Rush, 256 

Rattle-snake's Master, 268 

SLEEP, 24 
Scrofula, or King's Evil, 57 

Scarlet Fever, 74 

Snake bite, 95 

Sting of Insects, 96 f 

Scurvy, 100 

Scald-head, 123 

Shingles, ■ 127 

St. Anthony's Fire, 127 

Sore Legs, .16 

Small Pox, 128 
Sickness of the Stomach 151 

Swelled Legs, 152 
Stoppage or suppression 

of Urine, 154 
Swelled Breasts, 163 
Sore Nipples, 163 
•Swelled Leg, 164 
Snuffles, 168 
Sore, -Eyes*, 169 
Sudorifics and Diaphoret- 
ics, 243 
Seneka Snake Root, 243 
Spice Wood, 246 
Shell Bark Hickory, 248 
Spear Mint, 248 
Strawberry, ' 253 
^mart-weed, 257 
Sumach, 258 
Silk weed 259 

Southern Yaupon, 265 
Slippery Elm, 279 
Sheep Sorrel, Wild Sor- 
rel, 280 
Sassafras, ' 282 
Swamp Lilly, 286 
Spruce Pine, 285 
Styptics, 302 
Stimulants, 194 
Sage, 197 
Seven Bark, 197 
Saffron, 201 
Spikenard, 213 
Sampson snake root, 215 
Sour wood, 218 
Star root, 220 
Snake head, 226 
Solomon's Seal, 227 
Sweet Gum Tree, 235 
Skervish Frost Root, 239 
Tetter-worm, 124 
Twins, 161 
Thrush, 170 
Tonics, 210 
Tag Alder, : 21.1 
Tansy, 217 
Tobacco, 253 
Twin Leaf, 262 
Tar, . 273 
The China tree, 288 
Tonics, class of 297 
Unnatural Presentations 160 
Urine, retention of 168 
Vegetable poisons, 96 
Vaccination, , 131 
Vervine, 184 
Vinegar, 288 
White Hoarhound, 278 
White swelling 62 
Wen, 121 


Wouiws andeuts, 

Whites or fluo'r albus, 


White snake root, 

Wild Ginger, 

Wild wet- fire, 

White poppy, 

Wild cucumber, 

White sarsaparilla, 

Wild hoarhound, 


Wild Cherry tree, 

Water plantain, 

White Hickory. 






242 j 

Winter Clever, 250 

Water Big Leaf, 252 

White Ekler, 260 

Wild Potatoe, 262 

Wild Ratsbane, 266 

Worm-wood, 290 

Wild Indigo, 287 

Yellow Gum, 170 

Yellow Poplar, * 223 
Yellow Sarsaparilla, 224 

Yarrow. 238 

Yellow Dock, 282 

^MIiewMIe *J?le§§em&eF 

This is a large and handsome sheet, published on fine 
paper, and n^w type, Whig in politics, devoted chiefly io 
Agriculture, internal Improvements, Education, Temper- 
ance. Foreign and Domestic News, Science, Literature, 
and General Intelligence. Published at £?2 00 a year, 
payable in six months; $2 50 after six months; or 03 CO 
ail or the cud of the year. 


Editor aid Proprietor. 

N. B. — Cards, Circular?. Pamphlets, Books, and every y 
sort, of Job Work executed at short notice, in the best style, 
and on the most reasonable terms. 

Asheville, N. C, ApriUGoO. 







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